Apparatus and method of collecting seismic data, seismic survey system

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: device is fitted with a recording unit which is combined with a block of seismic detectors with coverage of a zone of possible seismic activity, and communication apparatus for direct communication with a central recording unit. Data medium in the recording unit and/or master controller stores location parameters of the block of seismic detectors, wherein the location parameters of the seismic detectors can be corrected. Recorded information can be transmitted to the central recording unit by manual retrieval of the detachable data medium from each recording unit, by wireless information transmission or by copying information from each recording unit through an inductive or cable connector and a transmitting device.

EFFECT: possibility of varying distance between seismic detectors.

17 cl, 12 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The invention relates primarily to the field of seismology and more particularly to a device and method for collecting seismic data and the system of seismic observations (exploration).

The level of technology

Oil companies conduct seismic exploration for lowering risk and reducing the cost of works on the discovery and development of new oil and gas fields. As a consequence, seismic exploration, requiring significant expenditure, is made on the investment made in advance, with uncertain prospects of their return in the course of further work. Accordingly, the most important aspect of the process of seismic exploration is to minimize its cost in obtaining qualitative results of the research.

Seismic exploration is conducted by deploying on the ground spatial networks of seismic receivers (sensors)that cover large areas of the earth's surface. In a typical embodiment, such networks cover up to 50 square miles (about 130 square km) of the Earth's surface and can contain from 2000 to 5000 seismic receivers. The source of elastic waves (for example, underground charge of dynamite) operate within such a network, and the resulting explosion shock wave (acoustic wave) are distributed by the on subsurface structures of the earth's crust. A separate part of the elastic waves reflected from subsurface heterogeneities, such as oil and gas reservoir tanks. Next, the reflected waves are detected and recorded on the surface seismic receivers. These processes detected reflected waves and recording information about them will be denoted by the term "seismic data". The seismic data may also be in passive mode without the direct application of the active source seismic energy.

By moving the source of seismic energy at different points of the earth surface within the measuring network and collection of seismic data it is possible to build three-dimensional maps of the underground structure of the earth's crust or seismic images of the subsurface structures of the earth's crust. In the future, this card is used to make decisions about the place of burial of drilling wells, the size of reservoir tanks and depths neftegazoperspektivnyh zones.

An extremely important factor in determining the quality and spatial resolution of the seismic image of the subsurface Geology is the density of seismic receivers in the measuring network. Specialists in the art will understand that higher density of seismic receivers, i.e. increase the s number of receivers in the measuring network, allows you to get a clearer seismic image of the subsurface structures.

The density of seismic receivers in the measuring network is usually limited by considerations of reliability and economic factors. If the research cost can be reduced and reliability is increased, as a result of conditionnot seismic images are higher. The improvement of the qualitative characteristics of the seismic image leads to better information security decisions on practical drilling, which consequently reduces investment risks oil companies.

Traditional design seismic receiver used in a long time, is a geophone that is designed to measure the velocity of elastic waves. Now spread the accelerometers and seismic increasingly multi-axis or multi-component accelerometers. Multicomponent (triaxial) measurement give a much higher quality seismic images compared with uniaxial measurements. In the past, however, multicomponent measurements were economically uncompetitive compared to uniaxial due to additional investment in the system of registration of the emission measurement results and operational problems with the multi-analog receiver. Now with the advent of multi-component digital seismic receivers, such as receiving module Vectorseis®distributed on a commercial basis by the company Input/Output, Inc. (Input/Output, Inc.), glatthard, Texas, USA, multi-component digital recording of seismic data has become feasible. However, to realize all of the advantages of building seismic image on multicomponent data such multicomponent registration requires a higher density of seismic receivers in comparison with the one-component registration.

The most popular designs of devices for gathering seismic data used in the present time, contain direct cable connections with all seismic receivers measuring network. The output signal from the receiver is typically digitized and transmitted over the cable line on a high-speed backbone of the field processor or a field data collection tool. High-speed rail line, as a rule, are connected by direct cable connections with other field data collection tools and forth to a Central data - logging system, where all information is recorded on the tape.

Seismic data can be recorded on field tools of data collection for further processing, and in some cases the x command field data collection tool transmits commands and controls the transfer of information from the Central registration system data via radio. Thus, measuring the network can contain many miles of cable lines connecting the individual field data collection tools, lines of geophones themselves seismic receivers (sensors).

The above-mentioned construction of the cable system may lead to the need for use in measuring network cable lines with a length of more than 100 miles (about 160 km), which are to be placed on the surface of the study area. The deployment of the cable system length of many kilometers on the territory of the varied landscape requires specific equipment and great work, and often have to do this in areas where the environment may influence decisions about the nature of the shooting.

Figure 1 shows a typical device 100 of the seismic data acquisition. A typical device 100 includes a number ("spit") spatially separated blocks 102 seismic receivers. Each braid is normally connected through cabling with a means of collecting information 103 ("field data collection tool"), and several data collection tools and their associated braid of geophones are connected via the wiring 110 in line 108, which, in turn, through the cable 110 is connected with the node 104 (or hub device"). N is how many node devices and associated cable lines are usually connected together and then connected to the Central controller 106, containing the main recording unit (not shown). Typical to date unit of seismic receivers 102 contains the geophones designed for measuring the velocity of acoustic waves through the subsurface. Recently, as mentioned above, more and more applications are accelerometers are designed to measure accelerations that occur in the acoustic wave. Each block of seismic receivers may include one receiver, but may include more than one receiver for multi-component registration.

