Method of generating x-rays and x-ray monochromator

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method of generating X-rays involves exposing the diffracting layer of a monochromator crystal with initial X-rays and optical radiation in the visible and/or infrared region with intensity which varies along the diffracting layer of the monochromator crystal, where said monochromator crystal is based on a crystal in which under the effect of optical radiation and depending on the optical radiation, interplanar distance in the diffracting layer changes. The monochromator crystal is exposed to optical radiation with intensity which linearly varies along one of the coordinates of the diffracting layer. Versions of X-ray monochromators for realising the method of generating X-rays are disclosed.

EFFECT: broader functional capabilities when used in high-resolution X-ray optical circuits by providing a wide bandwidth for the monochromator crystal.

18 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to x-ray optics, namely the management techniques of x-ray radiation using x-ray monochromators, and may find application in x-ray structural analysis in the study of crystal structures, including the technique of x-ray spectrometry, x-ray diffractometry, x-ray topography and other

The invention relates to techniques for x-ray analysis of structures using crystal monochromators, help manage their bandwidth x-ray radiation. The bandwidth management x-ray emission is due to the changing conditions of the diffraction reflections of the source x-ray flux from the reflecting surface of the crystal-monochromator. Formed by the crystal-monochromator x-rays diffracted by the investigated crystal allows you to get information on the real structure, such as the size and shape of the blocks and their defects.

The selection of crystals for the manufacture of monochromators is determined by their reflectivity, diffraction angle and the width of the curve of the swing. Currently, crystal monochromators are made on the basis of such crystals as Si, Ge, GaAs, dihydrophosphate ammonium, potassium dihydrophosphate and other

Enhancements p nenovsky crystal monochromators are associated with the management of their diffraction characteristics, consistent with the objectives and tasks when conducting case studies.

To increase the intensity of the generated x-ray radiation using two crystal monochromator, which set a certain way relative to each other and to the plane of incidence of the primary x-ray radiation (for example, EN 2260218 C2, 2005.01.10; EP 1739687 A2, 2007.01.03). To improve spectral resolution and extension of the spectral range is widely used admission offset crystal monochromators or its rotation around the axis (for example, Rechentechnik. Handbook edited Via. 1980, Meters, machinery, kN. 2, 62-66; US 2004218718 A1, 2004.11.04). To ensure the desired shape and size of the focal spot of the radiation use crystal monochromators, curved in two directions (for example, FR 2858104 A1, 2005-01-28). For dynamic adjustments of convergence of the x-ray beam employ the technique of mechanical action on the crystal-monochromator, resulting in changing its geometric shape and, respectively, the geometric shape of the diffracting layer (RU 2278432 C2, 2005.10.20). The mechanical effect is carried out using thermal expanding elements or piezoelectric elements mounted on the outside side of the crystal-monochromator.

The present invention is directed to the implementation of dynamic control is possible bandwidth x-ray crystal monochromators, determining the spectral content of the generated x-ray radiation and the divergence of the diffracted from the crystal-monochromator x-ray radiation, as well as their resolution by changing the half width of the curve swing crystal-monochromator characterizing the diffraction of the crystal-monochromator when you change its angle. The dynamic change in the spectral composition and the divergence of the generated x-ray radiation, leading to change of the half width of the curve swing sample, allows you to enhance the usefulness of research.

The known method changes the spectrum of the generated x-ray radiation based on the change of the diffraction properties of the crystal-monochromator through an awakening of ultrasonic vibrations (Aeiou and others, ZhETF, 2005, t, Vol.5 (11), s-895). Under the influence of ultrasonic vibrations in the crystal-monochromator is a standing wave, elastically deforming the crystal lattice.

The disadvantage of this method is the difficulty of forming and maintaining a standing wave with parameters that lead to the desired change of the diffraction properties and, consequently, to change their bandwidth. This fact limits the application of the method.

The closest analogue of the claimed method is a method, which is th, as claimed, aims to dynamically change the resolution of the x-ray device by changing the parameters of the curve swing crystal monochromator (DE 102005056829 B4, 2006-08-17). This method involves the use of a crystal monochromator, which is irradiated with the original x-ray radiation and the effects on crystal monochromator with a constant electric field, varying applied to the crystal voltage from 0 to 1000 C.

Method implemented in the x-ray monochromator, in which the crystal-monochromator located between the strips, which is applied to the electrodes for connection to the voltage source. The monochromator is made on the crystal SriO3with the perovskite structure, which at room temperature has a cubic symmetry. The monochromator manufactured by one of the known methods, intended for the manufacture of such structures (a method of ion bombardment, alloying, chemical precipitation).

