Method for cold generation

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: working fluid is a low-boiling liquid, at the same time two tight tanks are used made as capable of operation at the pressure of up to 2.5 MPa, which communicate with each other by means of a steam pipeline equipped with a controlled relief valve. In the first one the low-boiling liquid is placed at the ambient temperature, preferably, below -20C, and pressure of around 0.5 MPa, afterwards, the specified tight tanks are thermally insulated, and the tank surface heat exchange is arranged in the tank filled with the low-boiling liquid with the flow of the coolant having the temperature higher than the ambient temperature during the tank filling with the low-boiling fluid. When the pressure of the low-boiling fluid in the cavity of the first tank reaches the level of preferably 2.0 MPa, vapours are discharged from it into the cavity of the second tank, at the same time the heat is released from the surface of the second tank into the coolant flow with the temperature below the temperature of low-boiling substance vapours or to the environment. After thermodynamic characteristics of the working fluid are balanced in both tanks, and prior to recovery of cold stock in the first tank, the condensate is returned into its cavity, emptying the second tank.

EFFECT: higher cold efficiency of the plant and reduction of its weight and dimensions characteristics.

3 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to a method of cooling to the cooling units, and more specifically to devices, providing a natural accumulation of cold.

A method of obtaining cold, including consistently produced in a closed loop expansion, application of heat, compression and heat from the working fluid (Chervyakov S. Kulakovsky A.I. fundamentals of refrigeration cases, M.: Vysshaya SHKOLA, 1988, pp.33-34).

The disadvantage of this method is that its coefficient of performance is less than theoretical refrigeration coefficient of volume and energy loss in the compression process. Volumetric loss of cooling capacity associated primarily with the so-called "dead" space between the piston of the compressor and the cylinder head. When the compressor is operating in this "dead" space remains newtoncotes a certain amount of the working fluid. In addition to the loss of cooling capacity due to the "dead" space, there are losses caused by the fact that the working body meets resistance with the passage of suction and discharge valves. When this happens partial throttle (low pressure) of the working fluid, which also leads to energy losses and the retention of the full release of working fluid from the compressor cylinder. To reduce the cooling capacity is also influenced by plooman between the hot walls of the cylinder and remaining in it working fluid, between the cooled walls of the cylinder and the outside air, as well as leaks in the valves, piston rings, etc. (ibid, p.39).

Thus, the disadvantages of the known solutions are sufficiently high energy intensity of the process of cold, because "development" cold is done by modifying thermodynamic characteristics of the system artificially, by means of the compressor (due to the volume change of the working body), which simultaneously ensures the movement of the working fluid from the evaporator to the condenser. Thus, for the production of cold necessary supply of electrical energy.

Also known is a method of obtaining cold, including accumulation in the cold season the energy of cold in the working volume of the body of its heat exchange with the environment, termopolirovannoe volume of the working fluid, the selection of the accumulated cold fluid, pumping the last executed by the heat exchange with the volume of the working fluid that has accumulated cold (Mironov N. the Construction and operation of underground refrigerators. Proceedings of the North-East interdisciplinary scientific research Institute, issue 15, publishing house "Nauka", Moscow, 1967).

The disadvantage of this method is the low efficiency of cooling capacity, since the working medium is water. Extracted the e energy of cold in this way is due to the change in the physical state of the working fluid, in particular water (melting ice, snow), and its temperature. The latent heat absorbed a certain quantity of substance when changing its physical state (solid to liquid), is much lower (depending on the substance)than the heat of the phase transition from liquid to gaseous. For example, for water latent heat of melting at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 0 deg. Celsius is equal to 80 kcal/kg, while the latent heat of vaporization at 100 degrees Celsius 539 kcal/kg Thus, the use for energy cold temperature changes and physical state of the working fluid is less efficient than using the latent heat of the phase transition from liquid to gaseous, resulting in refrigerating machines running on the water, have a high weight and size characteristics.

The challenge which seeks the proposed technical solution is to increase the efficiency of the method according to the baseline data.

To achieve the result is to increase the efficiency of the cooling capacity of the installation, ensuring the implementation of the method and the reduction of its mass-dimensional characteristics. In addition, the installation does not affect the environment. This permits the associated production t is plooy energy and/or electrical energy.

The problem is solved in that a method of obtaining cold, including accumulation in the cold season the energy of cold in the working volume of the body, its heat exchange with the environment, termopolirovannoe volume of the working fluid, the selection of the accumulated cold fluid, pumping the last executed by the heat exchange with the volume of the working fluid that has accumulated cold, characterized in that the working medium is a low-boiling liquid, while use two sealed tank, made with the possibility of operation at pressures up to 2.5 MPa, which communicated with each other by steam, is supplied with a controlled by-pass valve, while in the first of them place a low-boiling liquid at ambient temperature, preferably below -20C and a pressure of about 0.5 MPa, and then, teploizolirovat named pressurized tanks and arrange the heat transfer surface of a tank filled with low-boiling liquid with the flow of the coolant temperature, the greater the ambient temperature during filling of the tank with a low-boiling liquid, and then, when the pressure of vapors of low-boiling liquid in the cavity of the first tank level preferably 2.0 MPa to produce a discharge of vapor from it into the cavity of the second tank, while organizing the heat dissipation from the surface of the second bakau the flow of refrigerant temperature, lower temperature vapors of low-boiling substances, or in the environment. In addition, the kinetic energy of the flow of vapors of low-boiling liquid is used to drive a turbine generator. In addition, after alignment of thermodynamic characteristics of the working fluid in both tanks and before the stock recovery cold in the first tank condensate return in its cavity, releasing from the second tank.

