Method of biological protection and improvement of productivity of winter wheat
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biotechnology. The method includes the selection of strains with signs of growth-initiating and fungistatic action from the roots of wild plants of way barley growing in the range of 1500-2000 m above sea level, and subsequent processing with them of crops of winter wheat. At that wheat is treated in two phases - in spring during aftergrowing - with growth-initiating bacteria, and in the phase of flowering beginning - with fungistatic ones.
EFFECT: invention enables due to alternate use of strains of two kinds of associative bacteria with different properties (growth-initiating and fungistatic), to reduce the incidence of a disease of plants of winter wheat, and increase its productivity.
3 tbl, 3 ex
The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to a method of biological protection of plants against pathogenic fungi, and can find application in agriculture in the cultivation of field crops in biological agriculture.
There is a method in which to reduce the infestation by pathogenic fungi and improve the growth of plants used strains of Pseudomonas bacteria (patent No. 2352629 published 20.04.2009,) and bacteria R. Bacillus (patent No. 2140138 published 13.11.1998,; patent GB 2170987 And from 14.02.1985 year).
In the first method, the strains used in oil-contaminated soils. However, in the system of crop rotation, where it accumulates in the soil pathogenic microflora, causing disease and reduce the growth and development of plants, their application is ineffective.
In other mentioned methods, preparations based on Bacillus used to protect vegetable and grain plants from fungal diseases.
The closest technical solution is a method that allows to distinguish associative rhizobacteria from the rhizosphere of plants bent pobegoobrazuyuschaya and quack grass growing on mountain heights in the range of 1500-2000 m above sea level in natural plant communities (patent No. 2321252 published 10.02.2007,).
However, the prototype method has a number of drawbacks:
- ineffective in improving the growth and development of plants;
- selected States is we have a narrow distribution area;
- selected strains of rhizosphere bacteria tested on only one form of the disease is Fusarium head blight (Fusarium L. frost).
The technical result - the expansion of the range of strains of rhizosphere bacteria with antifungal activity and growth-stimulating effect on plants.
The technical solution of the declared object is that the selection of strains with signs of growth-stimulating and fungistatic actions perform from the roots of barley hare and process their crops of winter wheat in two phases - in the spring when regrowth growth stimulating bacteria and summer in the phase of beginning of flowering is fungistatic.
The method is as follows.
Strain 17-1 fungistatic action (Pseudomonas fluorescens is isolated from the rhizosphere of barley hare's - Hordeum leporinum L. in the steppe zone of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania) and strain 38-22 growth-stimulating action (Sphingomonas spirivorum - isolated from the rhizosphere of barley hare in the forest-steppe zone of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania) is used on crops of winter wheat, processing it in the spring in phase regrowth, and the second time in the summer - flowering beginning as separately on different plots and alternately on the same plot. Sprinkle the culture fluid of bacteria at the rate of 2 l/ha Control option is the plot treated with water (both shtam is and deposited in the all-Russian state collection of nonpathogenic microorganisms for agricultural purposes (CIAM) of the GSI research Institute for agricultural Microbiology - St.-Petersburg).
Example 1. On plots treated once in the spring in phase regrowth, were given the development of diseases (Septoria, Fusarium and powdery mildew) in the phase of formation of the grain, and after maturation was determined by the yield of winter wheat.
The results obtained are presented in table 1, which show that the degree of disease development compared to the control variant strain 38-22 was lower by 17.5%in the variant strain 17-1 - by 35.3%, and the yield is higher by 18.6 and 15.2%, respectively.
|The effectiveness of strains of rhizosphere bacteria when making them in the spring in the phase regrowth of winter wheat|
|Option||The development of phytopathogens in the phase of formation of the grains, %||Yield|
Example 2. On plots treated once in the summer of beginning of flowering was determined by the percentage of development mentioned in example 1 disease, and after ripening yields.
