Ventilation method of railway tunnels for movement of diesel-powered vehicles through them
SUBSTANCE: method involves fresh air supply through shafts into tunnel and contaminated air removal through other shafts from tunnel using forced ventilation. Cross section of each shaft is separated into two parts having independent connection to the tunnel in which a gate is installed between such connections. Tunnel is closed by means of the above gate when there are no trains moving in it. Air flow via tunnel is arranged at the interval between train movement in directions allowing to reduce the time required for removal of contaminated air from the tunnel. At that, selection of air flow direction is determined considering the length of sections filled with fresh air supplied to the tunnel as a result of suction effect action. Amount of fresh air supplied to each section filled with contaminated air is determined by the formula.
EFFECT: reduction of forced ventilation volumes at fixed time interval between trains, reduction of time required for tunnel cleaning from contaminants after every train passes through tunnel, and increase in tunnel capacity.
The invention relates to the field of ventilation railway tunnels, which are vehicles that use diesel-powered.
The known method of regulating thermal regime of railway tunnels (ed. mon. SU # 1090886, publ. 07.05.1984), in which the flow of heated outside air into the tunnel carried out periodically in periods of absence of a train in the tunnel and stop at the time of its movement through the tunnel, and the air flow is in the direction opposite to the movement of the train.
The disadvantages of this method are complex mode of organization of ventilation, leading to the need for periodic on and off fans, which negatively affects their health, as well as high energy costs of moving the required amount of air in the direction opposite to the movement of the train.
The known method of regulating thermal regime of railway tunnels in the winter (ed. mon. SU # 1627723, publ. 15.02.1991), including the admission of outside air into the tunnel under the action of a natural draught, heating it to a positive temperature due to mixing with the tunnel air, pre-selected from a cross section of the tunnel with a positive temperature sent to the portal with the incoming ventilation air and the output of the outgoing jet out through the opposite portal.
The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of reducing the concentration of pollutants in the air to standard values in the case of vehicles with diesel-powered.
A known method of ventilation railway tunnels (see Makovsky L.V. Urban underground transport facilities, M: "Stroyizdat", 1979, s-436), providing fresh air and removal of contaminated air around the section of tunnel ventilation installations, we have portals or along the tunnel.
The disadvantage of this method of ventilation railway tunnels associated with the maximum possible length of the ventilated part of the tunnel up to 1 km
A known method of ventilation transport railway tunnels along the transverse scheme (see Kirin B.F., Ushakov short circuit Mine and industrial aerology, M.: "Nedra", 1983, s-234). This method of ventilation provides accommodation in the cross-section of the tunnel two parallel ducts, one of which is used to supply fresh air and the other to remove contaminated.
The disadvantage of this method of ventilation railway tunnels is the occurrence of recirculation of air movement between the tunnel where the train travels, and ventilation ducts. This prevents the post is initiated in the tunnel fresh air and leads to stiffness in the vents to air pollution and, which dramatically increases the curing time of the tunnel after the train's exit from the tunnel.
A known method of ventilation transport railway tunnels (see Kirin B.F., Ushakov short circuit Mine and industrial aerology, M.: "Nedra", 1983, s-234). With this method of ventilation of fresh air in the tunnel is the tunnel that is traversed parallel to the axis of the tunnel, and removal of contaminated air through the portals of the tunnel.
The disadvantages of this method of ventilation are as follows:
1. The inability to supply large quantities of air through the tunnel due to its relatively small cross-section (generally not more than 20 m2);
2. The occurrence of recirculation of air movement between the tunnel and the tunnel, then the tunnel is filled with polluted air. Furthermore, the reduced efficiency for ventilation piston effect of the trains.
A known method of ventilation transport railway tunnels (see Grishaev VI Ventilation tunnels on the Railways. "Transgenderist", 1961. p.29-30), providing fresh air into the tunnel through an orifice located near the portal, with the simultaneous overlap of the portal gate.
