Method of irrigated farming in piedmont zone and system for its implementation

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture and reclamation. The method involves planting of forest belts along the edges of the irrigated area, the irrigated area watering via irrigation furrows traced along the stationary beds edges with trenches filled with vegetal remains arranged in the middle of the beds. The trenches are filled with a mixture of charcoal and charred wood, manure and vegetal remains; in some beds rows of fruit trees and bushes are planted. The spacing between the trees is selected so that the shading they ensure does not impair photosynthesis processes in the plants grown in the beds, at the same time preventing the plants burning with sun rays. The system contains an irrigation source, an undershoot water wheel, a drip line with microhydrants for supply of water into the irrigation furrows located along the stationary beds edges. In the middle of the beds there are trenches with vegetal remains arranged with forest belts planted along the edges. Mounted on the undershoot water wheel is a rotary filter. Under the bucket located at the undershoot water wheel rotation apex point there is a tray installed connected, via the to pressure pipe, the cock mounted on the inlet of the drip line with microhydrants for supply of water into the irrigation furrows. The trenches arranged in the middle of the stationary beds are filled with a mixture of charcoal and charred wood, manure and vegetal remains. In some beds there are fruit tree and bush belts planted.

EFFECT: invention enables decrease of greenhouse gas inflow from the soil into the atmosphere, improvement of soil aeration, soil subsurface stratum microclimate, atmospheric moisture condensation into the soil, creation of an area with enhanced moisture absorption capacity within the bed, soil flora and fauna vital activities invigoration, enhancement of soil fertility and the cultivated crops yielding capacity.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to agriculture and can be used in irrigated agriculture.

Known podlavnoe water wheel (Noria). It in ancient times used for irrigation ancient Egyptians and Persians. In the simplest bucket on the rim installed straight blades; lower blades are immersed in the water stream. For pressing on the scapula, and the wheel rotates. To increase the energy extraction from a water source blade wheels are made in the form of buckets (http: //adetiplus/EN, http: //dic/academic.ru). The height of rise of the water bucket Elevator reaches 60 meters

The disadvantage of this device is the lack of clean water from the waste before feeding it into the irrigation system.

Known rotary filters series HDF 12/16/20 for water purification (http: //www.aqvafeed.ru).

The disadvantage of this device is its complexity, the use of electric drive and the need for periodic backwashing of the filter.

Known technology for improving soil fertility by instillation of burnt trees in the ground, used by the Indians living in the Amazon basin before the discovery of America by Columbus. Currently, the charcoal produced in the pyrolysis of wood, in combination with mineral fertilizers is also used to improve the fertility of the soil. For growing trees charcoal buried in the trench, along which zagibautsa seedlings. This also solves the problem of reducing the acidity of the soil carbon stocks in the soil and reduce revenues greenhouse gas (CO2), nitrous oxide and methane from soil into the atmosphere (http : //en.wkipedia.org/wki/Biochar -).

The disadvantage of this technology is the lack of adapting it for use in irrigated agriculture, the need for the use of mineral fertilizers, which can have a negative impact on the environment.

Known systems of soil mulching crop residues in crop production, reducing evaporation from the soil surface and condensation of water vapor in it from the surface air. System of planting fruit trees with distance between them of more than 6 m allow themselves to trees to generate an optimal crown that does not require trimming (Kurdyumov NI encyclopedia of smart summer resident. - Rostov n/D: Vladis; M REEPOL classic, 2009. - 512 S.).

The disadvantage of these systems is not the use of these methods in irrigation of agricultural crops furrow.

There is a method of land reclamation and device controls, in which the sites pose a stationary wide beds. Along the middle of the beds perform a narrow trench, the top of which are located in the active soil layer and filled with litter and navosa the (patent RU 2355162 C1, IPC 01G 25/00 / Ipili, Ahikam, Iaim, III. - Publ. 20.05.2009. - Bull. No. 14).

The disadvantage of this method is not use in narrow trenches of charcoal and burnt trees for retention in the soil of the greenhouse gases, water accumulation in the soil, long-term preservation of good aeration of the soil and increase the fertility of the soil, and fruit trees to improve on irrigated site microclimate surface air, condensation of him vaporous moisture in the soil, prevent scalding rays of the sun of agricultural crops grown in the beds, the failure to obtain additional yield.