When installing in areas of seismic receivers 102 are typically spatial spread at least over distances of the order of tens of meters, i.e. from about 4.2 to 67,1 m (13.8 to 220,0 feet). Each anchor device 104 typically performs the processing of the registered signal and then stores the processed signal in the quality of seismic data for use in further work, as explained above. All the hub device 104 are connected in series or in parallel with the device a that performs interface functions between the Central controller 106 and hub devices 104.

In conventional cable device numerous data transmitted from one block of seismic receivers at the next set of seismic receivers on the field cf is DSTV data collection, before they reach the Central recording unit. Failure of any field data collection tools or the failure of any cable lead to the need to stop writing data to fix the problem, potentially causing the loss of large amounts of information. As a consequence, conventional cable devices have an average operational time of about 45%.

This design and the reliability indices used in the present cable devices described above, limit the capabilities of existing devices for gathering seismic data in terms of a substantial increase in the number of measuring channels. More modern cable devices use different levels of duplication, allowing to restore the measuring network, damaged as a result of a single accident. Such backup systems include multiple backup routes, backup telemetry and other equipment. These solutions, however, require more cables, which must be placed on the surface of the investigated area, and allow you to protect no more than two accidents on the line, which in itself can have a length of many kilometers.

The optimal distance between installed in areas of seismic receivers which may be different depending on the desired depth and type of seismic images. When the installation of seismic receivers in the desired place is faced with the difficulty of the type forbidden to work sites, the presence of rivers or roads, it leads to the necessity to change the distance between the geophones. To change the distance between the geophones in conventional cable devices are quite uncomfortable due to the fixed spatial intervals between the points of their connection. Typically, the staff seismic expedition sets the geophones on the scheduled place before you deploy the equipment seismic recording. Then use portable receivers for global navigation and location (GPS - Global Positioning System), and next to each of the thousands of pre-defined locations of the geophones in the soil pressed number (rapper). Thus, the deployment is typically used measurement system is a two-step process, requiring additional time, labor and additional costs to process seismic observations.

From the above description of a typical system of collecting seismic data suggest that there is an urgent need to have a measuring system with the flexibility to change the distance between isticheskie receivers. This will allow you to easily allocate hardware staff without worrying about incompatibility of the cables due to the spatial intervals of the installation of the receiving stations or special environmental conditions (e.g., Arctic conditions in shallow coastal waters or the desert require different types of cables).

In addition, there is a need to integrate the technology of global navigation systems and location (GPS) in a block design of seismic receivers to eliminate numerous personnel actions regarding the identification of the true coordinates of the locations of the receivers and deployment of equipment in these places. In existing devices error calculations can be related to the fact that the block of seismic receivers not combined with the data collection tool, so that information about the true position of the receiver is unavailable to the system analysis of the results of observation.

Disclosure of inventions

The present invention aims at solving the problems described above and related to the used cable systems, and is a single using the radio system for collecting seismic data, independent of the location of wireless seismic stations. This allows geophysical, and seismological staff to use the system most effectively is actively and without limitation, associated with fixed spatial intervals installation of seismic stations.

One aspect of the present invention is a device containing a block of seismic receivers located on the earth with the possibility of registration of elastic waves passing through the rock. Block seismic receivers generates a signal characterizing the elastic seismic wave for transmission to the means of collecting information, which is situated together with a block of seismic receivers and United with him to receive the signal. The means of collecting information is a memory unit for storing information characterizing the received signal, and the memory block contains a first memory for storing information characterizing the registered signal. A device for collecting seismic data also includes a second memory for storing the parameters of the location of the block of seismic receivers remotely remote Central controller and a communication tool, located with the block of seismic receivers and a means of collecting information with the possibility of direct communication with the remotely by the remote control unit. At least one parameter characterizing the coordinates of the location of the receivers, maintained or in a Central controller is/or in the memory block. In one preferred options block seismic receivers and the means of collecting information can be accommodated in one housing. In addition, the block of seismic receivers and a means of information gathering can be connected by cable. Block seismic receivers preferably may include a multi-axis accelerometer, velocity sensor seismic waves, such as a geophone or a pressure sensor seismic waves. Block seismic receivers may include multi-component seismic receiver or multi-component accelerometer with digital output signal. A device for collecting seismic data may include analog-to-digital Converter, housed in a block of seismic receivers to supply the digital signal from the block of seismic receivers, or analog-to-digital Converter, housed in the means of collecting information with the possibility of converting the analog signal from the block seismic receivers into digital data. The memory unit preferably can contain sub-blocks of non-volatile memory or a removable memory card, and the first drive information further comprise at least one of the hard drives MD or non-volatile removable memory card. The memory block may contain a means of inductive coupling for transmission stored in the block memory is information on external media or means of optical communication stored in the memory block information to external media. Block seismic receivers can be connected to a means of collecting information through connector seismic receivers, and the memory unit can also be connected to the sensor connector with the ability to retrieve stored in the memory block information through the above mentioned connector. Remotely located Central controller may be implemented with wireless control. Preferably, if the device for collecting seismic data contains a processor, associated with the means of collecting information and means of communication have means of software interacting with the tools software radiopropagation. Moreover, the means of communication may contain radiopropagation direct conversion wireless messages remotely with a remote Central controller. The means of collecting information may include a processor executing one of the functions of the local control, timing, or power management. In addition, the means of collecting information may include a power source associated with at least one of the following blocks: data collection tools, block seismic receivers, and means of communication, with the power supply, the power source may be removable, and may content the be-in rechargeable battery. Also the device for collecting seismic data may preferably contain located in the means of information gathering tool inductive coupling, United with rechargeable battery allows you to charge the rechargeable battery by means external to the means of collecting information power source, or connector, located on the means of collecting information and connected to the rechargeable battery allows you to charge the rechargeable battery by means external to the means of collecting information of the power source. Rechargeable battery may be a Nickel-metal hybrid battery, a lithium ion battery and lithium polymer battery. The device according to the invention may contain a receiver of a global navigation systems and location (GPS)associated with the block of seismic receivers with the ability to determine the parameters of the location of the seismic receivers.