The known method has a number of disadvantages that make problematic the use in x-ray optics systems requiring high range resolution and a large aperture, which severely limits its use. The first disadvantage of this method is that it uses a crystal monochromator with initially high poluchili the th curve swing 0,13° (468 seconds of arc), therefore, this crystal monochromator may not be used in x-ray optics schemes with higher resolution (∆D/d<10-4where ∆ d is the change in interplanar distances). The second disadvantage of this method is that the change of the half width of the curve swing at the Appendix to the crystal-monochromator electric field strength of 500 V is changed about three times, which is insufficient for wide application of this method. The third disadvantage of this method is rather low coefficient of diffraction reflections from the crystal-monochromator SrTiO3(diffraction reflection [001]), the limiting luminosity. In addition, the production of crystal-monochromator-based crystal SriO3with parameters, heterogeneous evolving under the action of a constant electric field is quite challenging.

Technical result achieved when using the proposed method and the monochromator, is to expand the opportunities of its application in x-ray optics schemes with higher resolution by providing the bandwidth change of the crystal-monochromator within wide limits, increasing intensity, as well as the simplicity of its implementation. The advantage of the proposed method may also include the possibility of its use in studied and crystals with a block structure, what is relevant for solving a number of practical problems.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of producing x-ray radiation, comprising a radiation reflective surface with a diffracting layer of crystal-monochromator x-ray source of radiation and the external influence on the crystal-monochromator, the external influence on the crystal-monochromator carried by exposure to optical radiation of visible and/or infrared wavelength range with an intensity varying along diffracting layer of the crystal-monochromator, using a crystal monochromator-based crystal, the scattering layer which under the influence of optical radiation in accordance with changes interplanar distance.

It is advisable to irradiate the crystal-monochromator optical radiation of intensity, linearly varying along one of the coordinates of the surface of his diffracting layer.

The intensity of the optical radiation can be changed by using optical transparency.

You can modify the intensity of optical radiation using a multimedia projector.

To meet demand changes in the interplanar distances in the diffracting layer under the influence of optical radiation and accordingly can be used is the substance of the crystal monochromators based on quartz, or lithium fluoride, or ammonium dihydrophosphate, or potassium dihydrophosphate, or biphthalate potassium, or calcite.

It is advisable to use radiation with a power density of 0.1÷100 W/cm2.

X-ray monochromator according to the invention contains, as is known, the crystal-monochromator with a diffracting layer and is characterized by the fact that it introduced a source of optical radiation of the visible and/or infrared wavelength range, while the crystal-monochromator performed on the crystal, the scattering layer which under the influence of optical radiation in accordance with changes interplanar distance.

When using optical radiation source that generates a flow with a uniform intensity distribution in the plane of its cross section in the x-ray monochromator introduced the means for forming the optical radiation from an inhomogeneous intensity distribution along the diffracting layer.

As a means for forming optical radiation from an inhomogeneous intensity distribution along the diffracting layer, you can use optical transparency.

Crystal monochromator can be made on the basis of quartz or lithium fluoride, or ammonium dihydrophosphate, or potassium dihydrophosphate, or biphthalate potassium, or cal the ITA.

In one embodiment, the x-ray monochromator crystal monochromator with an outside surface has altered the basis of, in the center of the hole, which is the output end of the optical fiber is optically connected to the input end with a source of optical radiation.

The means for forming the optical radiation from an inhomogeneous intensity distribution along the diffracting layer can be positioned between the input end of the optical fiber and the optical radiation source.

The means for forming the optical radiation from an inhomogeneous intensity distribution along the diffracting layer can be positioned between the output end of the optical fiber and the crystal-monochromator.

In another embodiment, the x-ray monochromator crystal-monochromator, you can perform the notch and place it as a source of optical radiation.

This monochromator can be provided with a means for forming optical radiation from an inhomogeneous intensity distribution along the diffracting layer, which is installed at the outlet of the source of optical radiation.

In this embodiment, as means for forming the optical radiation from an inhomogeneous intensity distribution along the diffracting layer may be the used optical transparency.

Crystal monochromator can be mounted outside thermostatic surface on the base.

As the source of optical radiation can be used with a multimedia projector.

The invention is illustrated figure 1-4. 1 and 2 illustrate implemented by the claimed method, the temperature distribution along the diffracting layer of the crystal-monochromator (figure 1) and the corresponding rocking curves of the x-ray monochromator (figure 2). Figure 3 and 4 schematically depicts variants of implementing the inventive method of x-ray monochromators, differing by the location of the source of optical radiation.