The technical result of the claimed invention is the reduction in revenues from the soil into the atmosphere of greenhouse gases, improve aeration of the soil, the microclimate in the surface soil layer, condensation of atmospheric moisture in the soil, creating in the garden areas with high moisture, activating activity of soil flora and fauna, increase soil fertility and yield of crops cultivated.

The claimed technical result is achieved by the fact that the irrigation system includes an irrigation source (river or irrigation channel), podlavnoe water wheel (Noria), irrigation pipeline microkeratome to supply water to irrigation furrows. On podlesna of Wodan the m wheel set rotation filter, and under the bucket at the top pivot point of the bucket, a tray connected to the discharge pipe with a valve installed at the inlet of the drip line. The edges of the irrigated area are forest plantations, irrigation irrigated area is furrow laid on the edges wide inpatient beds, the middle of which is made of a narrow trench filled with a mixture of charcoal and burnt trees, manure and crop residues, on separate beds created rows of fruit trees and bushes, and the distance between trees are selected such that generated them shading do not worsen the processes of photosynthesis in plants grown in the beds, and prevent burnout plants sunlight.

Figure 1 shows the diagram of the system of irrigated agriculture; figure 2 - section of the soil in the irrigated plot; figure 3 - bucket with cleaner and water supply to the irrigation network.

The system of irrigated agriculture provides a source of irrigation (river or canal) 1 installed podlavnoe water wheel (Noria) 2 for lifting water. Hydraulic output podlinnogo water wheel 2 is connected through the shutter 3 with irrigation pipeline or tray 4 installed Microhydrin 5 to supply water to irrigation furrows 6 irrigated area 7, the edges of which are planted l is topology 8. Irrigation furrows 6 are laid on the edges of inpatient beds 9, the middle of which is made of the trench 10. The distance between the irrigation furrows corresponds to the width between the wheels of the tractor, for example 1,2-1,4 m On separate patches of irrigated land are cultivated rows of fruit-trees 11 and bushes 12. The location of these strips perpendicular to the wind rose.

The distance between trees (>6 m) and their grade is selected as the possibilities for optimal illumination grown on beds of plants (e.g., vegetables) and prevent them from overheating and scalding sunlight.

The trench 10 is filled with charcoal and the remains of burnt trees 13, a mixture of plant residues and manure 14. The top of the trench 10 is covered by a mulch of crop residues 15. Below the topsoil under irrigation furrows 6 and part of the square patch padded strip shielding plastic film 16.

Podlavnoe water wheel 2 includes a wheel 17, covered by a rotary filter 18 made in the form of a grid, which prevents debris from falling 19 of the flow of water 20 in the buckets 21 of the bucket 2. At the top of the water lift under the bucket 21 is equipped with a drain pan 22, which is connected with the pressure pipe 23, through hollow shaft 24 to the input of gate 3. The axis 24 is installed bearings 25, which rotates Noria 2.

The method of irrigated agriculture is implemented as follows.

On the irrigated plots 7, with forest belt 8, is the deep plowing. Then form a stationary bed 9, the middle of which are of the trench 10, which are filled with charcoal, burnt trees 13, a mixture of crop residues and manure. Trenches 10 are covered from above by a mulch of crop residues. Under the top layer of soil below the irrigation furrows 6 and part of the square of 9 beds stacked strip shielding plastic film 16.

On separate beds 9 are the rows of fruit-trees 11 and bushes 12. In subsequent years on irrigated land applied farming systems with zero or minimum tillage.

The distance between the fruit trees (>6 m) is chosen such that plants grown on beds were fairly light, but not too hot and not received burns from the sun's rays.

When watering Noria 2 makes cleaning, lifting and draining the water from the buckets 21 in the tray 22. From the tray 22 water pressure pipe 23 through the hollow shaft 23, the shutter 3 is fed into the irrigation pipeline 4 and then through the open Microhydrin 5 - in irrigation furrows 6 irrigated area 7.

Rotary filter 18 prevents debris 19 of the flow of water 20 water in the buckets 21. Rotation of rotation the filter 18 in the flow of water 20 and the reverse flow of water through the filter mesh provides automatic cleaning rotary filter 18 from adhering debris 19.