The disadvantages of this method of ventilation is:
Nevozmojnosti feed into the tunnel of significant quantities of air, that limits the scope of its application by the lengths of the tunnels of 2.5-3 km At greater length tunnel using this method will lead to increased energy costs for ventilation;
2. Neglect in the organization ventilation piston effect of vehicles leading to the entrance to the tunnel fresh air.
A known method of ventilation railway tunnels on diesel traction (see Poles AH the Design of ventilation of tunnels, M.: "Stroyizdat", 1971, p.7-9)adopted for the prototype, which consists in applying to the tunnel through one of the trunks and / or the portals of fresh air and removal from the tunnel air pollution released during the movement of trains gaseous substances through other trunks and / or portals.
The disadvantages of this method of ventilation are:
1. Neglect in the organization ventilation piston effect of vehicles leading to the entrance to the tunnel fresh air;
2. Neglect the influence on the air in the tunnels of natural factors: (gravity, pressure and wind pressure).
The above defines a significant time tunnel ventilation necessary to clean it from the energy produced by the movement of the train of pollutants and, consequently, increase the intervals lying is neither between trains, leading to a decrease in throughput of the tunnel.
The technical result of the proposed method of ventilation railway tunnels on diesel traction is to reduce cleaning time tunnel from contaminants after the passage of each train and enhance the capacity of the tunnel.
The technical result is achieved in that in the method of ventilation railway tunnels diesel, including flow in the tunnel through one of the trunks and / or the portals of fresh air and removal of the tunnel contaminated when the train moves air through the other trunks and / or portals with the use of forced ventilation, the cross section of each shaft is divided into two parts, with a separate pair with the tunnel, in which between such pairings set the shutter, which block the tunnel during periods of lack of trains, and the distance from the bolt to mate shafts to the tunnel is equal to not more than 10 m first set the time interval between trains, then after exiting the tunnel each train determines the span lengths of the tunnel filled with polluted air, after which fresh air through the tunnel in the areas of portals or his mates with trunks adjacent to areas with polluted air is given the span lengths, filled with fresh air introduced into the tunnel by the action of the piston effect, and the amount of fresh air supplied to each parcel, filled with polluted air, determined by the ratio of:
where L. - the length of the section filled with polluted air, m; S is the cross section of the tunnel, m2; τ - the time interval between trains, with,
Figure 1. presents one of the possible schemes of ventilation implementing the proposed method of ventilation railway tunnels diesel.
The scheme of ventilation includes railway tunnel 1, train 2, a barrel 3, is divided into two parts 4, 5, ventilation tunnels 6 and 7, the Plenum 8 and 9 with the fans 10 and 11, the vent shutter 12.
Method of ventilation is implemented as follows.
While passing through the railway tunnel 1 rolling stock diesel 2 from the Eastern portal to the Western portal of the length of the tunnel are formed area filled with polluted air (I and II), the concentration of harmful substances exceed the standard value. Due to the fact that during the movement of trains caused by the piston effect in the tunnel fresh air reaches, areas adjacent to the portals and the mates of the barrel 3 with the tunnel in the direction of travel of the train from St the Rhone-facing portal (III, IV)free from polluted air.
After exit train out of the tunnel and the damping piston effect, which is two to three duration of the movement of trains through the tunnel, the fan 10 is installed in the ventilation chamber 8, delivers air from the surface through part 4 of the barrel 3 in the ventilation tunnel 6 and further to the portal through which the train 2 came out of the tunnel 1. The fan 11 is mounted in the vent chamber 9, through the ventilation tunnel 7 and part 5 of the barrel 3 removes contaminated air from the tunnel adjacent to the pair of ventilation tunnel 7 tunnel 1 side of the portal through which the train 2 entered the tunnel 1. To eliminate aerodynamic discharge connection 10 and the inlet 11 of the fans, in the area between mates ventilation tunnels 6 and 7 with tunnel 1 vent shutter 12 is brought into closed position. The distance from mates ventilation tunnels with tunnel to the cross section where the shutter, to prevent the formation of stagnant zones take up to 10 meters
The influence of a piston effect leads to the formation of the tunnel 1 sections III and IV, free from pollution and has a length, respectively, L1 and L2.