The basis of the invention is the proposal to change the bandwidth of the crystal-monochromator and the divergence of the diffracted by x-ray radiation by low-temperature heating of the crystal-monochromator optical radiation of visible and/or infrared wavelength range, for which use crystal monochromator on the basis of such crystals, in which the heating their optical radiation changes the interplanar distance in the diffracting layer in accordance with the intensity distribution of the incident radiation flux. Such requirements are met crystals with a coefficient of thermal expansion (5÷100)×10-6K-1and thermal conductivity(0,3÷10) W m -1K-1that is typical of industrial manufactured rock salt (NaCl), ammonium dihydrophosphate (ADP), potassium dihydrophosphate (KDP), biphthalate potassium (CT), calcite, caso3. The advantage of these crystals is that they are characterized by a high coefficient of diffraction reflection. For example, the diffraction reflection from KDP crystal (diffraction reflection [200]), more than an order of magnitude greater than the coefficient of the diffraction reflections from the crystal-monochromator SrTiO3(diffraction reflection [001]).

The change of the lattice parameters of these crystals under the influence of optical radiation is reversible and quick, and allows you to dynamically control their diffraction properties expressed in the change of their bandwidth and divergence of the generated x-ray radiation.

Implementation of the required changes interplanar distances in the diffracting layers of these crystals is carried out using low power optical sources, forming in the plane of the diffracting layer radiation with a power density of 0.1÷100 W/cm2.

Arising under the action of optical radiation from an inhomogeneous intensity distribution in the plane of the diffracting layer temperature change leads to a change in interplanar RA is standing and, accordingly, the change in the diffraction characteristics of the crystal-monochromator. In this case the curve of the swing of the monochromator, which determines the transmittance spectrum of the radiation and its divergence is associated with the temperature distribution in the scattering layer. The width of the curve swing in the above-mentioned crystals varies about 20 times that far exceed the capabilities of the nearest equivalent.

When the power density of optical radiation on the surface of the diffracting layer of the crystal-monochromator 0.1÷100 W/cm2the width of the curve swing crystal-monochromator varies in the range 10÷200 seconds of arc, which corresponds to the change of the bandwidth of ~10-3Å (in the near equivalent of the half-width of the curve swing changes 3 times with 0.15 to 0.45 degrees, in the present method, the width of the curve swing changes 20 times with 10 angular seconds to 200 seconds of arc).

The desired intensity distribution can be implemented using optical transparency or by using as the source of optical radiation multimedia projector. The latter allows you to change the intensity distribution falling on the crystal-monochromator optical radiation in a wide range.

The most simple in the technical implementation and the calculation is the case in which in ensenaste incident on the crystal-monochromator optical radiation varies linearly along one of the coordinates of the diffracting layer.

Thus, for studies of a particular object when implementing the proposed method it is necessary to set the output power of the optical radiation source and, if necessary, to complete the research object, the range of variation of output power. The output power of the optical radiation and the characteristics of the crystal (the coefficient of thermal expansion and coefficient of thermal conductivity), which is made crystal monochromator, uniquely define the bandwidth of the crystal-monochromator and, respectively, the half-width of the curve of the swing.

To obtain the desired characteristics of the generated x-ray radiation can be used for software modeling. Modeling takes into account the wavelength of x-ray radiation and the characteristics of the crystal-monochromator.

Presented in figure 1 temperature distribution corresponds to a different distribution of the power flux density of optical radiation incident on the diffracting layer, in this case the curve is parallel to x-axis corresponds to the mode of the monochromator in the absence of irradiation, with the growth of the power flux density the temperature gradient increases - curves "a", "b" and "C" respectively (refer to figure 1: T is the temperature, l is the length along one of the coordinates of the surface of the diffracting layer of crystal-mon is chromator). Figure 2 illustrates the rocking curves corresponding to the distribution of temperature in figure 1 (I) is a value proportional to the intensity of the generated x-ray radiation when exposed to the diffracting layer of optical radiation, ω - angle x-ray reflection from the surface of the diffracting layer). Its rocking curve, symmetric about the ordinate axis corresponds to the mode of the monochromator in the absence of irradiation. Rocking curves show that increasing the flux density of radiation power incident on the diffracting layer of crystal-monochromator, changing their width and, consequently, the resolving power of the monochromator, allowing you to generate x-ray radiation with a broader spectrum and divergence.

The method can be implemented on the monochromators shown in figure 3 and 4.

Shown in figure 3 monochromator contains crystal monochromator with 1 diffracting layer 2 and remote from the crystal-monochromator 1 optical radiation source (not shown). As the source of optical radiation may be used any known source, forming a monochromatic or broadband optical radiation of such intensity that the flux density of the radiation power along the layer 2 is 0.1÷100 W/cm2. The source of optical radiation may shall be made adjustable output power, and with a constant output power. The use of a source of optical radiation is determined by the purpose of the x-ray monochromator, which, in turn, determines the selection means to change the intensity of the generated radiation along the diffracting layer 2.