Comparison of the characteristics of the claimed solution with signs analogues and prototype demonstrates its compliance with the criterion of "novelty".

The characteristics of the characterizing portion of the claims, solves the following functional tasks:

The sign "...as a working body use low-boiling liquid..." provides the possibility of using the latent heat of vaporization of low-boiling substances for extracting energy from the cold, it also allows the possibility of multiple charging kholodoproizvodstva installation cold, then use the past to solve problems cooling. In addition, it is possible to use the refrigeration unit for the purpose of generation of heat and electricity.

The signs are to be used to implement the method two pressurized tanks "are designed to work at pressures up to 2.5 MPa, which is haunted communicated with each other by the line", provide the ability to reset vapors of low-boiling liquid from the first tank, thereby maintaining the process of evaporation and contribute to the preservation of health equipment. In addition, it is possible to accumulate relatively large amounts of energy cold.

A sign indicating that the steam supply "driven by-pass valve", provides a cooling system that implements the claimed method is effective for its parameters.

Signs indicating that the first tanks "place low-boiling liquid at ambient temperature, preferably below -20C and a pressure of about 0.5 MPa" provide the ability to accumulate in the first tank large enough supply of cold.

Signs indicating that after filling the first tank teploizolirovat named pressurized tanks"minimize the loss of cold and heat generated during operation of the refrigeration installation that implements the claimed method, and also help to increase the resource of his work "holodostojkie".

Signs indicating that after filling the first tank will be heat transfer surface of a tank filled with low-boiling liquid with the flow of the coolant temperature, the greater the ambient temperature during filling of the tank discaripe is it fluid", provide drainage of cold to the consumer and stimulate the system as holodostojkie, because changing the parameters of thermodynamic state in the cavity of the first tank.

Signs "...when the pressure of vapors of low-boiling liquid in the cavity of the first tank level preferably 2.0 MPa to produce a discharge of vapor from it into the cavity of the second tank..." provide pressure relief in the cavity of the first tank and thereby the continuation of the process of vaporization (accompanied by absorption of heat) in the first tank. This optimizes the operating parameters of the refrigeration unit that implements the declared cooling method).

Signs "...organize the removal of heat from the surface of the second tank in the flow of the refrigerant temperature, a lower temperature vapors of low-boiling substances or the environment..." provide for the utilization of heat generated in the process of "developing" cold and accelerate the process of condensation of vapors of low-boiling liquid is trapped in the second tank.

Signs of the second claim of the invention provide the ability to generate electricity.

The signs of the third claim of the invention provide the possibility of repetition of charging cold refrigeration unit that implements the method.

The invention is illustrated in the drawing, which shows the installation diagram, R is alishouse method.

The drawing shows the evaporator 1 (first tank), the capacitor 2 (second tank), line 3, the steam line 4 controlled, normally closed valve 5 is controlled bypass valve 6, the means of energy extraction cold 7 tool allocation energy heat 8 heat insulating housings 9, sealed hatches 10 made with the possibility of messages surfaces 11 and 12, respectively, of the evaporator 1 and the condenser 2. Besides, the means 13 of the control unit and controls the operating parameters 14, the turbine 15 of the generator 16.

Using the inventive method it is expedient in transitional and warm seasons (spring, summer, autumn) for cooling, preferably in areas with temperature of the coldest five-day week in the winter time less than 20C. as the working fluid in the refrigeration facility implements the claimed method, use low-boiling substance (different types of freons, ammonia and so on). In the means of energy extraction cold 7 and heat 8 used antifreeze liquid (antifreeze) and water. In this system energy recovery cold from the battery in a charged state is due to the evaporation of low-boiling substances in the evaporator 1 with the change of thermodynamic characteristics of the system by opening the bypass valve 6 in the steam line 4 (davlenie the capacitor at this time is significantly less than the pressure in the evaporator 2).

The evaporator 1, the condenser 2, the pipe 3 and the steam line 4 are designed to work at pressures up to 2.5 MPa. Normally closed valve 5, when his discovery, allows gravity to move low-boiling liquid or condensate from the condenser 2 to the evaporator 1. Structurally, the normally closed valve 5 and controlled by-pass valve 6 does not differ from known devices of similar purpose. The means 13 to control the operation of the installation can be made on the basis of known measuring devices of similar purpose. Controls the operating parameters 14 (manometers, thermometers and the like) performed in a known manner, with data transmission means 13 of the control unit (in principle, nodes 13 and 14 are similar to those used in the construction of the vapor compression refrigerators).

theoretical basis of this method is the second law of thermodynamics. The main heat transfer based on phase transitions - evaporation and condensation. The operation of the refrigeration unit that implements the claimed method, based on the same thermodynamic laws as the work of the vapor compression refrigerator. The principal difference is that in the framework of the inventive method the change of thermodynamic characteristics of the system is a natural way is, while in the vapor compression refrigerator this change is provided by artificial means, by means of the compressor (the change of temperature and the volume of the working fluid due to a change in its specific volume with a supply of electric energy).

