Method and device to produce acetylene

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of acetylene by plasma chemical pyrolysis of minced solid raw stock with grain size of smaller than 100 mcm by steam in impulse electric discharge plasma generator. Proposed method consists in using shock wave and differs from known methods in that electric discharge in plasma generator is effected in interval smaller than 1 ms while gas product rate is reduced in tubular heat exchange arranged downstream of Laval nozzle. Invention relates also to device intended for implementation of above described method.

EFFECT: high yield of acetylene, power savings.

6 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg


The invention relates to the production of acetylene from solid fuels and organic component of solid waste in the environment of water vapor.

The level of technology

Acetylene is one of the most important chemical products used in industry. In 1965-75 years by order of the government was carried out to obtain acetylene from gaseous, liquid and solid fuels to reduce energy consumption per unit of product produced - acetylene. Although the specific energy consumption per unit of output acetylene decreased from 10 kWh/kg to 4.5-5 kWh/kg, the program of production of acetylene from fuels was minimized due to the low yield of the target product of acetylene, the greatest concentration of which was not more than 20 wt.% in the processing of gaseous fuels - methane. The reason is that all arc plasma torches have a significant drawback. Pyrolysis of the source material at a temperature T<1500 K at low heating rates of particles, 2-50 °/s, leads to the formation of stable compounds: oxides and carbon dioxide, methane, liquid resins. When increasing the heating rate to 104-107°/s (thermal shock) at a temperature T>2000 To receive a brand new product - acetylene and compounds: methane, carbon dioxide and the liquid resin is missing. In the arc plasma torches is providing electric discharge is much higher than the pressure of the gas environment. That is, the electric discharge can be represented as heated to several thousand degrees the disc, which a gaseous medium only flows around. Due to the low conductivity of the gas medium, λ=002-0,07 W/(m·K), the layers of gas, which relate to the discharge or within close distance from it, are heated to a high temperature, while the layers of gas, which relate to the water-cooled wall reactor is cooled.

The closest to this invention by the technical nature are patents of the Russian Federation No. 2009112 and No. 2041244.

Described in the patent No. 2009112 a method of producing acetylene is carried out in the pulsed plasma within 0,001-0,009 with, in the jet plasma, created by disconnecting the power supply from the electrodes of the plasma torch. The heat and the increase of parameters - pressure, temperature and density of the mixture of solid fuel with steam is carried out only by the electrical discharge, which is generated by the disconnection of the energy supply from the electrodes of the plasma torch. The shock wave is absent, because the energy release is 0.001-0,009 C. in Addition, unresolved in patent No. 2009112 problem is the following. Acetylene is thermodynamically unstable connection, capable of dissociate at low speed cooling hydrogen and carbon particles. Therefore, it is odimo not only to obtain a high yield of acetylene, but to save it. Obtained in the reactor gas product comes in a supersonic Laval nozzle, in which the adiabatic expansion of the mixture, i.e. the conversion of thermal energy into kinetic energy of the flow and its temperature drops to the setpoint at a rate of approximately 1*107deg/s If in any X-section of the Laval nozzle gas environment will meet on an obstacle (rotate by 90 degrees to output the product of the Laval nozzle, the input stream of a liquid medium for further cooling of the product), its velocity in X-section becomes equal to zero (the flow will slow down), but its parameters (pressure, temperature and density) are initial values. In addition, this method involves the creation of an additional magnetic field between the electrodes to promote electric discharge.

The disadvantage of this device for the decomposition of solid fuel in patent No. 2041244 is that for the inductive power supply is also required high-voltage source, collected on the capacitor, for a breakdown of the interelectrode space in the plasma torch. When charge the inductive coil is consumed significant current from the network, which leads to the wires very large cross-section. At the discharge coil is large, the resistance between the electrodes of the plasma torch is riodic to significant growth inductional in the interelectrode space EMF of self-induction. This EMF can reach dangerous for the electrical circuit values, many times exceeding the voltage under which the inductive coil was in charge.

Disclosure of invention

The aim of the invention is obtaining and maintaining a high yield of acetylene and reduce energy consumption.

To do this, the process of obtaining acetylene by chemical pyrolysis of a mixture of powdered solid materials with a grain size less than 100 microns with water vapor in a pulsed electrical discharge plasma torch is carried out with application of a shock wave with an initial pressure less than 100 kPa, the electric discharge in the plasma torch to produce in less than 1 MS, and the speed obtained gas product is reduced in a tubular heat exchanger, located after the Laval nozzle.

In the particular case as raw materials use waste or solid fuel.

In another particular case, you can use a water-cooled tubular heat exchanger.