Strip shielding plastic film 16, laid under irrigation furrows 6 and part of the square of 9 beds below the topsoil, reduce the loss of irrigation water to deep percolation, provide uniform wetting of the soil around the perimeter of the beds, increase filtration of irrigation water in narrow trenches 10.

In the irrigation period of the narrow trench 10 are drives moisture and a source of moisture for the root layer of soil.

In addition, a narrow trench 10 to serve as a catalyst activity of soil flora and fauna, increase soil fertility. Charcoal, which has a porous structure that provides fixation of greenhouse gases in the soil and trenches, and also contributes to the accumulation of moisture in the narrow trenches 10 and increase soil fertility.

The mulch created over a narrow trenches 10, contributes to the condensation of moisture from the surface layer of air in the soil and reduces evaporation of moisture from the soil and prevent the growth of weeds in the middle of the beds.

After issuing on irrigated land given irrigation irrigation pipeline 4 can be used to transport water in these irrigated areas. In this case, Microhydrin 5 on the irrigation pipeline watered plot close.

Belts 8, fruit trees 11 and shrubs 12 reduce wind speed in prizemnom air, evaporation of moisture from the soil, solar radiation on plants, preventing scorching sunlight plants grown on beds, support for irrigated area are favorable for plant growth microclimate, providing biological soil drainage, lowering of the groundwater level, contribute to the condensation of moisture from the surface layer of air in the soil.

1. The method of irrigated agriculture, including the establishment of shelterbelts along the edges of the irrigated area, irrigation irrigated area by irrigation furrows laid on the edges of inpatient beds in the middle of which is a trench filled with plant debris, characterized in that the trench is filled with a mixture of charcoal and burnt trees, manure and crop residues, on separate beds create the rows of fruit trees and bushes, and the distance between the trees chosen so that created them shading do not worsen the processes of photosynthesis in plants grown in the beds, and prevent burnout plants sunlight.

2. The reclamation system containing a source of irrigation, podlavnoe water wheel, irrigation pipeline microkeratome to supply water to irrigation furrows, located at the edge of inpatient beds, the middle of which is laid in the trench with crop residues, forest belts along the edges Orosz is imago plot characterized in that podlesna water wheel has a rotary filter, and under the bucket at the top point of rotation podlinnogo a water wheel, a tray connected to the discharge pipe with a valve installed at the inlet of the drip line with microkeratome to supply water to irrigation furrows, trenches, located in the middle of inpatient beds, filled with a mixture of charcoal and burnt trunks of trees, crop residues and manure, and in some beds established band with fruit trees and shrubs.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: agriculture.

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FIELD: agriculture.

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FIELD: agriculture.

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FIELD: agriculture.

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FIELD: agriculture.

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8 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

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2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

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Ameliorative system // 2245616

FIELD: amelioration and water supply system.

SUBSTANCE: ameliorative system has irrigation, water supplying systems and discharge systems, water intake and detachable backwater regulating constructions. Ameliorative system is equipped with flexible collecting tanks-enclosures connected with drainage systems-sedimentation tanks equipped with membranes-type filters and moistener-type filters. Cassette filters are arranged along perimeter of massif to be irrigated to provide for delivery of clean water into water intake. Water supplying systems are furnished with closure system for preventing water evaporation and with metrological analyzers adapted for determining quality of inflow water delivered into water intake and of discharge water.

EFFECT: increased efficiency by avoiding violation to ecological balance of basic agricultural landscape.

1 dwg

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6 dwg

FIELD: irrigation amelioration, in particular, drop irrigation equipment.

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EFFECT: increased efficiency owing to selective dispensing of water to plant roots.

2 cl, 5 dwg

Dropper // 2246207

FIELD: irrigated agriculture, in particular, equipment used for watering of perennial plants.

SUBSTANCE: dropper has casing and cover with inlet and outlet branch pipes, respectively, throttle and elastic balancing member with openings. Throttle is made in the form of hollow biconcave lens and positioned in casing cavity above elastic balancing member. Spherical segment-shaped slot is formed in cover body below inlet branch pipe. Radius of spherical part of said slot is equal to radius of throttle lens spherical part. Similar slot is formed in bottom part of casing above inlet branch pipe. Radius of said slot is greater than radius of spherical part of throttle biconcave lens part by value equal to thickness of balancing member. Channels are formed on casing bottom part surface and on slot surface to define spiral branches. Holes are made on peripheral part of elastic balancing member.