Transfer of optical radiation to the crystal-monochromator through the optical fiber 3, the input end is optically connected with the optical radiation source, and the output end 4 connected to the crystal-monochromator 1 and installed in the slot in the base 5, which is fixed to the crystal-monochromator 1.

To stabilize the temperature of the crystal-monochromator 1 base 5, it is advisable to perform thermostaticly and to provide means for removal from the heat, for example, using a water coolant, and on the layer 2 it is advisable to apply a heat absorbing coating 6.

Shown in figure 3 embodiment of the monochromator formation of optical radiation from an inhomogeneous intensity distribution in the plane of the cross section of the optical fiber 3, and hence along the layer 2 is established between the input end of the fiber 3 and the optical radiation source optical transparency 7 with variable transparency. Transparency transparency 7 according to the corresponds to the intensity distribution of the optical radiation along the layer 2, necessary to obtain a desired curve of the swing.

Banner 7 can be installed on the output end 4 fiber 3.

In the figure 3 diagram of the x-ray monochromator as the source of optical radiation and means for changing the intensity of the generated optical radiation can be used multimedia projector, controlled by a computer (not shown).

Depicted in figure 4 x-ray monochromator contains crystal monochromator 8 diffracting layer 9 is installed and executed in the crystal-monochromator 8 recess 10 source 11 of the optical radiation, provided with means for changing the intensity it generates radiation. As a source 11 of the optical radiation can be used a semiconductor laser generating optical radiation of infrared wavelength range.

To stabilize the temperature of the crystal-monochromator 8 it is advisable to install thermostatic base 12. In this embodiment, as described above, the scattering layer 9, it is advisable to apply a heat absorbing coating 13.

The formation of optical radiation with inhomogeneous intensity distribution of the scattering layer 9 is enabled by the output of the source 11 of the optical transparency 14 with variable transparency.

The following is an example implementation of the proposed method on the x-ray monochromator is shown in figure 3, a tunable source of optical radiation and optical transparency as a means to change the intensity of the generated optical radiation along the surface of the crystal-monochromator 1.

Use of broadband optical radiation source that generates radiation of such power, in which the diffracting layer 2 crystal-monochromator 1 is the change in the interplanar distances. To set the desired half width of the curve swing and bandwidth linear change of interplanar distance along one of the coordinates of the surface of the diffracting layer 2 using an optical transparency of 7, form in the output plane of the optical radiation with linearly varying power density. This optical radiation falling on the diffracting layer 2, causing it to heat, whereby the temperature of the layer 2 varies linearly in accordance with the density distribution of the optical power (see figure 1). Heating causes a change in the interplanar distances in the layer 2 in accordance with the temperature distribution and, consequently, change in the diffraction characteristics and the half width of the curve swing crystal-monochromator 1, which determines the range of the generated x-ray radiation and its divergence.

To change the spectrum of the generated x-ray radiation and divergence change the output power of the optical radiation and/or use banner 7 with a different distribution transparency.

1. The method of formation of x-ray radiation, comprising a radiation diffracting layer of the crystal-monochromator x-ray source of radiation and the external influence on the crystal-monochromator, wherein the external influence on the crystal-monochromator carried by exposure to optical radiation of visible and/or infrared wavelength range with an intensity varying along diffracting layer of the crystal-monochromator, using a crystal monochromator-based crystal, the scattering layer which under the influence of optical radiation in accordance with changes interplanar distance.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the crystal-monochromator is irradiated with optical radiation of intensity, linearly varying along one of the coordinates of the surface of the diffracting layer.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the intensity of optical radiation change with optical transparency.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the intensity of optical radiation change with optical media PR is the sector.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the use of crystal monochromators based on quartz or lithium fluoride, or ammonium dihydrophosphate, or potassium dihydrophosphate, or biphthalate potassium, or calcite.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that use optical radiation with a power density of 0.1÷100 W/see

7. X-ray monochromator containing crystal monochromator with a diffracting layer, characterized in that it introduced a source of optical radiation of the visible and/or infrared wavelength range, while the crystal-monochromator performed on-chip, in which the diffracting layer under the influence of optical radiation in accordance with changes interplanar distance.

8. X-ray monochromator according to claim 7, characterized in that it introduced a means for forming optical radiation from an inhomogeneous intensity distribution along the diffracting layer.

9. X-ray monochromator according to claim 8, characterized in that as a means for forming optical radiation from an inhomogeneous intensity distribution along the diffracting layer used optical transparency.