Knowing that the train moves through the tunnel at an average speed of V.., you can determine the time, heart and soul is mine to pass tunnel:
Duration piston effect at site 1 τ.1 then. and at site 2 τ.2. can be defined as follows:
Knowing the duration of a piston effect τ.1 then., τ.2. and the amount of air Q.1 and Q.2 coming due to the reciprocating action at sites 1 and 2, as well as the cross-section of the tunnel's define the area free from polluted air:
The length of the zones filled with polluted air I and II, is when the length of the tunnel L and the arrangement of the barrel 2 in the Central part of the tunnel:
When the interval between trains, comprising τ, and the cross section of the tunnel St, the amount of air Q1, which should be submitted to the tunnel through part 4 of the barrel 2 will be:
The amount of air that must be removed from the tunnel through part 5 of the barrel 2, is equal to:
For example, if the length of the tunnel 4000 m, the interval between trains 1200 sec., average speed of the train through the tunnel 60 km/h, the cross section of the tunnel 50 m2, span lengths, free from C the contaminated air L1=950 m and L2=400 m, the amount of air that must be submitted to the tunnel Q1 and remove from the tunnel Q2 will be equal to 66 m3/43 m3/C. the Total amount of air entering the tunnel through the barrel and the portal will be equal to 109 m3/s Without regard to the span lengths, free from polluted air, and a supply of fresh air through the barrel into the tunnel or through the portals in the trunk of his total number amounts to 167 m3/s
After passing through the tunnel by train from the West portal to the East (opposite compared to that shown in figure 1) fan 10 mounted in the vent chamber 8 will work on skin, remove contaminated air from the tunnel, through the ventilation tunnel 6 and part 4 of the barrel 2 into the atmosphere. In turn, the fan 11 is mounted in the vent chamber 9 must be submitted to the tunnel 2 through the ventilation tunnel 7 fresh air, which will move towards the portal, from which came the train.
The application of the proposed method of ventilation provides the following benefits:
- the decline of forced ventilation at a fixed time interval between trains;
- reducing the time normalization air tunnel;
is the increase in vehicular traffic;
- reduced power usage is imago ventilation equipment.
Method of ventilation of railway tunnels, which are vehicles that use diesel-powered vehicle, comprising feeding into the tunnel through one of the trunks and / or the portals of fresh air and removal of the tunnel contaminated when the train moves air through the other trunks and / or portals using forced ventilation, characterized in that the cross section of each shaft is divided into two parts, with a separate pair with the tunnel, in which between such pairings set the shutter, which block the tunnel during periods of lack of trains, and the distance from the bolt to mate shafts to the tunnel is equal to not more than 10 m will first set the time interval between trains, then after exiting the tunnel each train determines the span lengths of the tunnel filled with polluted air, after which fresh air through the tunnel in the areas of portals or his mates with trunks adjacent to areas with polluted air, considering the vast areas filled with fresh air introduced into the tunnel by the action of the piston effect, and the amount of fresh air supplied to each parcel, filled with polluted air, determined by the ratio
where LUCS- the length of the section filled with polluted air, m;
Stthe cross section of the tunnel, m2; τonline- the time interval between trains, S.
SUBSTANCE: in a computerised control unit all transportation routes are registered available in an underground network of mine tunnels, including their status data affecting efficiency of transportation, and also transport means and transport reservoirs moving along transportation routes with related efficiency date and appropriate underground and aboveground locations, and also with their appropriate schedules, and at the same time the control unit for transportation processes to be performed with account of weight and dimensions subject to cargo transportation automatically generates a travel route and a schedule for the selected vehicle related with the appropriate working situation identified from the registered data, and sets up running schedules for automated unmanned vehicles or sends to service personnel of a communication facility of the selected vehicle.
EFFECT: optimisation of underground and aboveground transportation processes and higher reliability of supporting underground usage and consumption areas.
SUBSTANCE: method includes supplying pulp under excessive pressure via a safety device. The safety device is arranged as a tee, one end of which is connected to a bottomhole pulp line, the second one - to a sealer, and a safety membrane is installed on the third one. At the same time the output of wells in the backfilled chamber is arranged near its roof.
