Method of pits conservation with flooding of selected area

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method of pits conservation, including open-pit field mining, foundation pit with flattening of pit edges and their reinforcement along the periphery and pit flooding with water. Note that edges flattening is done till reaching the angle of safe cut. Along the lower flooded area of the edges along the whole periphery together with flattening of edges from sheared massive there formed is a retaining embankment till the mark corresponding the minimum water level in pit. After that the retaining embankment is covered by protective layer from macrofragmental material till the mark exceeding the maximum water level in pit to the height of wave run-up. Dumping of protective layer from macrofragmental material is done by segregation of consertal rocks as a result of mining-and-transport equipment unloading at the upper edge of the pit, the edges flattening till reaching the angle of natural slope is done above the minimum water level in pit.

EFFECT: increase of pit edges stability in the area of abrasion.

3 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to mining works and can be used for preservation of open pits, the bottom of which are located mainly below the natural groundwater level.

In connection with the transition in the country to a market economy with the restructuring of many of the mining industry in recent years, the extraction of the number of objects became unprofitable and many careers and areas are to be preserved. If the result of flooding of such quarries are able to ensure the preservation of minerals, environmental security is often not achieved. As a result of exposure of the waves there is a significant attrition of banks with their landslide and falling.

Known methods of forming the slopes with high surface part of the sides of the waste pits, storm, creating erosion berms and beach zone (Tumakov P.I. and other Ecology and nature protection in open cast mining. - M.: Publishing house of Irkutsk state technical University, 1994. - P.189-190).

This method is intended for creation and rational use of water in the waste pits (including recreational direction) and economically impractical when a temporary suspension of mining operations.

Known method of remediation in surface mining, including mining career field followed you what olibanum surface of the boards (patent 1062392 on CL E21C 41/00). With this method the storm boards is made up of angles of repose that enables the application of topsoil. In conditions of temporary conservation with continued future development of the field gaining the sides to the corners, which restores the biological productivity of the land, it is impractical because of the significant costs in the process of preservation and reactivation of the stocks.

There is a method of recovery of disturbed lands in open field development (patent 2109427 RF, CL A01B 79/02), including the development of career fields, its alignment in the overburden. The method is aimed at restoring fertility of disturbed land and is associated with significant effort, which is not justified in the case of subsequent re-open this object.

A device for strengthening the subgrade or slopes (patent 2032022 RF, CL E02D 17/20, E02B 3/12), which includes interconnected square frame filled with filler, and anchors. The device provides erosion resistance of slopes, however, is due to the high complexity of mounting and dismantling at the conservation of an object.

Known way to protect soils from erosion (patent 2267514 RF, CL C09K 17/40), based on the strengthening of slopes with making Grun is vegasonline and applying to the surface an aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol. This method can be used on fairly gentle slopes with permeable unconsolidated rocks. For the conditions of preservation of open pits with steep sides described method is barely acceptable.

All of the above methods is time-consuming and expensive and could not be recommended as a short-stop work. When conservation workings prevent abrasion should be performed in a manner that ensures the minimum amount of work with sufficient strengthening of the pit and the ability to quickly reactivate the object.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is a method of reclamation of disturbed lands (patent 2325534 on CL E21C 41/32, Boldyrev S., Lubatkin I.P., Mukhortov CENTURIES and other 27.05.2008), which includes separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, mining career fields, pit excavation with gaining the pit wall to the steepness of the slope is not more than 25 degrees with subsequent planning and strengthening of the pit around its perimeter by means of the device combined cast-in-place piles in the construction holes and filling the buffer layer of sand and piling it from curb stones in cement mortar, then planned slopes make sand and gravel dumping, and on the walls and the bottom of the pit put a layer of clay with a thickness of at least 20 cm and stamp moistening with water. After drying the layer of clay all cracks clobber thick clay. Then in the same way consistently put two more layers of clay, the last third layer of clay RUB clean and still wet the surface vtrambovyvajut a thin layer of gravel with large sand. After that, the bottom of the pit occiput layer of gravel grain size of 3-5 cm or pre-crushed to a particle size of the fight 3-5 cm construction waste in the form of broken brick, concrete, reinforced concrete, ceramic tile, and the pit filled with water, and the depth of excavation shall not be less than 5 meters.