10. X-ray monochromator according to claim 7, characterized in that the crystal-monochromator is made on the basis of quartz or lithium fluoride, or ammonium dihydrophosphate, or Digi is apostate potassium, or biphthalate potassium, or calcite.

11. X-ray monochromator according to claim 7, characterized in that the crystal monochromator with an outside party has altered the basis of, in the center of which is made hollow, which is the output end of the optical fiber is optically connected to the input end with a source of optical radiation.

12. X-ray monochromator according to claim 11, characterized in that the means for forming the optical radiation from an inhomogeneous intensity distribution along the diffracting layer is located between the input end of the optical fiber and the optical radiation source.

13. X-ray monochromator according to claim 11, characterized in that the means for forming the optical radiation from an inhomogeneous intensity distribution along the diffracting layer is located between the output end of the optical fiber and the crystal-monochromator.

14. X-ray monochromator according to claim 7, characterized in that the crystal-monochromator made a recess in which is located a source of optical radiation.

15. X-ray monochromator according to 14, characterized in that the means for forming the optical radiation from an inhomogeneous intensity distribution along the diffracting layer defined at the output of the source of optical radiation.

16. Ren is hanowski monochromator according to § 15, characterized in that the means for forming the optical radiation from an inhomogeneous intensity distribution along the diffracting layer used optical transparency.

17. X-ray monochromator according to 14, characterized in that the crystal-monochromator is fixed outside thermostatic surface on the base.

18. X-ray monochromator according to claim 7, wherein the source of optical radiation used with a multimedia projector.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has a stationary vacuumised neutron guide made in the form of a stainless steep pipe, nickel or copper. The device is additionally equipped with a section of a neutron guide made as a flexible polyvinyl chloride tube, the inner wall of which has mirror surface. Values of average roughness of the inner wall of the flexible polyvinyl chloride tube do not exceed the length of the ultracold neutron wave length.

EFFECT: reduced losses of low energy neutrons during transportation, capability of delivering them into hard-to-access areas.

8 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of radiation in a given direction and required wavelength range. The method of generating radiation in a given direction in the required wavelength range involves generation of initial radiation using a radiation source and filtration of the initial radiation through controlled distribution of refraction index of beams in the control region. Filtration provides for selective deviation of beams of initial radiation depending on their wavelength and selection of beams with given wavelength. Control of distribution of refraction index of beams is achieved through controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The device for generating radiation has a source of initial radiation and filtering apparatus. The filtering apparatus have apparatus for providing for controlled distribution of refraction index of beams. The latter, in their turn, have apparatus for controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The lithography device contains the said device for generating radiation.

EFFECT: invention reduces probability of damage to filtration apparatus, while retaining the stream of radiation incident on them, and provides for generation of radiation at required wavelength.

28 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: application: for manufacturing of X-ray refractory lenses. Substance: consists in the fact that lens matrix is manufactured from material capable of photopolymerisation, formation of one or several lenses with required focus distance, talking into account number and geometric characteristics of these lenses, characteristics of these lenses material and holder material, and also dynamic mode, in which lens matrix is generated, besides, produced matrix is used to form one or several bases for lenses, for this purpose material is introduced, which has no adhesion to matrix material, in matrix base material is transferred into solid phase, produced base is separated from matrix, is placed in bath with liquid photopolymer on piston with precision travel of linear displacement, then photopolymerisation is carried out through set of masks with annular clearances and radial slots, where internal radius of annular clearance is identified as , and external radius - as , where m is even number, base is shifted by value equal to even number of phase shift lengths L=mλ/δ, operations of exposure through the subsequent masks and shift are repeated until specified number of segments is obtained, lens is separated from base, and lens is installed in holder.

EFFECT: improved focusing properties of lenses with rotation profiles.

7 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns resorts for formation of a directed bundle of a X-rays from a divergent bundle created by the point or quasi-point source. The device for formation of a directed bundle of X-rays contains a catopter in the form of a surface of gyration and has a focal point. The focal point is located on an axial line of the specified surface of gyration. Forming surfaces has the curve shape. The tangent to the specified curve in any point of this curve forms with a direction on a focal point the same angle. This angle does not exceed a critical angle of the full exterior reflexion for X-rays of the used range. The catopter is or an interior surface of the shaped tubular device or a surface of the shaped channel in a monolithic body, or boundary between the surface of the shaped monolithic core and a stratum of the coat superimposed on this core. The specified tubular device or the channel is executed from a material reflecting X-rays or has a coat from such material. The specified core is executed from a radiotransparent material. The specified coat of the core is executed from a material reflecting X-rays.

EFFECT: increase of radiation source angle capture.