The use of the principle of the shock wave created sufficient conditions for the formation of a gaseous product. The total action of the incident shock wave and adiabatic compression of an electric discharge source mixture significantly increasing its parameters: pressure in 120-210 time, the temperature at 10-15 times the density of 10-15 times. Thus it is necessary to accept what about the attention, the electric discharge, which as the piston and o adiabatically (because flow is a few milliseconds) compresses the source and gaseous products must have a much greater pressure than the pressure of the gas mixture in the reactor. So all this leads to a significant increase in the thickness of the wall of a plasma torch and reactor. Therefore, the process must begin at low pressures, about 10-25 kPa (100 kPa=1 kg/cm2). The use of reflected shock wave is highly undesirable.

Apparatus for producing acetylene from a mixture of crushed waste or solid fuel with a grain size less than 100 microns with water vapor, comprising a reactor, means for introducing reagents, electrodes with high voltage capacitive power source and the Laval nozzle, characterized in that it is provided with a tubular heat exchanger, and to reduce energy consumption between the Laval nozzle and tube heat exchanger installed obornik to remove electrical charge from the device and return it to the energy in the electrical network.

In the particular case of using a water-cooled tubular heat exchanger.

For the stabilization of low temperature gaseous product needs in the X-section of the Laval nozzle supersonic velocity of the gas environment translate into dosvy is new. Then the atmospheric parameters, especially temperature, are retained. This function performs a tubular heat exchanger in each tube of the heat exchanger of the velocity of the gas flow will be less audible.

The authors adopted a capacitive power supply-discharge plasma torch. The only disadvantage of this power supply is a high voltage exceeding 1000 V, because of the small capacity capacitor. Staff should be properly trained to work at voltages above 1000 C. the release of energy in the interelectrode space of the plasma torch at the discharge of the capacitors of the high voltage source during the time less than 1 MS is a source of formation of a shock wave with a given pulse repetition rate. The shock wave from a supersonic speed (M>1) passes through a mixture of powdered starting material (solid fuel or solid waste) with water vapor and increases the pressure, temperature and density of the latter. After the shock wave with a slightly lower velocity of the electric discharge, filling the whole cross-section of the reactor. Electrical discharge as the piston collects the mixture of the source environment and a gaseous product and o adiabatically (time flow does not exceed a few milliseconds) compresses this mixture and optional on Iset pressure, the temperature and density of the latter. Behind the front of the electric discharge in the plasma torch and reactor vacuum is created.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 shows a block diagram of an apparatus for thermal processing of solid source of raw materials (coal or solid waste).

Figure 2 presents a diagram of pulsed electric power source.

The implementation of the invention

Apparatus for producing acetylene consists of a pulsed plasmatron reactor 1 with the means to enter reagents and electrodes connected to the capacitive power source 2, bin 3, which receives the source material from the chopper 4, the heater 5, the Laval nozzle 6 for cooling ("quenching") of a gaseous product and a water-cooled tubular heat exchanger 7 for stabilizing the temperature of the gas mixture. Grinder 4 is a well-known design roller mill in which the grinding of the original solid material is in the liquid air. You should take into account that the length of the reactor 1 determines the residence time of the particles of the solid source material in the zone of reaction, i.e. affect the completeness of the heating of the particles and, consequently, the output of the acetylene. In addition, given the very small value of the coefficient of thermal conductivity of solids, λ=0.1 to 0.2 W/(is·), to ensure the complete heating of the solid particles to a temperature environment in a very short span of time response of about 10-4 - 10-5 s, either due to the significant reduction in particle size of a solid body, or by increasing the residence time of particles in the response zone. The second option is preferable. Increasing the length of the reactor, i.e. the residence time of the particles of a rigid body in the area of response to the magnitude of a few milliseconds, will allow you to grind the original solid materials only to fractions of less than 100 microns. A compressor For a gaseous product from the heat exchanger 7 through the cyclone C, in which due to centrifugal force separates the gas from the solid particles, served in the capacity of 8 gas. A sample of the product for analysis is collected in the sampler 9. From the tank 8, the gas mixture is separated into components such as hydrogen, acetylene, carbon monoxide in accordance with the boiling point. Last collected in appropriate containers (not shown). Water-cooling tubes of the heat exchanger is pumped N from the water reservoir 10. On the border between the Laval nozzle 6 and the heat exchanger 7 is installed obornik OTB to remove electrical charge from the device. This is a copper tube, which is grounded through the inductive primary winding of the transformer) and active resistance Ra.