Common features of the prototype and the proposed method are: development of career fields, pit excavation with gaining the pit and strengthening them around the perimeter, and subsequent flooding of the pit by the water.

Comparative analysis of the proposed technical solution with the prototype shows that the main disadvantage of the latter is a large amount of complicated work, including gaining the pit up to an angle of 25° and to strengthen them with the help of piles, dumping the buffer layer of sand, laying kerb of stones in cement mortar, and the application of several layers of clay followed sati is some cracks, Stromovka layer of gravel with large sand and backfill with gravel and waste materials. A significant amount of work required for the reactivation of the object.

The invention is directed to the creation of conservation of quarries, providing the minimum amount of work with sufficient strengthening of the pit and the ability to quickly reactivate the object.

The technical result consists in the strengthening of the pit in the area of abrasion (wave action) existing macro-grained rock material that slept on flooded retaining embankment, formed in the process of gaining the sides, as well as providing the ability to quickly reactivate the object.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of conservation of quarries with flooding goaf, characterized in claim 1 of the claims, including the development of career fields, pit excavation with gaining the pit and strengthening them around the perimeter, and subsequent flooding of the pit water, according to the invention the storm boards is carried out until reaching the corner of the stable slope, while along the lower flood-prone parts of the boards around the perimeter simultaneously gaining the sides of the cutting rocks form the breast mound to the level corresponding to the minimum is the level of water in the pit, then on the retaining embankment occiput protective layer of macro-grained rock material to the level above the maximum water level in the trench at the height of the rolling waves.

Long-term observations of flooded mine workings showed that the most intensive erosion of the pit occurs due to abrasion. In the zone of wave action Board washed with the formation of the notches, which causes subsequent shedding and slipping array of the overlying rocks. Strengthening areas of the degradation of the protective layer of macro-grained rock material to prevent abrasion and to provide the necessary stability of the boards. The protective layer slept on the whole part of the Board subject to wave erosion: from the water in the pit during low-water period to the level corresponding to the height of the rolling waves at the maximum water level. The height of the rolling waves is set by the well-known dependencies. For formation of a protective layer of macro-grained rock material is created retaining embankment. The mound is constructed from rocks taken from the top of the Board in the process of gaining up to an angle of a stable slope. Retaining embankment it falls to the level corresponding to the minimum predicted water level in the pit. Maximum and minimum water levels in the pit installed by Raza is Tatum hydrogeological survey with defining the limits of groundwater level fluctuations, as well as the results of calculations of the water balance of the generated reservoir during low-water and high-water periods.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of conservation of quarries, characterized in claim 1 and 2 claims, including gaining the sides before reaching the corner of the stable slope, the formation simultaneously with the storm flooded along the bottom part of the sides around the perimeter of the retaining embankment cut off from the rocks to the level corresponding to the minimum water level in the excavation, and backfill for retaining embankment protective layer of macro-grained rock material to the level above the maximum water level in the trench at the height of the rolling waves, according to the invention the filling of the protective layer of macro-grained rock material carried by segregation in grain species in the discharge of mining equipment to the top edge of the sides of the pit.