8 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves manufacturing lens from material capable of photopolymerization, forming one or several lenses with required focal distance by introducing required quantity of the lens material in liquid state into cylindrical holder which material possesses required wetting angle for given liquid. The holder is placed on centrifuge and rotated together with the lens material to achieve uniformity under preset rotation frequency condition. Then, when rotating, the lens material is transformed into solid state due to light source radiation flow being applied. Rotation is stopped and lens is assembled in the holder. Oligomer composition, capable of frontal free radical photopolymerization with monomer corresponding to it, and reaction photoinitiator, is taken as the lens material. Working temperature is to be not less than on 30-40°С higher than polymer glass-transition temperature during polymerization. The lens material transformation into solid state by applying rotation is carried out by means of frontal photopolymerization method with polymerization front moving along the lens axis from below upwards or along the lens radius.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in producing x-ray lenses having paraboloid-of-revolution refraction structure and having aperture increased to several millimeters without microroughnesses available on the surface.

8 cl

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, for manufacturing lens with required focal distance F, one or several lenses are made with focal distance, determined from formula , where N - number of lenses, and F0=Rc/2δ, where Rc - parabolic profile curvature radius, δ - decrement of refraction characteristic of lens material related to class of roentgen refracting materials, after that required amount of lens material is injected, where ρ - density of lens material, R - lens radius, in liquid state into cylindrically shaped carrier with same internal radius, material of which provides wetting angle to aforementioned liquid, determined by condition , carrier is moved to centrifuge, carrier with lens material are rotated until reach of homogeneity at angular rotation frequency , where η - viscosity of lens material in liquid state, Re - Reynolds number, then lens material is transferred to solid state during rotation, rotation is stopped and lens is assembled in holder.

EFFECT: production of lenses having aperture increased up to several millimeters, having perfect refracting profile in form of paraboloid of revolution with absent micro-irregularities (roughness) of surface.

11 cl

FIELD: optical trap matrix control and particle matrix formation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method and device are implemented by laser and variable-time optical diffraction element enabling dynamic control of optical-trap matrices followed by controlling particle matrices and also using plurality of optical traps to provide for handling single objects.

EFFECT: improved method and system for producing plurality of optical traps.

30 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: ultra-violet radiation.

SUBSTANCE: the mirror-monochromator has a multi-layer structure positioned on a supporting structure and including a periodic sequence of two separate layers (A,B) of various materials forming a layer-separator and a layer-absorber with a period having thickness d, Bragg reflection of the second or higher order is used. Mentioned thickness d has a deviation from the nominal value not exceeding 3%. The following relation is satisfied: (nAdA + nBdB)cos(Θ) = m λ/2, where dA and dB - the thicknesses of the respective layers; nA and nB - the actual parts of the complex indices of reflection of materials of layers A and B; m - the integral number equal to the order of Bragg reflection, which is higher than or equal to 2, λ - the wave-length of incident radiation and Θ - the angle of incidence of incident radiation. For relative layer thickness Г=dA/d relation Г<0.8/m is satisfied.

EFFECT: provided production of a multi-layer mirror, which in the range hard ultra-violet radiation has a small width of the reflection curve by the level of a half of the maximum at a high reflection factor in a wide range of the angles of incidence.

6 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: roentgen optics; roentgen ray flux reflecting, focusing, and monochromatization.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for controlling X-ray flux by means of controlled energy actions on control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate includes change of substrate and diffraction medium surface geometry and diffractive parameters of this medium by simultaneous action on control-unit substrate and on outer surface of control-unit diffraction medium with heterogeneous energy. X-ray flux control system has X-ray source and control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate; in addition, it is provided with diffraction beam angular shift corrector connected to recording chamber; control unit is provided with temperature controller and positioner; substrate has alternating members controlling its geometric parameters which are functionally coupled with physical parameters of members, their geometric parameters, and amount of energy acting upon them. Diffraction medium can be made in the form of crystalline or multilayer periodic structure covered with energy-absorbing coating.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of roentgen-ray flux control due to dynamic correction of focal spot shape and size.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: X-ray diffraction and X-ray topography methods for studying the structure and quality control of materials during nondestructive testing.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is intended for X-ray beam shaping, in particular, the synchrotron radiation beam, by means of crystals-monochromators. The device for X-ray beam shaping has two crystals-monochromators in the dispersionless diffraction scheme. It is ensured by the possibility of displacement of one from crystals in the direction of the primary beam with crystal fixing in two discrete positions. Both crystals-monochromators have the possibility of rotation for realization of the successive Bragg diffraction. Device for crystal bending has displacement mechanism, two immovable and two movable cylindrical rods, between of which the end parts of a bent crystal are located. The axes of these parts are displaced one in respect to the other. The immovable rods are leaned against the upper surface of a flat parallel plate near its end faces. The L-shaped brackets are attached to the end faces of plate. The parallel surfaces of the brackets contact with immovable rods. The parallel surfaces of the end faces of the upper joints of L-shaped brackets contact with movable rods. The plate with L-shaped brackets is embraced with crooked shoulders of floating rocker with cylindrical pins, installed on the rocker ends. The pins are leaned against the surfaces of movable rods perpendicularly to them. The displacement mechanism is located between the lower surface of plate and middle point of the rocker.