Another aspect of the invention is a method of collecting seismic data and includes the recording of seismic waves through a block of seismic receivers located on the earth and transmitting the signal from the elastic wave tool of data collection, located in the area close to the location of the block of seismic receivers. Information characterizing the signal observed is carried out in the first memory (memory block), located in the means of collecting information, and the location of seismic receivers remain in the second drive information. The method also includes a direct connection means of gathering information remotely with a remote control unit via communication means, located in the area close to the location of the block of seismic receivers, and data collection tools. One or more parameters characterizing the coordinates of the location of receivers can be saved or in the Central controller and/or memory block. In a preferred embodiment, the block seismic receivers may include a speed sensor seismic waves or pressure sensor seismic waves, as well as the accelerometer, and in this case, the signal characterizes the recorded acceleration of the seismic waves. Preferably, if the block of seismic receivers contains multicomponent seismogenic, and in this case, the signal indicative of displacement in at least two directions. Block seismic receivers may also send a digital signal or an analog signal, which is digitized in the means of collecting information. The information in the memory unit preferably stored in non-volatile memory. The memory block preferably contains a removable memory, preferably implementing tlaut eat crowded memory with data collection tools and replace the memory with a new one. Preferably, if the memory block includes a means of inductive coupling, by means of which it can be transferred stored in the memory block information to external media. Also preferably, if the memory block contains the optical communication tool through which transfer is stored in the memory block information to external media. Block seismic receivers can be connected to a means of collecting information using a touch connector, the memory block may be connected to the connector, whereby carry out the retrieval of information from preserving its memory block. In the preferred implementation of the method of communication between remotely by the remote controller and the means of collecting information carry out wireless communication method. Via the processor, located in the means of collecting information, may also be local control, clocking, and power management. Preferably, if through the power source located in the means of collecting information, provide nutrition information-gathering tools, block seismic receivers or communication. As the power source preferably use a rechargeable battery, and additionally carry out re charging arahama battery by means external to the means of collecting information of the power source, which is connected with a means of collecting information by means of inductive coupling or connector. Preferably, if exercised by the timekeeping through diagrams time synchronization and processor located in the means of collecting information. Also predpochtiteljno, if you start collecting seismic data through schema synchronization time. However, preferably, if the relationship between dictation remote Central controller and a means of information gathering is carried out at synchronization information through timing, which is produced from dictation remote Central controller. When the process can start collecting seismic data via the signal remotely with a remote Central controller. In addition, the relationship between the means of collecting information and dictation remote Central controller on the current parameters of the seismic environment can be implemented in real time on the channel of the wireless communication system. Preferably, if the relationship between the means of collecting information and dictation remote Central controller of any specified parameters seismic conditions is carried out in real time on the channel of the wireless communication system.

The next aspect of the present invention is a system SEIS is on systematic observations, includes a Central controller and a block of seismic receivers remotely remote from the Central controller. Block of seismic receivers located on the earth for the reception of seismic waves in the earth and produces a signal characterizing the detected seismic wave. The recording unit co-located block of seismic receivers to receive the signal and to store information about the received signal in the first storage medium, located in the recording unit. The system also includes a second storage medium for storing the setting position of the seismic receivers. The means of communication is located in the approximate location with a block of seismic receivers and a means of collecting information for the purpose of direct communication with the Central controller. One or more parameters characterizing the coordinates of the locations of the receivers are stored or in the Central controller and/or memory block. The system can operate in a passive mode and an active mode using an external source of seismic waves. Preferably, if the system further comprises an energy source that is installed with the possibility of generating seismic waves in the earth. Preferably, if the means of communication involves two-way transceiver devil is roodney communication with the Central controller.

The next aspect of the present invention is a seismic acquisition system including a Central controller, a group of sensors installed in different locations with full coverage zone of possible seismic activity, and a group of recording units, each associated with a sensor according to the aforementioned locations and each of which has a direct connection with the Central controller.

The next aspect of the present invention is a device for collecting seismic data, including a group of sensors installed in different locations with full coverage zone of possible seismic activity, and a group of recording units, each associated with a sensor according to the aforementioned locations.

The next aspect of the present invention is a device for collecting seismic data, including remotely remote Central controller, the block seismic receivers installed with the possibility of registration of seismic waves and the signal characterizing the recorded seismic wave, the means of collecting information, which is situated together with a block of seismic receivers, and United him with the possibility of receiving the signal, the memory block is located in the means of collecting information with the possibility of storing the program information, characterizing the received signal, and radiopropagation direct conversion installed with the possibility of communication between the means of collecting information and remotely remote Central controller.

Brief description of drawings

New elements of the invention, as well as the invention itself may be best understood with the aid of the attached drawings together with the following description, where the same item numbers correspond to the same structural elements.

Figure 1 presents a typical device for collecting seismic data.

Figure 2 shows the conceptual solution design device in accordance with the present invention.

Figure 3 presents a schematic picture of the device represented in figure 2 in more detail.

Figure 4 shows one of the performances of wireless stations connected to it by a seismic receiver.

