Method of biological protection and improvement of productivity of winter wheat

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biotechnology. The method includes the selection of strains with signs of growth-initiating and fungistatic action from the roots of wild plants of way barley growing in the range of 1500-2000 m above sea level, and subsequent processing with them of crops of winter wheat. At that wheat is treated in two phases - in spring during aftergrowing - with growth-initiating bacteria, and in the phase of flowering beginning - with fungistatic ones.

EFFECT: invention enables due to alternate use of strains of two kinds of associative bacteria with different properties (growth-initiating and fungistatic), to reduce the incidence of a disease of plants of winter wheat, and increase its productivity.

3 tbl, 3 ex

 

The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to a method of biological protection of plants against pathogenic fungi, and can find application in agriculture in the cultivation of field crops in biological agriculture.

There is a method in which to reduce the infestation by pathogenic fungi and improve the growth of plants used strains of Pseudomonas bacteria (patent No. 2352629 published 20.04.2009,) and bacteria R. Bacillus (patent No. 2140138 published 13.11.1998,; patent GB 2170987 And from 14.02.1985 year).

In the first method, the strains used in oil-contaminated soils. However, in the system of crop rotation, where it accumulates in the soil pathogenic microflora, causing disease and reduce the growth and development of plants, their application is ineffective.

In other mentioned methods, preparations based on Bacillus used to protect vegetable and grain plants from fungal diseases.

The closest technical solution is a method that allows to distinguish associative rhizobacteria from the rhizosphere of plants bent pobegoobrazuyuschaya and quack grass growing on mountain heights in the range of 1500-2000 m above sea level in natural plant communities (patent No. 2321252 published 10.02.2007,).

However, the prototype method has a number of drawbacks:

- ineffective in improving the growth and development of plants;

- selected States is we have a narrow distribution area;

- selected strains of rhizosphere bacteria tested on only one form of the disease is Fusarium head blight (Fusarium L. frost).

The technical result - the expansion of the range of strains of rhizosphere bacteria with antifungal activity and growth-stimulating effect on plants.

The technical solution of the declared object is that the selection of strains with signs of growth-stimulating and fungistatic actions perform from the roots of barley hare and process their crops of winter wheat in two phases - in the spring when regrowth growth stimulating bacteria and summer in the phase of beginning of flowering is fungistatic.

The method is as follows.

Strain 17-1 fungistatic action (Pseudomonas fluorescens is isolated from the rhizosphere of barley hare's - Hordeum leporinum L. in the steppe zone of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania) and strain 38-22 growth-stimulating action (Sphingomonas spirivorum - isolated from the rhizosphere of barley hare in the forest-steppe zone of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania) is used on crops of winter wheat, processing it in the spring in phase regrowth, and the second time in the summer - flowering beginning as separately on different plots and alternately on the same plot. Sprinkle the culture fluid of bacteria at the rate of 2 l/ha Control option is the plot treated with water (both shtam is and deposited in the all-Russian state collection of nonpathogenic microorganisms for agricultural purposes (CIAM) of the GSI research Institute for agricultural Microbiology - St.-Petersburg).

Example 1. On plots treated once in the spring in phase regrowth, were given the development of diseases (Septoria, Fusarium and powdery mildew) in the phase of formation of the grain, and after maturation was determined by the yield of winter wheat.

The results obtained are presented in table 1, which show that the degree of disease development compared to the control variant strain 38-22 was lower by 17.5%in the variant strain 17-1 - by 35.3%, and the yield is higher by 18.6 and 15.2%, respectively.

Table 1
The effectiveness of strains of rhizosphere bacteria when making them in the spring in the phase regrowth of winter wheat
OptionThe development of phytopathogens in the phase of formation of the grains, %Yield
kg/haGain
kg/ha%
1. Control89,423,1--
2. 38-2271,9 27,44,318,6
3. 17-154,126,63,515,2

Example 2. On plots treated once in the summer of beginning of flowering was determined by the percentage of development mentioned in example 1 disease, and after ripening yields.

The results of the experiment are shown in table 2, indicated that a relatively control the degree of disease was lower in the variant strain 38-22 by 27.4%and strain 17-1 - by 38.0%. The yield, as in experiment 1, was higher by 9.5 and 14.7%, respectively.

Table 2
The effectiveness of strains of rhizosphere bacteria in making them in the phase of beginning of flowering of winter wheat
OptionThe development of phytopathogens in the phase of formation of the grains, %Yield
kg/haGain
kg/ha%
1. Control 89,423,1--
2. 38-2262,0to 25.32,29,5
3. 17-151,426,53,414,7

The obtained data show that the yield increase strain 38-22 more effective in making spring in phase regrowth of winter wheat than in the beginning of flowering, and strain 17-1 inferior in the first case and the second is superior. The degree of suppression of pathogens strain 17-1 more effective than the strain 38-22.

Example 3. On plots treated twice: in the spring of phase regrowth of winter wheat strain 38-22 summer and beginning of flowering strain 17-1, determined the percentage of disease development, and after ripening yields.

The data from the third experiment is shown in table 3, which indicate that the degree of disease was very low. It is relatively control was 46.1 per cent, and the yield increase was the highest and reached 24.2 per cent.

Table 3
Efficiency W is ammo rhizosphere bacteria when making strain 38-22 in the phase regrowth of winter wheat and strain 17-1 in the phase of beginning of flowering
OptionThe development of phytopathogens in the phase of formation of the grains, %Yield
kg/haGain
kg/ha%
1. Control89,423,1--
2. 38-22 + 17-143,328,75,624,2

Thus, in the early stages of plant development should be applied growth-stimulating biological products, and later in the period of intensive development of diseases (phase beginning of flowering) - biologics fungistatic action.

The method of biological control and productivity of winter wheat, including the selection of strains associative rhizobacteria carried out from the rhizosphere of wild gramineous plants growing at altitudes of 1500-2000 m above sea level, characterized by carrying out the selection of strains associative rhizobacteria with signs of growth-stimulating and fungistatic actions of the roots of rasteniyata hare and process their crops of winter wheat in two phases - in the spring when the re - growth stimulating strains, and in the phase of beginning of flowering is fungistatic strains.



 

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