The results of the experiment are shown in table 2, indicated that a relatively control the degree of disease was lower in the variant strain 38-22 by 27.4%and strain 17-1 - by 38.0%. The yield, as in experiment 1, was higher by 9.5 and 14.7%, respectively.
|The effectiveness of strains of rhizosphere bacteria in making them in the phase of beginning of flowering of winter wheat|
|Option||The development of phytopathogens in the phase of formation of the grains, %||Yield|
|2. 38-22||62,0||to 25.3||2,2||9,5|
The obtained data show that the yield increase strain 38-22 more effective in making spring in phase regrowth of winter wheat than in the beginning of flowering, and strain 17-1 inferior in the first case and the second is superior. The degree of suppression of pathogens strain 17-1 more effective than the strain 38-22.
Example 3. On plots treated twice: in the spring of phase regrowth of winter wheat strain 38-22 summer and beginning of flowering strain 17-1, determined the percentage of disease development, and after ripening yields.
The data from the third experiment is shown in table 3, which indicate that the degree of disease was very low. It is relatively control was 46.1 per cent, and the yield increase was the highest and reached 24.2 per cent.
|Efficiency W is ammo rhizosphere bacteria when making strain 38-22 in the phase regrowth of winter wheat and strain 17-1 in the phase of beginning of flowering|
|Option||The development of phytopathogens in the phase of formation of the grains, %||Yield|
|2. 38-22 + 17-1||43,3||28,7||5,6||24,2|
Thus, in the early stages of plant development should be applied growth-stimulating biological products, and later in the period of intensive development of diseases (phase beginning of flowering) - biologics fungistatic action.
The method of biological control and productivity of winter wheat, including the selection of strains associative rhizobacteria carried out from the rhizosphere of wild gramineous plants growing at altitudes of 1500-2000 m above sea level, characterized by carrying out the selection of strains associative rhizobacteria with signs of growth-stimulating and fungistatic actions of the roots of rasteniyata hare and process their crops of winter wheat in two phases - in the spring when the re - growth stimulating strains, and in the phase of beginning of flowering is fungistatic strains.
SUBSTANCE: method of producing an Escherichia coli VL-613 based symbiotic preparation involves sowing, culturing bacteria in a liquid medium based on Hottinger broth, concentrating the bacterial suspension and then mixing with a stabiliser, packing and lyophilising the preparation. During the process of culturing Escherichia coli VL-613, redox potential of the bacterial culture is reduced to minus (80-100) mV right after sowing. Before the end of the culturing process, pO2 is kept at 20±5% of saturation of air with oxygen and pH is kept in the 7.0-7.4 range. Glucose is fed in doses until achieving concentration of 0.1-0.2% while limiting growth of Escherichia coli VL-613 with glucose. The culturing process is 4-6 hours long. The preparation contains 80-85% living cells and enables to completely replace synthetic lysine in complete diets when growing broilers.
EFFECT: high quality and stability of the Escherichia coli VL-613 based symbiotic preparation.
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SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of introduction of protective medium into liquid phase during dispersion of biologically active material. Biologically active material contains liquid phase with active substances in microdrop state, which is stabilised by highly-disperse hydrophobic disconnector with nanosized particles.
EFFECT: increase of dispersity of biologically active materials, containing active substances in liquid phase.
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SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biotechnology. The method of producing 8-prenylnaringenin in vitro involves: a) providing a first composition containing a culture of Eubacterium limosum or Peptostreptococcus productus bacterial cells, having 5-alkoxyflavonoid-dealkylating activity, and b) bringing a second composition containing 5-alkoxyflavonoids into contact with said first composition to facilitate dealkylation of said 5-alkoxyflavonoids with said bacterial cell culture. Disclosed is a combination for obtaining 8-prenylnaringenin in vitro and use of the culture of Eubacterium limosum or Peptostreptococcus productus bacterial cells, having 5-alkoxyflavonoid-dealkylating activity to obtain 8-prenylnaringenin in vitro. The method of enhancing 5-alkoxyflavonoid-dealkylating activity of the culture of Eubacterium limosum or Peptostreptococcus productus bacterial cells involves a step for inoculating said bacterial cell culture on a medium containing 5-alkoxyflavonoids, and a step for selecting a colony with the highest 5-alkoxyflavonoid-dealkylating activity. The Eubacterium limosum LMG P-23546 strain has 5-alkoxyflavonoid-dealkylating activity and is capable for converting isoxanthohumol to 8-prenylnaringenin.