The dumping of the protective layer can be carried out by the natural segregation of different grain size of the rocks in the process of rolling on flattened to the angle of repose Board career. Due to the large radius of the large pieces of rocks roll faster and farther, so one of them is formed a protective layer. For the plateau part of the Board is most often used draglines. In this case, after you create on pornoi embankment unloading of the bucket is at the upper edges of the side in the process of turning arrows. The process of segregation of species increases due to centrifugal forces of inertia.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of reclamation of quarries, characterized in claim 1 and 3 claims, including gaining the sides before reaching the corner of the stable slope, the formation simultaneously with the storm flooded along the bottom part of the sides around the perimeter of the retaining embankment cut off from the rocks to the level corresponding to the minimum water level in the excavation, and backfill for retaining embankment protective layer of macro-grained rock material to the level above the maximum water level in the trench at the height of the rolling waves, according to the invention, gaining the sides until it reaches the angle of repose is implemented just above the minimum water level in the pit.

After flooding of the pit water will be back on Board, so the angle of his stable of slope increases (the angle of repose of loose sediments in the water more than in the atmosphere). It is therefore advisable bipolarity Board just above the minimum water level in the pit.

Differences from prototype to prove the "newness" of the proposed method.

You know the storm sides to reach an angle of a stable slope for dry preservation workings [Chemezov CENTURIES, Kovrizhnikov V.L. Land use the land reclamation in mining of gold and diamonds. - Irkutsk: Publishing house "Irgiredmet", 2007. - C-105], which allows, in the absence of flooding to ensure sufficient stability of the sides and slopes. However, when creating in the development of the reservoir due to abrasion of the edges in the result of wave action with the formation of the notches (recesses) along the shoreline of their stability is ensured by short-term and begins the process of collapse, crumbling rocks above the water level in the pit. Therefore, the stability of the boards to erosion is not provided.

Known technology with the creation of retaining walls, as well as prigruzki slopes coarse-grained soil to provide the necessary stability of the sides and slopes of the dumps [I I.I. and other Hydraulic engineering in peat and mining industries. - M.: Nedra, 1984, Pp.109-111, patent 1040152 RF, E21C 41/00].

However, in the known technical solutions retaining embankment only supports Board from caving and shedding. In the proposed technical solution, it is grounds (basis) to create a protective layer of macro-grained rock material.

Known methods side protection from abrasion using macro-grained rock material [I I.I. and other Hydraulic engineering in peat and mining industries. - M.: Nedra, 1984, S-222]. However, in the known technical solutions macro-grained rock material occiput enough is ologue surface, or apply special measures for securing (including metal mesh, lattice). In the proposed technical solution, it is held in the zone of abrasion due to the retaining embankment. In this case the formation of the protective layer is provided in the process of rolling macro-grained rock material from the side of the quarry, which greatly simplifies the technology and reduces the cost of creating this layer.

The unknown impact of signs, similar to the distinctive essential features of the proposed method, on the technical result achieved the claimed technical solution proves its compliance with the conditions of patentability "inventive step".

The invention is illustrated in the drawing, in which figure 1 presents a scheme of conservation flooding out space:

1 - the initial Board career before conservation;

2 is a breed that is cut off from the upper part of the side in the process of gaining;

3 - Board career after gaining;

4 - retaining embankment;

5 - the bottom of the quarry;

6 is a protective layer of macro-grained rock material.

The inventive method of preservation is as follows. After partial failover career fields produce storm boards 1 mainly using excavators type dragline. This breed is cut off from the top of the hour and the Board 2, is placed in a retaining embankment 4 at its lower part adjacent to the bottom of the pit 5. In the process of gaining form the wall of the open pit 3 with an angle of repose of rocks γ. Retaining embankment 4 form to the level corresponding to the minimum water level in the pit (UNV). The volume and width of the embankment determined based on the volume of rock that is cut off from the top of the Board 2. Retaining embankment occiput angle of repose loosened rocks β. After creating a retaining wall on it using mining and transport equipment (draglines, excavators type mechanical shovel loaders, bulldozers, trucks) occiput protective layer of macro-grained rock material 6 to the level corresponding to the height of the rolling waves at the maximum water level in the pit (UVV). The protective layer prevents abrasion in the zone of wave action and erosion above the pit - 3.