Figure 5 shows the multi-component seismic receiver for use in one of the performances of the present invention.

Figure 6 is given a schematic block seismic receivers in accordance with the present invention is an option with the possibility of installing an analog-to-digital Converter.

7 given a schematic representation of a wireless seismic stations in soo is according to the present invention, including an interface for connection with a block of seismic receivers with analog output.

On Fig given schematic illustration of a wireless seismic stations in accordance with the present invention, comprising an interface for connection with a block of seismic receivers with digital output.

Figure 9-11 shows several alternative versions of a wireless seismic stations in accordance with the present invention and

on Fig shows one way transmission of information stored in the memory card after collecting seismic data.

The implementation of the invention

Figure 2 shows the conceptual solution design device in accordance with the present invention. The device 200 includes a Central controller 202, which is in direct communication with each wireless station 208, which form the coverage area 210 of possible seismic activity to collect seismic data. Each wireless station 208 includes at least one seismic receiver 212 for registration of seismic waves. Used here is a direct link provides transmission of individual data streams that shown in figure 2 the dotted arrows. Data streams can go in two directions, transmitting control commands from the Central controller 202 to each wireless is atmostonce 208 and the control and/or selective, pre-processed seismic information from each wireless seismic stations 208 to the Central controller 202. The connection can be made in the form of radio signals transmitted and received by the Central controller via the corresponding antenna 204. The device 200 can operate in a passive mode locking of natural or accidental seismic waves passing through the earth's rocks. The device 200 can operate in an active mode using an artificial seismic source 206, producing a seismic wave is known in advance the magnitude of the point with a predetermined location.

Conceptual scheme of the present invention, is presented in figure 2, makes it obvious that its main advantages. Among other things, the use of individual wireless seismic stations 208 with the coverage area 210 of possible seismic activity eliminates the need for connecting cables, such as cable 110 that communicates in the form of a conventional electric line that was described above and shown in figure 1. The absence of cables provides the personnel conducting the exploration, the ability to move individual seismic receivers, without affecting the location of other seismic receivers in the coverage area of possible seismic activity. Another advantage of making is to reduce the overall weight of the equipment in the coverage area. Usually, in order to cover the entire area of possible seismic activity requires miles of cables, which can weigh up to 25 tons (of 55,000 pounds or more. Great weight slows down the work of staff and increases the cost due to the need for additional fuel, time and materials.

Another advantage of the present invention is the absence of the possibility of system failure due to failure of one element, which can lead to loss of information from at least one information line. Faulty cable or connection node of the faulty field tool for gathering information or faulty hub device in the conventional system, presented in figure 1, can lead to a significant loss of information. Proposed in the present invention the construction of the single wireless seismic station uses independent communication lines between devices collect seismic data and the Central recording system information. Line fault causes loss of information from only one station, during which repair record information from other stations may continue without a loss.

Figure 3 gives a more detailed schematic diagram of the device 200. The Central controller 202 includes a computer 300 to process the litter 302 and the memory unit 303. The operator can control the device 200 using the keyboard 306 and mouse or other input tool information 308, and the output medium information, such as a monitor 310. The relationship between remotely remote components in the coverage area 210 of possible seismic activity and the Central controller 202 is implemented using a transceiver block 312, located in the Central controller 202 together with the antenna 314.

The Central controller 202 communicates with each wireless station 208. Each wireless station 208, shown in the figure, consists of a wireless unit 316, antennas 318, compatible with the antenna 314 Central controller, and block 320 seismic receivers, recording acoustic waves passing through the earth. Block of seismic receivers located along with a corresponding wireless seismic recording system. In this text the term "co-located (approximate location)" means that objects of the same location are no further than a few tens of centimeters from each other. Thus, each block 320 seismic receivers can be connected to an appropriate wireless seismic recording system relatively short cable 322 length of about 1 meter, or block 320 seismic receivers can be mounted with wireless seismol what ncia 316 in a common housing 324, as shown in figure 4.

One seismic receiver used in block 320 seismic receivers may be multi-component receiver 326, as shown in figure 5. Multicomponent receiver shown in the figure, includes a three-component accelerometer that uses the technology of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS - micro electromechanical systems) and application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC Application-specific integrated circuits)used in the receiving modules Vectorseis®distributed on a commercial basis by the company Input/Output, Inc. The present invention, however, does not exclude the possibility of using receivers that measure the wave speed, type of conventional geophones, or use receivers that measure the pressure waves type of conventional hydrophones. Any type of seismic receivers capable of recording seismic waves, can use one or more of the advantages of the present invention. In addition, the present invention is useful when used as a single unit 320 of seismic receivers, as shown, and when using block 320 seismic receivers of the group of receivers, collected in a braid.

Figure 6 gives a schematic representation of one component 328 of one of the performances of block 320 of seismic receivers. Specialists in the art will understand that tregarron ntny receiver for reception of seismic waves can be produced by adding additional measuring elements to uniaxial, shown in the figure. Thus, additional illustrations are not necessary. Measuring component 328, shown in the figure, includes a sensing element 330 for recording of seismic waves passing through the earth. The sensing element determines the movement of the ground caused by seismic wave, and generates an analog output signal that characterizes this movement. Measuring component includes a transceiver circuit 332 for receiving the output signal from the sensing element and transmitting the output signal to the wireless station for further processing, storage and/or transmission via a wireless connection to the Central controller. As shown in Fig.6 using dotted lines, the block seismic receivers may include, if necessary, an analog-to-digital Converter 334 (ADC) to generate a signal with block 320 of seismic receivers in a digital form. When a block of seismic receivers produces an analog output signal, wireless seismic recording system 316 may include an ADC to convert the recorded analog signal in digital form.