EFFECT: invention increases efficiency of producing a phytoextractant such as 8-prenylnaringenin.
14 cl, 9 dwg, 4 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: Saccharomyces unisporus strain is extracted from kefir fungus microflora. The strain is deposited in the Russian National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms (VKPM) under registration number VKPM Y-3416. The strain is cultured on the following culture media: beer wort, unsalted milk whey, cow milk and Sabouraud's medium.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain fermented milk products - kefir and acidophilus-yeast cream.
SUBSTANCE: Lactobacillus gallinarum strain is extracted from kefir fungus microflora in natural conditions. The strain is deposited in the Russian National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms (VKPM) under registration number VKPM V - 10131. The strain is cultured on the following culture media: agarised dairy cheese whey, skimmed milk, unsalted milk whey.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain fermented milk products - kefir, acidophilus milk, acidophilus paste, acidophilin and kumis.
SUBSTANCE: mice are infected by the oral introduction of a suspension 0.1 ml of a two-day swine Rhodococcus equi, pathogenic of culture containing 5×107 CFU in normal saline 1.0 ml. The infection is followed the oral five-fold introduction of a probiotic preparation 1-5×105-6 CFU in 1.0 ml every 24 hours; in 5 days after the infection, the mice are killed, and dense egg medium are inoculated of the internals suspensions. In 1-2 cultivation days at optimal temperature, but not later than in 5 days, the grown colonies are controlled by acid fast stain. Antagonist activity is evaluated by a growth block index that is a relation of Rhodococcus colony count grown at inoculation of the internals suspensions of the animals prescribed with no probiotic preparations to Rhodococcus colony count grown at inoculation of the internals suspensions of the animals prescribed with the probiotic preparations. The efficacy of the probiotic preparation is concluded if the value exceeds 3.
EFFECT: invention provides fast and nocardioform actinomycete adequate screening of the probiotic preparations in vivo.
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SUBSTANCE: microbial cultures are grown on LB-broth that is followed by McFarland standartisation to 0.5. The grown microbial cultures are introduced in wells of a polystyrene plate and added with LB-broth to form a monofilm or added with a broth culture to form a mixed biofilm. The plates are kept in a thermostat at 37°C for 48 hours to form biofilms. The formed biofilms are washed with distilled water and coloured with 0.1% aqueous gentian violet 200 mcl for 45 minutes in the dark, and the biofilms are thoroughly washed for three times with distilled water that is followed by drying the plate and colour intensity biofilm testing. For this purpose, the colourant is eluted in 96% alcohol; the eluate is analysed for an optical density in a spectrophotometer; this value matches to a film formation level; the average optical densities of the eluate of the mixed biofilms and the total optical densities of the eluate of the monoculture biofilms are compared, and if observing no reliable differences, the neutral pattern of interactions are stated; if the value for the mixed biofilm is less than the total value for the monofilms, the antagonistic pattern of interactions is concluded, while the value for the mixed biofilm exceeding the total values for the monofilms enables stating a synergistic pattern of the intermicrobial interaction. The total optical densities of the eluate of the monoculture biofilms shall not exceed 4.
EFFECT: invention enables evaluating the pattern of intermicrobial interaction and predicting a developing mixed infection.
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SUBSTANCE: method for in vitro recovery of experimental tuberculous granulomas in culture involves induction of granulomatous inflammation by infecting experimental animals with BCG mycobacteria, recovery and mechanical disintegration of spleen tissues containing granulomas over a period adequate to form them in an animal's body, homogenisation of spleen tissue in a solution by agitation, purification of the homogenate from coarse tissue fragments by spontaneous deposition in a culture medium, removal of the deposits, recovery of the granulomas from a supernatant, washing in a new portion of the culture medium by centrifugation at acceleration 15-28 g at least three times and transfer of the deposited granuloma in the culture medium.
EFFECT: effective granuloma integrity and higher purity of the recovered granulomas.