EFFECT: simplified construction and improved watering quality.

2 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: agricultural engineering.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has casing equipped with inlet and outlet openings, main float-type regulating members and additional regulating member, said members being located inside casing. Main float-type regulating member is made as biconcave lens formed in spherical layer of waterproof material having density below 1 t/m3. Additional regulating member is made in the form of elastic membrane with central opening. Protrusions made as parts of spherical segments are disposed in casing cavity below inlet opening and above outlet opening. Radius of upper protrusion spherical part is equal to radius of spherical part of biconcave lens. Radius of lower protrusion spherical part is less than radius of spherical part of biconcave lens by value equal to thickness of elastic membrane. Radial channels are formed in apex part of lower protrusion. Apparatus provides for normal operation in the process of drop irrigation with water without preliminary cleaning thereof.

EFFECT: increased efficiency, uniform and high-quality irrigation.

2 cl, 3 dwg

Sprinkler unit // 2246209

FIELD: irrigation equipment mounted on mobile sprinkler units for drop or fine-dispersion sprinkling systems.

SUBSTANCE: sprinkler unit has frame made in the form of three-dimensional construction comprising pipes mounted on vehicle equipped with pumping station and intake hose. Flexible water supply pipeline with sprinkler apparatuses is fixed on frame by means of cables. Water supply pipeline is made sectioned. Each section has segment and flanges connected with one another by means of carrier member made in the form of bent C-shaped profile or rolled part. Sections are connected with one another through adapter member made in the form of hollow spherical shell with disk arranged in meridian plane and with the help of fastening means. Adapter member is arranged in cavities at inlet end and at outlet end of adjacent segments of flexible water supply pipeline. Fastening means are made in the form of pins inserted into axially aligned openings of flanges and disks. Adapter member disk is connected through cable with frame of three-dimensional construction.

EFFECT: simplified construction, reduced metal usage, increased efficiency and improved distribution of artificial precipitation along flexible water supply pipeline.

3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: agricultural irrigation equipment used in mobile sprinkler units.

SUBSTANCE: boom-type sprinkler unit has frame made in the form of three-dimensional construction composed of pipes and mounted on vehicle equipped with pumping unit. Flexible water pipeline with sprinkling apparatuses is secured on frame by means of cables. Flexible water pipeline is made sectioned. Each section has flexible pipeline segment positioned on carrier member made in the form of pair of longitudinal supports having bent C-shaped profile and flat rings at their end portions. Wide strips of pair of bent C-shaped profile are arranged at an angle to horizontal plane and perpendicular to one another. Said profiles define, in conjunction with rings, trough of carrier member. Adjacent carrier members are connected with one another by means of connecting parts through spacer bushings. One, two or three spacer bushings are made in the form of brackets for connecting cable ends to join with frame. Ends of flexible pipeline segments are mutually joined via transition portion made in the form of bushing. Ends of transition member have conical entrance portions. Annular portion formed on transition member surface is joined with ends of adjacent segments and pairs of yokes on their surface. Cable ends joining brackets are equipped with eye ring receiving slots and mounting openings. Diameter of carrier member rings exceeds outer diameter of transition member by 1.5-1.9 times.

EFFECT: simplified construction and increased efficiency.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: irrigation systems used for automatic watering of plants on restricted area plots.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has accumulating vessel with bottom opening closed with valve, auxiliary vessel, two float valves, one of float valves being adapted for supplying of water into accumulating vessel and other float valve being adapted for cutting-off water supply. Valve floats are arranged in auxiliary vessel disposed below accumulating vessel bottom and connected by means of flexible pipes with hermetically sealed vessels provided with porous bottoms deepened into soil. When water is sucked through porous bottoms into soil, water level in auxiliary vessel is lowered and float valves are opened, with water being delivered into accumulating vessel through one of float valves. When predetermined water level is reached, valve for discharge opening is opened, water is supplied into low-pressure irrigation system and is further delivered through second float valve into auxiliary vessel. As a result, water level in auxiliary vessel is increased to cut-off water supply into accumulating vessel.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified construction.

2 dwg

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