Figure 7 gives a schematic view of a wireless seismic station 400 in accordance with the present invention, which operates as a data recorder, including the General interface for working with block analog seismic receivers (not shown). Wireless seismic recording system 400 is a device for collecting seismic data, which includes an interface 402 for receiving the output signal from the block seismic receivers. Shows the interface 402 includes a protection circuit, switching circuit, a preamplifier, a test generator, analog-to-digital Converter and a digital filter for pre-processing the received signal. The interface 402 is partially controlled by a field programmable matrix of logic elements (FPGA - field programmable gate array) and/or specialized application integrated circuit (ASIC) controller 404. Located at the station the local processor 406 processes the signal for selection of it stored information characterizing the seismic wave recorded by the unit of seismic receivers. To store information in the memory unit 408, also referred to as a memory block, it must be in digital form. The block of memory may be removable, as shown at position 408, and/or how to position a specifically designed for connection 410, through which access can be stored in memory information and/or transmission of information saved on the external storage medium 411. Connection 410 may be designed to be placed in the cable as shown in the figure, but may also be in the form of funds indukti is authorized or optical communication. These types of compounds are well known, so there is no need to describe them in detail here.

Memory blocks 408, a can be non-volatile and have a significant amount of memory to store information for subsequent collection or transfer. Physically, the memory block can be in the form of memory cards, removable hard drive MiniDisc, electrically erasable programmable random-access memory EEPROM (electrically-erasable programmable read only memory) or the like.

Card memory, also known as a flash memory card is a storage medium small volume and is used for storing digital information being suitable for use in seismic exploration. Flash memory is nonvolatile memory that can be erased or reprogrammed in the so-called memory blocks. This is one of the options EEPROM, in which, unlike flash memory, writing and deleting of information is done at the byte level. Thus, the update information in the flash memory is usually faster than EEPROM.

Interface with the Central controller 202 is implemented using communication tools, such as integrated transceiver circuit 412 and the antenna 414, tuned to the desired frequency of the received and transmitted signals for direct calls from the remote station to the Central controller 202. Shown in figure transceiver circuit 412 is a diagram of a receiver synthesizer-direct conversion transmitter, and its function as an alternative can be implemented using programmable radiopropagation. As another option, the send-receive circuit 412 may be performed in any suitable scheme, providing the functions of a transmitter and a receiver, for example, using the technology of superheterodyne. Antenna 414 may represent a type antenna VHF/UHF (VHF antenna). Other equipment may include radio frequency (RF) circuit 416 in the input stage and the power amplifier 418 to improve communication with the Central controller 202. This equipment may be preferably made in the form of a removable module 419, operating in the radio frequency range, which allows you to work with a wide frequency range using interchangeable antennas. Advantages of radiopropagation direct conversion is the possibility of working with a wide range of radio frequencies, a significant decrease in the overall dimensions of wireless seismic stations 400 and reduce the overall weight of the equipment for transport and installation in the field.

Local power is provided by power supply system 420, which includes a built-in rechargeable battery TIA 422 can be any suitable chemical composition, for example, it may be a Nickel-metal hybrid battery, lithium-ion or lithium-polymer battery of appropriate sizes for use in scale wireless seismic stations. The battery feeds power supply 424, which provides all subsequent schemes. The power unit is connected with the control circuit power supply 426 for power distribution between different local components of the system.

The power supply system further includes a charging device 428 and the interface 430 to connect the charger 428 with an external power source 431. The power indicator 432 shows the battery level and/or the remaining time of operation of the feed system 420. This indicator is of the usual construction, and further description is not required here.

The location parameters of each specific wireless seismic stations (i.e. latitude, longitude, azimuth, declination and so on) necessary for processing the data collected during observations. These parameters are set before conducting observations by introducing expected and nominal values of the location and orientation of the geophones, and in accordance with the present invention they can be adjusted. Location coordinates are stored in memory 303, 408 or Central controller, or wireless seismic stations 40. In one of the performances of wireless seismic recording system includes a receiver 434 global navigation systems and location (GPS) and an associated antenna 436. The GPS receiver used in this version of the invention, shown connected to the processor 406 and schema synchronization time 438, allowing you to determine the location parameters to improve the accuracy of seismic data and synchronization process of collecting seismic data for different seismic receivers. Alternatively, the location parameters can be passed to the Central controller and saved there, and synchronization can be carried out by the transmission of signals by radio VHF/UHF) regardless GPS. Thus, the built-in GPS receiver can be considered as a possible, but not obligatory element of the invention. The location parameters of seismic receivers can be determined using accelerometers and/or magnetic sensors and/or manually.

In one of the performances of the present invention is applied scheme 444 exit standby mode, which allows wireless stations to control the flow received from battery energy in various management regimes. Scheme 444 exit standby mode can be enabled by two sources - radio 412 or diagram time synchronization 438. The mode of low power consumption, for example, electricity is only supplied to the radio receiver 412 and circuit 444 exit standby mode. If via radio dispatched a special team to exit standby mode, which is decoded by the diagram out of standby, other blocks, such as the processor 406 may be included in the control circuit for participation in the further processing of commands and signals received by seismic receivers. Alternatively, the diagram out of standby mode can supply power to the radio receiver 412 at predetermined time intervals in accordance with the signals coming from the diagrams time synchronization 438. In these intervals, the radio can accept commands. If this time interval command is not received, the receiver 412 is turned off either automatically or by command from the schema exit standby mode.