4 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of producing 1,2-dehydrogenated derivatives of Δ4-3-ketosteroids of the androstane family. A 1,2-dehydrogenation reaction is carried out using cells of a microorganism having high 3-ketosteroid-1-dehydrogenase activity, in a medium containing 8-40 vol. % water miscible aprotic solvent.
EFFECT: invention enables transformation of Δ4-3-ketosteroids and ensures high selectivity of formation of 1,2-dehydrogenated Δ4-3-ketosteroids at high rates of the process.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: biomass production envisages cultivation of at least one lactic acid bacteria strain producing vitamin K2 under conditions of resting cells. One performs at least primary cultivation of bacteria under conditions of respiration sustention for production of the primary culture or pre-culture in a medium containing at least one compound containing a haem nucleus, the end concentration being at least nearly 0.5 mcg/ml. A fat-containing milk cultural medium is inoculated with live bacterial cells in an amount of approximately 108 CFU/ml - 1011 CFU/ml. The inoculated medium is fermented during approximately 4 hours - 48 hours at a temperature of approximately 4°C - 50°C. The lactic acid bacteria are chosen from the species Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc lactis, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Enterococcus faecium and Propionibacterium sp.
EFFECT: one produces biomass with a level of vitamin K2 producing from approximately 30 mcg to approximately 75 mcg and more of vitamin K2 per 100 g of the fermented cultivation medium.
16 cl, 6 dwg, 5 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. Pesticide combination contains at least two active ingredient components together with one or more conventional additives. Component (I) is imidacloprid and component (II) is one or more growth activators selected from a group comprising harpin and acibenzolar-S-methyl. To control or prevent damage by pests and/or pathogenic damage to plant propagation material, plants and/or plant organs which grow at a later point in time, said pesticide combination is applied onto a plant, part of a plant or the area surrounding the plant.
EFFECT: invention enables to increase biological activity of the combination.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biotechnology, a composition, a set and a method of obtaining a plant body with high sugar content. The invention involves introduction into the plant body of a substance which regulates the cell redox state, where said substance is selected from a group consisting of glutathione, a polynucleotide encoding γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, or a polynucleotide encoding glutathione-binding plastid type fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase.
EFFECT: invention increases content of sugar, starch and glucose in the cultivated plant.
7 cl, 10 dwg, 12 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biochemistry, particularly protection of plants from diseases caused by phytopathogenic bacteria and phytoplasma. The disclosed agent is obtained by preparing a producer inoculum, growing the producer on a fermentative medium, drying the culture fluid, extracting a macrolide complex using lower alcohols, concentrating the extract and mixing said extract with additives and solvents in the following ratio, wt %: macrolide complex 17.0-23.5, solvents and additives - up to 100, where the producer used is a Streptomyces fradiae ARRIAM-53 strain.
EFFECT: invention increases plant protection effectiveness.
2 tbl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The composition is meant for influencing germination and growth of plants and plant disease control. The composition contains a combination of at least one plant growth regulator selected from paclobutrazole, cyproconazole, tetcyclacis, uniconazole, gibberellic acids and trinexapac-ethyl, and at least one plant activator selected from acibenzolar-S-methyl, probenzole, harpin protein and Reynoutria sachalinensis (reysa) extract. Plant propagation material is treated with this composition. In order to reduce disease incidence among seedlings, protection of plants from post-germination treatment with pesticides and improving the health of seedlings is carried out via treatment with this composition.
EFFECT: invention enables realisation of said applications.
20 cl, 14 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biotechnology. The present invention relates to a method of converting B group vitamins in plants, preferably selected from vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12 and mixtures thereof, from a synthetic form into an organically bound form, in which germinable seeds of plants are first soaked in a solution of the corresponding vitamin or mixture of vitamins and during germination, the seeds are sprinkled with solutions containing the corresponding vitamin.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain group B vitamins with improved bioavailability.
19 cl, 8 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to microbiological industry. The method involves filling bioreactors with a culture medium into which, after sterilisation and cooling, a liquid culture of symbiotic bacteria is inoculated and nematodes are inoculated therein after 48-hour exposure. The bioreactors re put into temperature-controlled chambers for development of a nematode-bacterial complex. The bioreactor is made in form of a separate polypropylene sack measuring 700×400 mm with 186 through holes with diameter of 0.5 mm on each side of the sack, at a distance of 190 mm from the top part of the sack and on an area of 1500 mm2 with height of 50 mm and 300 mm width of the sack.