EFFECT: higher extent of chambers filling with a backfilling material with reduction of labour costs.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes layer filling of a mine with a backfilling material. The backfilling layer in the form of a cylindrical concrete block is previously made on the surface in an autoclave chamber. Concrete blocks are made with a cylindrical groove, at the same time the upper and lower surfaces are arranged as truncated. Installation of cylindrical concrete blocks in the shaft is carried out onto a hydraulic insulation putty. A gap between mine walls and blocks is solidified with a shrinkage-free water-resistant hardening concrete mix.
EFFECT: development of a water-resistant and shrinkage-free backfilling massif in a vertical mine to the moment of its backfilling completion.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: ejector comprises a diffuser, two serially installed receiving heads with receivers connected by a hollow cylinder, with two outlet slots and gaskets each having holes. At the same time the main outlet head is equipped with a confusor receiving nozzle. The last flange of the second receiving head may be an anti-deformation flange.
EFFECT: provision of ejector operation for high aerodynamic resistance.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to increase stability of a ceiling in downward slicing development of a deposit with backfilling includes serial tunnelling and backfilling of parallel mines - stope entries, leaving ore pillars with width equal to one, two or three spans of mines, backfilling of mines with a concrete mix, and after backfilling hardens, ore pillars left between concrete strips are mined. At the same time the vault of stope entries is arranged as deep, besides, ore pillars are left in the roof between concrete backfilling of adjacent stope entries.
EFFECT: higher stability of a mine ceiling.
SUBSTANCE: method involves collection of underground water to manifold (17) around development zone (26) of ore (8) deposit (7) so that cone of depression (27) is formed owing to operation of rings (14) of upward discharge wells (15) drilled out of drain annular mine working (6). Inflow is supplied from manifold (17) of mine working (6) by gravity via pipeline (18) of development mine working (4) to sump (19) of well shaft (1) for cleaning and accumulation. Then, some part (28) of accumulated inflow is supplied by means of pump (22) of well water drainage via pipeline (21) to surface (9) into closed pipeline (20), and from it to water bearing horizon (3) through pumping wells (10) pre-drilled from surface (9) within cone of depression (27), thus providing such pumping mode that pumping flow rate Q3 is less than pumping-out flow rate Q0, and heads H3 of underground water in the propagation area of pumped water are less than heads H0 out of this area, i.e. they provide the compliance with conditions Q3<Q0 and H3<H0.
EFFECT: providing environmentally safe utilisation of technogenic drainage water.
1 ex, 6 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: control method of delivery of broken-rock pile extracted with getting machines operating at underground mine working at different points of a network of underground gains of the well, by means of transportation devices and bunker units, which are located in the network of underground gains of the well; at that, on the basis of actual data being recorded continuously, there determined is minimum allowable capacity of transportation devices and buffer capacity of bunker units and compared in the computer-aided control unit to current actual production rate and/or to the specified production rate expected for the specified time period and/or to the specified production rate of the associated getting machine, which is extrapolated as per the previous actual data; and at that, at the specified deviations the control unit implements automatic levelling of carrying capacity with transportation devices and bunker units and/or controls the production rate of the getting machine considering the capacity of in-series connected transportation devices and bunker units.
EFFECT: providing maximum and, when possible, constant product available at the transportation point of the mine.
SUBSTANCE: chute includes two sides, longitudinal stiffness flange and a bottom. One of the sides is located below the other one as to height. Opposite side has the height which is larger than lifting level of the transported hydraulic mixture. Longitudinal stiffness flange of the shortened side is made in the form of inclined chute.
EFFECT: possibility of controlling the overflow when the chute is overfilled.
SUBSTANCE: stowing mix, containing crushed granulated blast-furnace slag, an inert filler, water and ground limestone, includes the specified acid slag of III grade, containing particles of less than 3 mcm - at least 13%, the specified limestone, containing particles of less than 3 mcm - 45%, the inert filler is represented by rock refuse from wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites and additionally - a superplasticiser SP-1, at the following ratio of components, wt %: specified slag - 12; specified filler - 60; specified limestone - 10; superplasticiser SP-1 - 0.5 of slag content; water - balance.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of binders, higher strength of massif at the age of 28 days, wastes recycling, reduced contamination of environment.