In one of the performances of wireless seismic recording system 400 includes a sensor offsets 440 to determine undesirable displacements of the plant or the soil around the station, which can be used contactless geophones. Such undesirable movement can be caused by natural processes occurring in the vicinity of the station, for example, displacement of soil or similar processes. In addition, the offset can be caused by attempted theft article is ncii. To prevent the latter case, the wireless station may also include an audible alarm 442 to scare away thieves and animals from the station. The displacement sensor will detect any unwanted movement, the signal from the sensor will go to the appropriate interface or directly on the interface, for controlling the operation of the geophone.

The output signal of the displacement sensor is processed using the built-in processor 406, and then the processed signal is transmitted via a transceiver 412 Central controller to notify the operator about the undesirable displacements of the station. The signal from the GPS receiver can be processed together with the signal of the displacement sensor. This allows you to track the movement of wireless seismic stations in case of theft.

In one of the performances of the functions of the displacement sensor are in the same block 208 seismic receivers, which is used for reception of elastic waves. In the implementation described above and presented in figure 4, where the block of geophones integrated wireless seismic recording system, the output signal of the block is necessarily contains components that characterize the seismic activity, and features that characterize unwanted bias. The output signal is processed together with the output signal of the GPS receiver that allows one to determine the undesirable movement of the station. Thus, the output signal is transmitted to the Central controller 202, may include both seismic information, and information about unwanted displacements, information about health/hardware malfunction and other information relating to the operation of a wireless seismic stations 316 and/or 320 of seismic receivers.

On Fig presents the scheme of the wireless stations ("device for collecting seismic data") 500 in accordance with the present invention, which operates as a data recorder interface, connecting it to the power of geophones forming the digital signal as described above and shown in Fig.6. The interface 502 in accordance with this implementation does not require ADC, as in the version described above and presented in Fig.7. since the received signal is already in digital form. However, the ADC can be used in this version for digitizing the output signal of the displacement sensor 540. Shown in the figure, the interface 502 includes a protection circuit with an inductive connection a and digital filters 502b to bring to the General form of received digital signals and control signals FPGA/ASIC control circuit 504.

In this implementation, the interface 502 requires little or absolutely no control, however, the block of geophones partially controlled by the control circuit is 504, based on the matrix of logic elements of the FPGA and/or application of the integrated circuit ASIC. The local embedded processor 506 processes the signals to create the stored information about seismic waves, which registers the block seismic receivers. To store information in the memory unit 508, also referred to here as the memory, the information must be in digital form. The block of memory may be removable, as shown at position 508, and/or, as shown in position a equipped with a 510 connection for accessing stored information and/or transmission of information saved on the external storage medium 511. The 510 connection can be a cable type, as shown in the figure, or as a means of inductive or optical communication. Such compounds are known and further details are not described.

The memory block 508, a may be non-volatile and have a significant amount to store information with a view to its subsequent acquisition and transmission. The memory block may be made in the form of memory cards, removable hard drive MiniDisc, electrically erasable programmable random-access memory EEPRO, and so on.

Interface for connection with the Central controller 202 through communication means, such as a built-in premobilization scheme antenna 512 and 514, astrona on the desired frequency of the received and transmitted signals for direct calls remotely with a remote Central controller 202. Premobilization circuit 512 in one of the performances is a diagram of the direct conversion receiver synthesizer transmitter, and its function as an alternative can be performed using Programmierung of radiopropagation. As another option premobilization circuit 512 may be performed in any suitable scheme, providing the functions of a transmitter and a receiver, for example, using the technology of superheterodyne. Antenna 514 can be a type antenna VHF/UHF (VHF antenna). Other equipment may include radio frequency (RF) circuit in the input stage 516 and the power amplifier 518 to improve communication with the Central controller 202. This equipment is preferably in the form of a removable module 519, operating in the radio frequency range, which allows you to work with a wide frequency range using interchangeable antennas. Advantages of radiopropagation direct conversion is the possibility of working with a wide range of radio frequencies, a significant decrease in the overall dimensions of stations 500 and reduce the overall weight of the equipment for transport and installation in the field.

Local power is provided by power supply system 520, which includes a built-in rechargeable battery 522. Battery 522 may be any one of the right chemical composition, for example, it may be a Nickel-metal hybrid battery, a lithium ion battery or lithium polymer battery size appropriate for application across the station. The battery feeds power supply 524, which provides all subsequent schemes. The power unit is connected with the control circuit power supply 526 for power distribution between different local components of the system.

The power supply system 520 further includes a charger interface 528 and 530 to connect the charger 528 with an external power source 531. The power indicator 532 shows the battery level and/or the remaining time of the power system 520. This indicator is of the usual construction, and further description is not required here.

The parameters of the location of wireless stations (i.e. latitude, longitude, azimuth, declination and so on) necessary for processing the data collected during observations. These parameters are set before shooting through the introduction of expected and nominal values of the location and orientation of the geophones, and in accordance with the present invention they can be adjusted. Location coordinates are stored in memory 303, 508 either the Central controller or station 500. In one of the performances, the wireless station includes the t receiver 534 global navigation systems and location (GPS) and an associated antenna 536. The GPS receiver used in this version of the invention, connected to the processor 506 and schema synchronization time 538, allowing you to determine the location parameters to improve the accuracy of seismic data and synchronization process of collecting seismic data for different seismic receivers. Alternatively, the location parameters can be passed to the Central controller and saved there, and synchronization can be done by sending signals on the VHF radio (VHF/UHF) regardless GPS. Thus, the built-in GPS receiver can be considered as a possible, but not obligatory element of the invention. The parameters of the location and orientation of the geophones can be determined using accelerometers and/or magnetic sensors and/or manually.