EFFECT: increasing the energy range of X-ray beam when maintaining its spatial position; improving the uniformity of bending force distribution and homogeneity of crystal deformation.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: X-ray diffraction and X-ray topography methods for studying the structure and quality control of materials during nondestructive testing.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is intended for X-ray beam shaping, in particular, the synchrotron radiation beam, by means of crystals-monochromators. The device for X-ray beam shaping has two crystals-monochromators in the dispersionless diffraction scheme. It is ensured by the possibility of displacement of one from crystals in the direction of the primary beam with crystal fixing in two discrete positions. Both crystals-monochromators have the possibility of rotation for realization of the successive Bragg diffraction. Device for crystal bending has displacement mechanism, two immovable and two movable cylindrical rods, between of which the end parts of a bent crystal are located. The axes of these parts are displaced one in respect to the other. The immovable rods are leaned against the upper surface of a flat parallel plate near its end faces. The L-shaped brackets are attached to the end faces of plate. The parallel surfaces of the brackets contact with immovable rods. The parallel surfaces of the end faces of the upper joints of L-shaped brackets contact with movable rods. The plate with L-shaped brackets is embraced with crooked shoulders of floating rocker with cylindrical pins, installed on the rocker ends. The pins are leaned against the surfaces of movable rods perpendicularly to them. The displacement mechanism is located between the lower surface of plate and middle point of the rocker.

EFFECT: increasing the energy range of X-ray beam when maintaining its spatial position; improving the uniformity of bending force distribution and homogeneity of crystal deformation.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: roentgen optics; roentgen ray flux reflecting, focusing, and monochromatization.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for controlling X-ray flux by means of controlled energy actions on control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate includes change of substrate and diffraction medium surface geometry and diffractive parameters of this medium by simultaneous action on control-unit substrate and on outer surface of control-unit diffraction medium with heterogeneous energy. X-ray flux control system has X-ray source and control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate; in addition, it is provided with diffraction beam angular shift corrector connected to recording chamber; control unit is provided with temperature controller and positioner; substrate has alternating members controlling its geometric parameters which are functionally coupled with physical parameters of members, their geometric parameters, and amount of energy acting upon them. Diffraction medium can be made in the form of crystalline or multilayer periodic structure covered with energy-absorbing coating.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of roentgen-ray flux control due to dynamic correction of focal spot shape and size.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: ultra-violet radiation.

SUBSTANCE: the mirror-monochromator has a multi-layer structure positioned on a supporting structure and including a periodic sequence of two separate layers (A,B) of various materials forming a layer-separator and a layer-absorber with a period having thickness d, Bragg reflection of the second or higher order is used. Mentioned thickness d has a deviation from the nominal value not exceeding 3%. The following relation is satisfied: (nAdA + nBdB)cos(Θ) = m λ/2, where dA and dB - the thicknesses of the respective layers; nA and nB - the actual parts of the complex indices of reflection of materials of layers A and B; m - the integral number equal to the order of Bragg reflection, which is higher than or equal to 2, λ - the wave-length of incident radiation and Θ - the angle of incidence of incident radiation. For relative layer thickness Г=dA/d relation Г<0.8/m is satisfied.

EFFECT: provided production of a multi-layer mirror, which in the range hard ultra-violet radiation has a small width of the reflection curve by the level of a half of the maximum at a high reflection factor in a wide range of the angles of incidence.

6 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: optical trap matrix control and particle matrix formation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method and device are implemented by laser and variable-time optical diffraction element enabling dynamic control of optical-trap matrices followed by controlling particle matrices and also using plurality of optical traps to provide for handling single objects.

EFFECT: improved method and system for producing plurality of optical traps.

30 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, for manufacturing lens with required focal distance F, one or several lenses are made with focal distance, determined from formula , where N - number of lenses, and F0=Rc/2δ, where Rc - parabolic profile curvature radius, δ - decrement of refraction characteristic of lens material related to class of roentgen refracting materials, after that required amount of lens material is injected, where ρ - density of lens material, R - lens radius, in liquid state into cylindrically shaped carrier with same internal radius, material of which provides wetting angle to aforementioned liquid, determined by condition , carrier is moved to centrifuge, carrier with lens material are rotated until reach of homogeneity at angular rotation frequency , where η - viscosity of lens material in liquid state, Re - Reynolds number, then lens material is transferred to solid state during rotation, rotation is stopped and lens is assembled in holder.