The claimed method is implemented as follows. A device that implements the claimed method, set outdoors, protect from direct sunlight, precipitation, and other factors that could affect its performance. When initial conditions (for example, when the temperature T=20C, P=1.5 MPa) evaporator 1 (first tank) and the capacitor 2 (second tank) is filled with low-boiling substance (hereinafter referred to as freon) in equal quantities. Sealed manholes 10 when it opened, allowing messages with the environment (atmosphere) surfaces 11 and 12, respectively, of the evaporator 1 and the condenser 2. In the process of lowering the temperature of the surrounding air when the seasons change, part of freon, which is in a gaseous state, is condensed on the walls of the tank and flows down to the bottom of the vessels. When the temperature of the surrounding air, which is considered the minimum for a given locality, open valve 3 and the entire liquid refrigerant from the condenser 2 flows into the evaporator 1 under the action of gravitational forces, and part of the gaseous refrigerant from the evaporator 1 moves the I to the condenser 2. Possible option in which the evaporator 1 (first tank) just fill out the amount of freon needed to implement the method in the condenser 2 (second tank) do not fill the low-boiling substance), but this option is possible when outdoor temperature corresponding to the temperature of the charging of the evaporator is cold (at T=-20C).

When valve 3 is open, the evaporator 1 and the condenser 2 can be viewed as communicating vessels, but when closed they become independent tanks. Due to the fact that the main part of the refrigerant contained in the condenser 2 in the liquid state, has flowed into the evaporator 1 at a temperature at which occurred the flow of the working fluid, after closing of the valve 3, the pressure in the evaporator 1, which contains significantly more refrigerant will be equal to the pressure in the condenser 2, but with increasing temperature the pressure in their cavities will change unevenly. With increasing temperature, for example, to a value at which the charging of the system with the refrigerant pressure in the evaporator 1, containing a greater quantity of freon, will be several times higher than the pressure in the condenser 2. This provides independent movement of the gaseous phase of the refrigerant vapor from the evaporator 1 to the condenser 2 through the bypass valve 4, otregulirovannogo is at a certain level of pressure. A system of cavities of the evaporator 1 and the condenser 2 will tend to equilibrium, thus, according to the laws of thermodynamics, in the evaporator 1, the refrigerant in a liquid state, will evaporate, taking heat energy equal to the latent heat of vaporization for a given substance, and move into the condenser 2, thereby causing the cooling of the evaporator 1 and the heating of the capacitor 2. To compensate for the heat loss of the evaporator 1 thereto by means of energy extraction cold 7 is supplied thermal energy that must be absorbed. The condenser 2, meanwhile, is cooled by convective heat exchange with the environment, or the heat transfer through the means of energy extraction heat 8 and the transmission of any other user of thermal energy (for example, a system of hot water supply of buildings, heating swimming pools and other - not shown), this can cause partial condensation of the refrigerant on the walls and the bottom of the condenser 2.

In the described installation of the claimed method can be repeated many times.

The invention can be used for energy cold, and for heat and electric energy. The production of electric power is possible with the steam turbine 4 15 generator 16.

1. A method of obtaining cold, including nakoplenie is in the cold season the energy of cold in the working volume of the body of its heat exchange with the environment, termopolirovannoe volume of the working fluid, the selection of a stored cold heat carrier pumping the last executed by the heat exchange with the volume of the working fluid that has accumulated cold, characterized in that the working medium is a low-boiling liquid, while use two sealed tank, made with the possibility of operation at pressures up to 2.5 MPa, which communicated with each other by steam, is supplied with a controlled by-pass valve, with the first place of the low-boiling liquid at ambient temperature preferably below -20C and a pressure of about 0.5 MPa, and then teploizolirovat named pressurized tanks and arrange the heat transfer surface tank filled with low-boiling liquid with the flow of the coolant temperature, the greater the ambient temperature during filling of the tank with a low-boiling liquid, then when pressure vapor low-boiling liquid in the cavity of the first tank level preferably 2.0 MPa to produce a discharge of vapor from it into the cavity of the second tank, while organizing the heat dissipation from the surface of the second tank in the flow of the refrigerant temperature, a lower temperature vapors of low-boiling substances, or in the environment.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the kinetic energy of the flow of vapor to the bottom of hacipasa fluid used to drive a turbine generator.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that after alignment of thermodynamic characteristics of the working fluid in both tanks and before the stock recovery cold in the first tank condensate return in its cavity, releasing from the second tank.



 

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