In this version of the present invention is applied scheme 544 exit standby mode, which allows wireless stations to control the flow received from battery energy in various management regimes. Scheme 544 exit standby mode can be enabled by two sources - radio 512 or diagram time synchronization 538. In the mode of reduced power consumption, for example, electricity is only supplied to the radio receiver 512 and circuit 544 exit standby mode. If via radio PE udaetsya special command to exit standby mode, which is decoded by the diagram out of standby, other blocks, such as the processor 506 may be included in the control circuit for participation in the further processing of commands and signals received by seismic receivers. Alternatively, the diagram out of standby mode can supply power to the radio receiver 512 at predetermined time intervals in accordance with the signals coming from the diagrams time synchronization 538. In these intervals, the radio can accept commands. If this time interval command is not received, the receiver 512 is turned off either automatically or by command from the schema exit standby mode.

In one of the performances of wireless seismic recording system 500 includes a sensor offsets 540 to determine undesirable displacements of the station or the ground near the station, where it can be used contactless geophones. Such undesirable movement can be caused by natural processes occurring in the vicinity of the station, for example, displacement of soil or similar processes. In addition, the offset can be caused by attempted theft of wireless seismic. To prevent the latter case, the wireless station may also include an audible alarm 542 to scare away thieves and animals from the station. Date the IR offset will determine any unwanted movement, the signal from the sensor will go to the appropriate interface or directly on the interface, for controlling the operation of seismic receivers.

The output signal of the sensor offsets can be digitized by the ADC 541, and the digitized output signal can be processed using the built-in processor 506. The processed signal is transmitted to the Central controller via the integrated circuit transceiver 512 to notify the operator of the unwanted offsets. The output signal of the GPS receiver can be processed together with the output signal of the displacement sensor. This allows you to track the movement of wireless seismic stations in case of theft.

In one of the performances of the functions of the displacement sensor are in the same block 208 seismic receivers, which is used for reception of elastic waves. In the implementation described above and presented in figure 4, where the block of geophones integrated wireless seismic recording system, the output signal of the unit contains components that characterize the seismic activity, and features that characterize unwanted bias. The output signal is processed together with the output signal of the GPS receiver that allows you to determine unwanted displacement of the station. Thus, the output signal is transmitted to the Central controller 202 may include with Isichenko information and information about unwanted displacements, information about health/hardware malfunction and other information relating to the operation of a wireless seismic stations 316 and/or 320 of seismic receivers.

On Fig.9-10 shows several alternative versions of a wireless seismic stations in accordance with the present invention. Figure 9 shows the wireless seismic recording system 600, placed in a sealed enclosure 602 and has a built-in rechargeable battery 604. Short cable 608 connector 616 connects the station with a block of seismic receivers. Antenna 610 is installed on the housing 602. The door 612 accesses local memory 614 for storing information. The memory block 614 in one of the performances is removable, which is physically through the door 612.

Figure 10 shows the performance of wireless seismic stations 620, in many respects similar to that presented in Fig.9. However, the battery pack 622 is removable, which is reflected in the design of the housing 624. The advantage of this model is that the set of fully charged batteries can be lifted to a wireless seismic station 620 to replace discharged batteries without moving the station itself, caused by the necessity of transporting the station to the charger.

Figure 11 shows ispolneniye.bravo seismic stations 630, in many respects, similar to that presented on Fig.9-10. However, in this version, the battery pack 632 is removable, which is reflected in the design of the housing 634 and includes a map memory 636. The advantage of this model is that the memory card 636 stored therein seismic information can be replaced by a new (empty) map memory at the same time replacing discharged batteries. You should consider the fact that any of the performances presented on Fig.9-11, can be easily adapted for integrated seismic receivers, eliminating the need for cable 608.

On Fig shows one way transmission of information, stored on the memory card after collecting seismic data. The communication system 700 includes a Converter equipped with a tape drive mechanism for the magnetic tape 704. The tape drive mechanism 704, shown in the figure, is designed to work with magnetic tape 706, however, for the purposes of the present invention can use any suitable storage media.

After the data is recorded in the memory card 708 wireless seismic stations, information may be collected and transmitted in a single database of all stations involved in the process of seismic observations. This process is carried out through the your collection removable memory cards or sets of memory cards and electric batteries depending on the performance of wireless stations, used in exploration and transportation card(s) memory 708 to the data conversion device 700. The memory card is placed in the device 710 card reader or card reader memory combined with a battery charger if you are using a version of the invention, represented at 11. The data conversion device 702 reads data from memory cards 708 and compiles the data in a separate short entry. The data conversion device 702 also performs the processing of the data, and writes the combined data was processed into electronic files. These files are then written to a permanent storage media such as magnetic tape 706 tape mechanism 704.

Alternatively, instead of collecting the memory card, as described above, the data conversion device 700 can be transported to the location of the seismic receivers. Card reader memory 710 may be any type suitable for collaboration with the local transmitter, and can be connected with the equipment of wireless stations via cable, optical or inductive connection.

In one of the performances in conjunction with the device data transformation can be used in the computer equipped with a monitor and printer for data output to the monitor com is lutera to view and print data on the paper.