EFFECT: production of lenses having aperture increased up to several millimeters, having perfect refracting profile in form of paraboloid of revolution with absent micro-irregularities (roughness) of surface.

11 cl

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves manufacturing lens from material capable of photopolymerization, forming one or several lenses with required focal distance by introducing required quantity of the lens material in liquid state into cylindrical holder which material possesses required wetting angle for given liquid. The holder is placed on centrifuge and rotated together with the lens material to achieve uniformity under preset rotation frequency condition. Then, when rotating, the lens material is transformed into solid state due to light source radiation flow being applied. Rotation is stopped and lens is assembled in the holder. Oligomer composition, capable of frontal free radical photopolymerization with monomer corresponding to it, and reaction photoinitiator, is taken as the lens material. Working temperature is to be not less than on 30-40°С higher than polymer glass-transition temperature during polymerization. The lens material transformation into solid state by applying rotation is carried out by means of frontal photopolymerization method with polymerization front moving along the lens axis from below upwards or along the lens radius.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in producing x-ray lenses having paraboloid-of-revolution refraction structure and having aperture increased to several millimeters without microroughnesses available on the surface.

8 cl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns resorts for formation of a directed bundle of a X-rays from a divergent bundle created by the point or quasi-point source. The device for formation of a directed bundle of X-rays contains a catopter in the form of a surface of gyration and has a focal point. The focal point is located on an axial line of the specified surface of gyration. Forming surfaces has the curve shape. The tangent to the specified curve in any point of this curve forms with a direction on a focal point the same angle. This angle does not exceed a critical angle of the full exterior reflexion for X-rays of the used range. The catopter is or an interior surface of the shaped tubular device or a surface of the shaped channel in a monolithic body, or boundary between the surface of the shaped monolithic core and a stratum of the coat superimposed on this core. The specified tubular device or the channel is executed from a material reflecting X-rays or has a coat from such material. The specified core is executed from a radiotransparent material. The specified coat of the core is executed from a material reflecting X-rays.

EFFECT: increase of radiation source angle capture.

8 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: application: for manufacturing of X-ray refractory lenses. Substance: consists in the fact that lens matrix is manufactured from material capable of photopolymerisation, formation of one or several lenses with required focus distance, talking into account number and geometric characteristics of these lenses, characteristics of these lenses material and holder material, and also dynamic mode, in which lens matrix is generated, besides, produced matrix is used to form one or several bases for lenses, for this purpose material is introduced, which has no adhesion to matrix material, in matrix base material is transferred into solid phase, produced base is separated from matrix, is placed in bath with liquid photopolymer on piston with precision travel of linear displacement, then photopolymerisation is carried out through set of masks with annular clearances and radial slots, where internal radius of annular clearance is identified as , and external radius - as , where m is even number, base is shifted by value equal to even number of phase shift lengths L=mλ/δ, operations of exposure through the subsequent masks and shift are repeated until specified number of segments is obtained, lens is separated from base, and lens is installed in holder.

EFFECT: improved focusing properties of lenses with rotation profiles.

7 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of radiation in a given direction and required wavelength range. The method of generating radiation in a given direction in the required wavelength range involves generation of initial radiation using a radiation source and filtration of the initial radiation through controlled distribution of refraction index of beams in the control region. Filtration provides for selective deviation of beams of initial radiation depending on their wavelength and selection of beams with given wavelength. Control of distribution of refraction index of beams is achieved through controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The device for generating radiation has a source of initial radiation and filtering apparatus. The filtering apparatus have apparatus for providing for controlled distribution of refraction index of beams. The latter, in their turn, have apparatus for controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The lithography device contains the said device for generating radiation.

EFFECT: invention reduces probability of damage to filtration apparatus, while retaining the stream of radiation incident on them, and provides for generation of radiation at required wavelength.

28 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has a stationary vacuumised neutron guide made in the form of a stainless steep pipe, nickel or copper. The device is additionally equipped with a section of a neutron guide made as a flexible polyvinyl chloride tube, the inner wall of which has mirror surface. Values of average roughness of the inner wall of the flexible polyvinyl chloride tube do not exceed the length of the ultracold neutron wave length.

EFFECT: reduced losses of low energy neutrons during transportation, capability of delivering them into hard-to-access areas.

8 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

Up!