1 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: gas production and transportation method involves the following operations: (a) gas pumping from production well to one or more underground condenser and gas storage in the above condenser; (b) gas pumping from underground condenser to the tank which can contain at least 300 mcf of gaseous methane under pressure of at least 3000 psi, during half and hour or less; and (c) gas transportation by means of a tanker to the second underground condenser, to pipeline, to end user, to gas processing plant or to power plant. Gas production and transportation system containing the first underground gas storage condenser, devices for gas transportation from production well to the first underground capacitor and tanker for gas transportation to the second underground condenser and to end user is described as well.
EFFECT: reducing environmental hazard of produced gas during its transportation to the user.
20 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: pipeline has sections made in form of hermetically interconnected outer and inner covers, mounted with space relatively to each other, and main ventilator. On different ends of pipeline flow meter and additional ventilator are mounted, the latter having adjustable characteristics and being connected to inter-pipe space by branch pipe. In inner cover apertures are made placed along radius and along length of cover. Air comes from apertures to air channel and forms additional air flow near walls of inner cover, which lowers or heightens aerodynamic resistance of ventilation pipeline.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher safety, lesser costs.
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes use of device providing for manufacturability of assemblage of casing and drilling columns and concurrent drilling by two columns, provided with independent drives, and drilling, by casing column, of non-stable rock solids performed with frequency no greater than one calculated from formula
where Vmec - mechanical drilling speed, m/min, Fr - friction forces against rotation, Ften - friction forces against linear displacement, R - casing column radius, m, α - angle between vectors of directions of linear and rotating movements.
EFFECT: higher effectiveness, higher productiveness, higher reliability.
2 cl, 5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method for extraction and underground use of coal includes cleaning extraction and dumping of coal, fixing and controlling ceiling and transporting coal along face to drift. On the drift, in moveable generator, coal is pulverized for intensive burning with use of jets in water boiler firebox, where high temperature of steam is achieved (about 1400 C°), enough for decomposition of water on oxygen and hydrogen. These are separated, then oxygen is fed back to jets, and hydrogen is outputted along pipes and hoses in drifts and shaft. Variants of underground generator for realization of this method are provided. Also provided is method for extraction of disturbed coal beds by short faces. It includes extraction and dumping of coal on face conveyor, fixing of ceiling behind combine, moving conveyor line and support sections in direction of cleaning face displacement, control of ceiling with destruction and partial filling. Extraction of coal is performed in short curvilinear faces by long stripes along bed, in straight drive without forwarding drifts, with preservation and reuse of ventilation and conveyor drifts, equipped with mounting manipulator robots, with fixing behind combine by automatically operating support deflectors without unloading and displacing sections in area of coal extraction. Extraction and transporting of coal is performed by fast one-drum combine and curvilinear reloading conveyor, supplying coal to drift conveyor or immediately to underground gas or energy generator placed immediately on drift. Also proposed is face scraper conveyor for realization of said method, wherein pans are made with step along front face profile, greater, than along back one, while forming common line curved towards face with constant curvature. Also proposed is a method for controlling complex for unmanned coal extraction.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, effectiveness, broader functional capabilities.
8 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: gas, oil, oil refining and other industries.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to building and operation of underground reservoir in stable rocks, for instance, soluble salt deposits. Method includes delivery of water and putting out brine along water feed and brine lifting pipes placed one inside the other, charging and storing of gas in underground reservoir. After brine lifting, reservoir is dried and then is filled up with alternating layers of absorbent and inert porous material, volume ratio 2:1, delivered along clearance between water feed and brine lifting pipes. Brine lifting pipe is perforated in lower part in height of reservoir and it is installed in lower part of reservoir. Difference between angles of repose of absorbent and inert material does not exceed 10 degrees. This done, reservoir is filled with gas delivered along perforated brine lifting pipe.