The methods proposed in the present invention are used for detection, recording and transmission of seismic data from the location of seismic receivers to the Central recording device in several alternative versions. In one of the performances of wireless seismic recording system has the construction described above and illustrated in Fig.7. Each wireless station is transported to the pre-selected mounting location in the zone of possible seismic activity. After its delivery to the place of the suitability of this location for future work is determined in real time based on the evaluation of topography, soil, potential interference, etc. where possible and necessary, specially prepared place for installation of the station. After preparation of the determined location of the wireless stations (i.e. latitude, longitude, azimuth, declination and so on), which is then entered as the adjusted system parameters. In one of the performances of these parameters are determined using a receiver of a global navigation system and locating GPS, which can pinpoint the location coordinates already installed seismic receivers. Other parameters can be found using a handheld compass, used St the, or by using one or more magnetometers in the block seismic receivers. Setup parameters can also be determined using multi-component accelerometers to determine the orientation of the mounted unit of the seismic receivers. In one version of the invention adjusted system parameters are recorded by the field staff with the hardware of the wireless stations. In another implementation of the invention adjusted parameters are entered into the Central controller. Possible execution of the invention, in which the adjusted system parameters are entered automatically after the system is active and the enable circuit output from standby mode using the coordinates of the location and orientation determined by the GPS receiver, magnetometer and/or other sensors located on the wireless stations, the unit of seismic receivers, or both.

As shown in figure 2-12, device 200 in accordance with the present invention includes a Central controller 202, remotely remote from multiple wireless seismic stations 208. Each wireless station 208 includes block 320 seismic receivers remotely remote from the Central controller 202. Each unit 320 seismic receivers installed to see the Les for the reception of seismic waves, passing through the earth. Such waves can be of natural origin or may be due to a source 206 of seismic waves. Block 320 seismic receivers produces a signal characterizing the recorded seismic wave, after which the recording unit 316, located together with the block of seismic receivers, receives this signal and stores the information about the received signal in the memory block 408 that is installed in the recording unit 316. The means of communication 412 is located in close location to the block of seismic receivers and a recording unit for implementing two-way radio communications with the Central controller.

It should be noted that the above description of embodiments of the present invention are illustrative and do not allow other restrictions than those described in the claims. The invention shown and illustrated here involves achieving all those goals and use of all of those advantages which are stated in this description.

1. A device for collecting seismic data to characterize subsurface structures, equipped with remotely remote Central controller unit seismic receivers that are installed on the surface of the earth with the possibility of registration of seismic waves in the subsurface and signal conditioning, characterizing seismic wave recorded by the unit of seismic receivers, means of collecting information located together with a block of seismic receivers and connected to it with the possibility of receiving the signal, the memory block is placed in the means of collecting information that can be stored parameters of position and orientation of only one block of seismic receivers, and means of communication, directly related wireless two-way communication tool to gather information and remotely remote Central controller.

2. The device according to claim 1, in which the block of seismic receivers includes a multi-component sensor.

3. The device according to claim 1, in which the block of seismic receivers includes a sensor selected from the group of sensors including a vehicle speed sensor, pressure sensor, accelerometer and multi-component sensor.

4. The device according to claim 1, in which the specified orientation is the azimuth.

5. The device according to claim 1, in which the specified orientation is declination.

6. The device according to claim 1, in which the memory block is made portable and can communicate with the data Converter.

7. The system of seismic observations for the characterization of subsurface structures, equipped with a Central controller, the space arrangement of seismic receivers, made with prob is the possibility of the perception of seismic data from subsurface structures, associated with the Central controller and includes at least one means of collecting information, containing a block of seismic receivers mounted on the surface of the earth with the possibility of registration of seismic waves in the ground and signal characterizing the recorded seismic wave emanating from subsurface structures, the recording block containing the memory block is located together with a block of seismic receivers coupled with the possibility of receiving the signal and storing in digital format characterizing the received signal information and performed with setting the location and orientation of only one block of seismic receivers, the processor associated with the block of seismic receivers and recording block, and means of communication, raspolojennoe together with a block of seismic receivers and a recording unit with the possibility of direct communication with the Central controller, and a source of seismic waves is made with the possibility of creating seismic waves of a given magnitude and point to a pre-defined location.

8. The system according to claim 7, in which the recording unit is portable and can communicate with a data Converter, which compiles the data in a short entry.

9. The system according to claim 7, in which b is OK memory recording unit configured to accept a parameter of location and orientation, introduced at the site of placement of the seismic receivers.

10. The system according to claim 7 wherein the Central controller is configured to receive characteristics of the location and site of placement of seismic receivers and adjustments setting the location and orientation with regard to the above characteristics.

11. The system of claim 10, in which the orientation is the azimuth.

12. The system of claim 10, in which the orientation is declination.

13. The method of collecting seismic data, in which the connecting unit of the seismic receivers with the means of collecting information, set the block seismic receivers on the earth's surface, defines the location and orientation of the block seismic receivers, retain the option of location and orientation in the means of collecting information is recorded seismic wave through a unit of seismic receivers, transmit characterizing the registered wave signal from block seismic receivers in the means of collecting information, which come together with a block of seismic receivers, retain characterizing the specified signal information in the means of collecting information, correlated parameter location and orientation with corresponding signal from one block of seismic receivers and carry out direct communication with the dis is antiono remote Central controller via a communication means, which come together with a block of seismic receivers and a means of collecting information.

14. The method according to item 13, in which the location of the block of seismic receivers and data collection tools together, the means of collecting information is placed in the housing separately from the block seismic receivers.

15. The method according to item 13, in which the specified orientation is the azimuth.

16. The method according to item 13, in which the specified orientation is declination.

17. The method according to item 13, which further convey and connect the memory block with the data Converter.



 

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