EFFECT: method increases output of biomass and invasive activity of nematodes.
3 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method to produce vegetable-microbal associations for phytoremediation based on micro-propagating plants of tomato, rape and arabidopsis and plasmid-containing rhizosphere bacteria, having antimicrobial activity against bacteria Erwinia carotovora and fungi Phytophthora infestans, includes colonization of planting stock of plants cultivated in vitro with the strain Pseudomonas aureofaciens VKM V-2500 D, which carries plasmids pBS216, pKSl, imparting it resistance to naphthalene and arsenic, or Pseudomonas aureofaciens VKM V-2501 D, which carries plasmids pBS216, pBS501, imparting it resistance to naphthalene and nickel.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase protection of plants against toxic effect of naphthalene and heavy metals, and also growth and resistance of plants to phytopathogenic microorganisms.
5 dwg, 3 tbl, 13 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to strain of microorganism, ensuring recovery of soil and animal gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiocenosis, possessing antibacterial and fungicidal activity, and to based on them preparation form and can be used in biotechnology, veterinary medicine and plant protection. Strains Bacillus licheniformis IC-831-1-2, Bacillus licheniformis IC-832-1-2, Bacillus licheniformis IC-833-1-2, Bacillus licheniformis IC-834-1-2 are obtained by method of directed selection and are deposited in All-Russian Collection of Industrial Microorganisms FSUE GosNIIGenetika under registration numbers All-Russian collection of industrial microorganisms respectively: B-10561, B-10562, B-10563 and B-10564. Preparation is characterised by containing filling agent with bacteria biomass in spore form Bacillus licheniformis All-Russian collection of industrial microorganisms B-10561, or All-Russian collection of industrial microorganisms B-10562, or All-Russian collection of industrial microorganisms B-10563, or All-Russian collection of industrial microorganisms B-10564, or their mixture with titre of each bacteria strain not less than 1·103 CFU/g or 1·103 CFU/ml. As filling agent it contains water or powder-like sorbent.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of restoring soil, animal GIT microbiocenosis and extend spectrum of antibacterial and fungicidal activity.
9 cl, 9 tbl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to microbiological fertilisers for plants, specifically to a microbiological composition based on Rhizobium (symbiotic nitrogen fixer) legume bacteria. The composition contains Rhizobium lupini bacteria and associative nitrogen-fixing bacteria Flavobakterium, with components in weight ratio of 1.0-1.5:1.5-2.0. Due to synergetic interaction of the components, the composition has high physiological activity and has not phytotoxic effect on crop plants. The invention enables to efficiently increase plant biomass in mixed legume-grass seeds by approximately 7.1-7.8% compared to inoculation of seeds with legume bacteria, and by 8.9-9.9% compared to inoculation of seeds with associative bacteria. The degree of inhibition of crop plants or damage falls 1.4-8-fold compared to control crop plants.
EFFECT: microbiological composition increases accumulation of green material by 87-91 centner per hectare or 20-23% compared to control plants - yield in mixed lupine seeds and barley without inoculation of seeds with microbiological preparations.
SUBSTANCE: strain of the fungus Phoma complanata (Tode) Desm. 32.1211 was extracted from the leaves of hogweed Sosnowski (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden) and deposited in the State Collection of Microorganisms of All-russian institute of plant protection under the collection number 1.40 (AIPP).
EFFECT: invention enables to fight against hogweed Sosnowski.
8 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method includes cleaning of seeds, sowing and harvesting. In the process of cleaning on the magnetic device the seeds are moistened with steam enriched with ions of sodium selenate and potassium permanganate in concentrations of the aqueous solution of 0.01% each. After cleaning, the seeds are sown in summer period with increased seeding rate in the range of 20-25 kg/ha and in the year of sowing before winter the grass stand is mowed at a height of 7-10 cm.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the efficiency of control of harmful weed dodder.
1 tbl, 2 ex