R is operating the device is as follows. General switch Rob power supply devices are connected to the network, and enabling switches P and P1 is charging the capacitors C and C1 through active resistance R and R1 with a given pulse repetition rate f, Hz. Initially discharged capacitor C1 when the voltage on the capacitor will be equal to the distance between the auxiliary and the main electrodes, and the plasma torch is thrown electrical discharge from the auxiliary power source. This auxiliary discharge contributes to the discharge of the main capacitor C, and in the interelectrode space of the plasma torch arises main electric discharge. Since the discharge time of the capacitors is very small, less than 1 MS, in the reactor occurs the incident shock wave. This first pulse of electrical charge required to liberate the entire device from the air and create the initial conditions (low pressure - vacuum) for carrying out processing of the source material. For τC=1/f from happening again charge capacitors C and C1. During τ〉iswith from chopper 4 source material with a grain size less than 100 microns is fed into the hopper 3 with a mixer and then into the reactor through the corresponding nozzle. Source material, if the use of municipal solid waste, food waste, paper is, cardboard, wood, cloth, plastics, etc. There is, in the reactor, the heater 5 is supplied heated water, which under vacuum for τ〉iswith evaporates. Again discharged the capacitors C and C1 (the switches P and P1 are automatically turned off), there is the incident shock wave, which in the course of the pulse creates sufficient conditions for the formation of a gaseous product and together with increases the electric parameters of the original mixture: pressure, temperature and density to the values specified. The resulting product under the action of an electric discharge enters the Laval nozzle 6 and later in the tubular heat exchanger 7, where the compressor is directed To the collection of gas 8. For cooling the heat exchanger pump N water is pumped from the tank 10. To improve the contact electric discharge odbornikom OTB through the last is carbon monoxide, which prevents the accumulation of solid particles on otbornye OTB. In the future, the carbon monoxide is returned (not shown) in the capacity of gas gathering 8. When the capacitor charging electric discharge in the plasma torch is missing, and the supply of carbon monoxide in obornik OTB electric discharge is automatically terminated. These cycles of processing a mixture of the original solid raw material with water vapor with the use of shock waves are repeated with satunnaisotos pulse f, Hz. In the absence of a discharge between the main electrodes of the plasma torch capacity of the power source is closed on resistance Re through inductance L. In this case, all the energy accumulated in containers allocated to active resistance Re in the form of heat.


Experiments on the processing of solid fuels (lignite Kansk-Achinsk basin - containing solid carbon IG=71,5%, sulfur S=0.3 to 0.8%) was carried out in the reactor in an environment of water vapor. The consumption of reagents were: solid fuel with a grain size less than 40 microns (because the length of the reactor did not exceed 2 meters, and mean residence time of fuel particles was less than 1 MS, for conducting experiments had to grind the coal to fractions of less than 40 μm) 0.001 kg/them, water vapor 0,00075 kg/them with the temperature T≅363 K. For supplying water vapor into the reactor was used argon in the number 0,0015 kg/them. Pulsed capacitive power supply, constant current pulse frequency f=5-30 Hz includes a step-up transformer voltage of 6000 V, three capacitor 80 µf each active charging resistance R=350 Ohms. The time of energy release in the interelectrode space of the plasma torch in the number 5790 j/them (including heating argon) at initial pressure Ro=10 kPa and the pulse repetition rate f=16 Hz (pulse time τ=1/16=0,0625 (C) the composition of jet 1,5*10-4 C. The heat exchanger consists of 169 brass tubes with a diameter of D=14/12 mm and the total cross-section S=0,019 m2. The velocity of the gas flow in each tube with medium density of 0.022 kg/m3was u=(0.00325*10)/(0.022*0.019)=77,8 m/s

The highest yield of acetylene under these conditions was 28 wt.%, which corresponded to approximately 90% of theoretically possible. Power consumption of the network and specific energy consumption was

N=5790/0,0625=92640 W=92,64 kW

β=92,64/(0,309*0,00175*10*3600)=4,76 kWh/kg2N2

1. A method of producing acetylene by chemical pyrolysis of a mixture of powdered solid materials with a grain size less than 100 microns with water vapor in a pulsed electrical discharge plasma torch, wherein the process is conducted with the use of shock waves, the electric discharge in the plasma torch to produce in less than 1 MS, and the speed obtained gas product is reduced in a tubular heat exchanger, located after the Laval nozzle.

2. A method of producing acetylene according to claim 1, characterized in that the tubular heat exchanger is water cooled.

3. A method of producing acetylene according to claim 1, characterized in that is used as raw material of solid waste.

4. A method of producing acetylene according to claim 1, characterized in that the raw material used solid fuel.

5. A device for receiving the acetyl is and from a mixture of crushed waste or solid fuel with a grain size less than 100 microns with water vapor, includes a reactor, means for introducing reagents, electrodes with high voltage capacitive power source and the Laval nozzle, characterized in that the device has a tubular heat exchanger, and between the Laval nozzle and tube heat exchanger installed obornik electric discharge.

6. Apparatus for producing acetylene according to claim 5, characterized in that the tubular heat exchanger is water cooled.


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