Method of conservation described in claim 2, is carried out as follows. To create a protective layer to the side of the quarry deliver grain size breed that during the unloading of vehicles, handling of the excavator, the filing of a bulldozer occiput flattened on Board the pit 3 and in the process of rolling and segregation form a protective layer 6. To enhance the segregation of species in the process p is Grusky rock mass is inertia, including due to centrifugal forces resulting from the movement of the excavator bucket.

Method of conservation, described in section 3 of the claims, as follows. The plateau part of the Board 1 carried out mainly by the excavator of the type dragline or backhoe to angle γ to the level corresponding to the minimum water level in the pit (UNV). Below the water level at the expense of retaining embankment 4 and water masses in the pit is provided with sufficient stability Board from destruction, formed prior to preservation with the angle α.

1. The method of conservation of quarries with flooding goaf, including the development of career fields, pit excavation with gaining the pit and strengthening them around the perimeter, and subsequent flooding of the pit water, characterized in that the plateau of the boards is carried out until reaching the corner of the stable slope, while along the lower flood-prone parts of the boards around the perimeter simultaneously gaining the sides of the cut rocks form the breast mound to the level corresponding to the minimum water level in the pit, after which the retaining embankment occiput protective layer of macro-grained rock material to the level above the maximum water level in the trench at the height of the rolling waves.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that sipco protective layer of macro-grained rock material carried by segregation in grain species in the discharge of mining equipment at the upper edges of the sides of the pit.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the plateau of the sides until it reaches the angle of repose perform above the minimum water level in the pit.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining.

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EFFECT: reducing labour costs of recovery work.

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FIELD: mining.

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FIELD: mining industry, possible use for reclamation of damaged lands in agriculture, power-construction industrial branches.

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EFFECT: decreased laboriousness and costs of restorative operations.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

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EFFECT: combination of coal extractive processes with reclamation of lands and preservation of access to concealed resources for their later extraction.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: methods of underground or surface mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas after production of building stone and other surface-sited minerals.

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EFFECT: extended field of exhausted pit usage, for instance for further freezing facility construction.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining and processing industry, particularly to reclaim soil in agriculture and building and power engineering industries.

SUBSTANCE: method involves performing selective mining, conveying and stacking ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; developing pit field; filling exhausted space with building waste in several layers along with rolling of each building waste layer; leveling thereof with overburden and laying ground layer. Pit is filled with building waste up to mid-height pit level, but not under ground water level. After that building waste is rolled and covered with overburden for total pit filling. Then overburden layer is leveled. To prevent ground settlement wells are formed along filled pit surface, wherein the wells are formed up to design depth and are filled with building waste with each building waste portion compaction. Overburden layer, building waste layer, reinforced structure level formed of geo-synthetic sleeves filled with building waste milled to obtain particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm are serially laid on filled pit.

EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and costs.

1 dwg

FIELD: construction and mining, particularly reclamation of pit depressions after building stone and other surface mineral production.

SUBSTANCE: method involves working out pit; filling the worked-out space; leveling thereof and laying ground layer thereon. After pit working-out ditch and water-draining trenches are formed along pit perimeter to impart regular geometrical shape to pit along with pit side flattening to obtain pit sides inclination of not more than 30° along with following pit side compaction by rolling thereof with compaction machines and mechanisms; pouring sand on designed pit slopes; laying impervious screen made of high-density polyethylene on sand layer; pouring ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.5 m on the impervious screen; covering pit bottom with clay layer; compacting clay layer and inclining thereof towards collecting well composed of reinforced concrete rings; arranging radial bed drainage of crushed stone and sand on pit bottom so that the drainage is directed towards collecting well; forming water-removal ditch along pit perimeter; filling the pit with compacted building waste briquettes; arranging clay screen having thickness of not less than 0.3 m over building waste briquettes; arranging plant layer on clay screen.

EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and reclamation work costs.

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