EFFECT: increased productive volume of reservoir owing to sorption of gas on surface of absorbent, reduced cost of gas storing.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for transportation of rock in underground mines for reloading of rock from one conveyor to the other installed at one level. For this purpose device is used containing pair of flight conveyors, forced-draught and suction fans, air chamber with air inlet hole provided with cyclone installed over flight conveyor to be loaded. Air chamber is arranged between conveyors and is furnished with air collector made in form of screen with cells, housing and brushes from side of conveyors. Additional hole is made in bottom of air chamber to deliver air jet at angle to direction of material movement.
EFFECT: device of simple design providing effective and safe reloading of rock from one conveyor to the other installed at one level.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes use of screw-drilling machine for driving of several first ventilation shafts in ore body and driving several second shafts, while second and each second shaft crosses, at least, one matching first shaft, forming first support walls, supporting ceiling. First supporting ceilings consist of ore body zones between neighboring second shafts, each first support wall has portion of at least one first shaft, passing horizontally through it. Horizontal channels are formed, each of which is placed transversely to matching second shaft between appropriate portions of first shaft, formed in adjacent support walls, for forming of group of continuous ventilation shafts. Second shafts are filled for forming second supporting walls, supporting well ceiling, and first supporting walls are extracted. First ventilation shafts can be made parallel to each other. Second shafts may be directed perpendicularly relatively to first ventilation shafts. In ore body air-outlet and air-inlet ventilation mines can be formed, placed at distance from each other along horizontal line, while first or each first ventilation shaft passes through portion of ore body between air-inlet and air-outlet ventilation mines. Driving of second or each second shaft can be performed by cutting machine, or by drilling or explosive mining.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
7 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes partial filling of extracted space of side and central mains by filling stripes from lava extracting shafts. At center of semi-lava on the side of massive, wherein next extractive column will be cut, filling shaft is additionally driven, wherefrom full filling of space between central fill stripe and fill stripe on the side of massive is performed. Preparation of next extraction column is performed under protection of erected fill stripes.
EFFECT: higher safety, higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of rows of main platforms along bed length in staggered order with length equal or divisible by step value for support displacement, and placing filling material thereon. Along length of main platforms between ceiling and bed soil post support is mounted, upon which filling material is fed. After that between main platforms additional platforms are erected with wedge supporting, and main platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support and it is displaced for one drive step. During that filling material, while lowering, unwedges wedge support between ceiling and bed soil and forms artificial supports. After that additional platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support. After movement of cleaning face for two drive steps operations for constructing artificial supports are repeated. Distance between main platforms along bed fall line are selected from mathematical expression.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to vibrating facilities and it can be used for letting out ore or other materials and their separation. Proposed vibrating feeder has resilient supports, working member consisting of charging and discharge parts and vibrating drive consisting of two shafts with unbalance weight and motors, one per each unbalance weight. Place of arrangement of vibrating drive is determined basing on the fact that line of connection of axles of unbalance weights is located in area limited by two straight lines square to direction of vibration, one of which passed through center of mass, and the other is located at a distance from center of mass of 1/10L to side of charging part of working member. Axle of unbalance weights are located at different sides from line of direction of vibration passing through center of mass at distance equal to not less than 1/8 where L is distance between resilient supports in horizontal direction.
EFFECT: improved stability of operation of vibrating feeder at unstable supply and impact loads on working member at discharging.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation and well extraction of resources of chambers with partial backfill of extraction space. Blocks of upper level relatively to blocks of lower level are placed in staggered order, while blocks are made in form of a stretched upwards hexahedron. Resources of block within one hexahedron are separated on two chambers, one of which, placed along periphery of hexahedron, after extraction and removal of ore from it is filled by hardening backfill. Second order chamber is made of hexahedron-like shape, extracted and removed under protection from artificial block on all six sides of this chamber. Removal of ore from first order chambers is performed through one removal mine - end of level ort and cross-cut in lower portion of block and intermediate sub-level cross-cuts.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.