Method of determining characteristic parameter of carbon fibre-reinforced plastic specimen

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method involves providing a specimen, irradiating the specimen with a predetermined spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, recording the interaction between the specimen and the electromagnetic radiation in a data packet and determining at least one characteristic parameter in the recorded data packet. Radiation intensity values assigned to different areas of the surface of the specimen, where said radiation interacts with said surface areas, are recorded in the data packet. The determined characteristic parameter describes air content in the specimen and/or resin content in the specimen. The assigned intensity values coinciding with a predetermined intensity range are added together to determine the air content and/or the resin content in the specimen. Analysis can also be performed to determine resin distribution and/or air distribution in the sample and homogeneity of distribution of assigned intensity values coinciding with the predetermined intensity range with respect to different areas of the surface.

EFFECT: possibility of analysing specific characteristic parameters.

6 cl, 8 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to a method of determining at least one characteristic parameter of the sample reinforced plastics carbon fiber, in particular, the sample of the prepreg used in the aerospace industry.

The level of technology

Although this invention can be applied to samples of any plastic reinforced with carbon fiber, for a better understanding of the present invention and its underlying problem more detailed explanation is made with respect to the samples of unidirectional prepreg.

At the present time, especially in the aerospace industry, increasingly are major structural components made from unidirectional prepreg that due to the high strength and low weight of such components. A unidirectional prepreg is a semi-finished product consisting of continuous fibers and uncured thermosetting polymer matrix, in which the continuous fibers can be oriented in the direction of the axis x and in the direction of the y axis. This orientation of the fibers used in unidirectional materials and woven materials. The quality of unidirectional prepreg can be ohar karitane, for example, parameters such as the volume of air, surface, or distribution of resin. These parameters are crucial to ensure the reliability, in particular the strength of the major structural components made of reinforced carbon fiber plastic. In this sense, it is extremely important to ensure the quality of unidirectional prepreg before running it in production.

Widely used technique, known as the test for water absorption, which allows to determine the degree of water resistance or impregnated unidirectional prepreg. For this purpose a sample of unidirectional prepreg is weighed and then clamped between the two plates in such a way that stands out the strip sample width of 15 mm, This construction is suspended in the fiber direction and 5 minutes immersed in a water bath. After removing the plate sample is again weighed. The difference in weight is used as the actual value of the degree of impregnation. The smaller the amount of absorbed water, the higher the degree of water resistance or impregnation.

Discovered by the lack of test for water absorption is that it is not possible to conclude, for example, on the distribution of resin in the material of unidirectional prepreg or clean the surface of the one-way nature is. The test for water absorption only provides information about the effect as a whole and does not allow to distinguish between the individual influencing parameters or characteristic parameters.

Disclosure of inventions

Amid such conditions the present invention is to provide an improved method of determining at least one characteristic parameter of the sample reinforced plastics carbon fiber, in particular, the sample of the prepreg used in the aerospace industry.

According to the invention this result is achieved using the method with signs of paragraph 1 of the claims.

Based on this method of determining at least one characteristic parameter of the sample reinforced plastics carbon fiber, in particular, the sample of the prepreg used in the aerospace industry, includes the following steps: providing a sample, the impact on the sample by electromagnetic radiation of the predetermined range, the recording of the interaction between the sample and the electromagnetic radiation in a data packet and determining a characteristic parameter based on recorded data package.

As a consequence, the advantage of the present invention mentioned above at the beginning of the approach lies in the fact that h is about the way you determine, at least one characteristic parameter of the sample. The method in accordance with the invention, therefore, provides no information about full determined the effect, it allows to directly determine the specific property of the sample. Knowledge of these characteristic parameters allows you to achieve a much more reliable result, for example, in relation to the strength of a component made of a plastic reinforced with carbon fiber. Moreover, the manufacturer of the material from plastic reinforced with carbon fiber, it is easier to remove defects as the cause of defects such as, for example, excessive air content in the plastic reinforced with carbon fiber, can be easily identified using the method in accordance with the invention.

The dependent claims describe variants of improvement and modernization of the present invention.

In this application, the term "data packet" should be understood as any image.

According to a preferred variant of the invention which entered into interaction with the sample electromagnetic radiation before writing to the data packet passes through the microscope. As a consequence, thanks to the microscope can be improved resolution of the data packet, which will increase the accuracy of the determined characteristic parameter is.

According to a further preferred variant of the invention, the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation is selected in the range of visible light. This leads to a considerable simplification of the method. Alternatively, however, can be used with any other type of radiation, such as ultraviolet radiation or x-rays. This will improve the quality of the recording characteristics of the sample, such as air content, and/or tar, or will increase the differentiability properties.

According to a further preferred variant of the improvements of the invention the data packet is recorded with your camcorder on a charge-coupled device (CCD), and then recorded the data store in a storage device. This greatly facilitates the entry of data and transmission of the data packet in the analytical device connected after the storage device and performing analysis of the data package.

According to a further preferred variant of the invention, in the data packet write "attached" to different parts of the surface intensity of the radiation interacting with these parts of the surface. The sample has one or more surface areas, which differ in the method of formation, that is, for example, the content of Vozduha a certain surface area or surface quality, so that the radiation impinging on the sample, is reflected from areas with different intensity. Taking into account the different intensity of the reflection, you can determine at least one characteristic parameter of the sample.

Alternatively, at least one characteristic parameter can be defined, attempting to analyze the wavelength of the radiation interacting with the sample.

According to a further preferred variant of the invention the characteristic parameter describes the air content in the sample, the resin content in the sample, as the sample surface, the depth of the deviation of the boundary layer in the sample, the distribution of air in the sample and/or distribution of the resin in the sample. The properties are of great importance to ensure the reliability, in particular, the strength of manufactured structural component, related to the sample.

Preferably, tied intensity coinciding with a predetermined intensity range, evolved together to determine the air content and/or content of the resin in the sample. This will make it easy to determine the volume of air per unit area of the sample surface. Based on air content or the content of the resin per unit area can easily determine what the content in the sampled air volume and/or weight, or tar in volume and/or weight.

According to a further preferred variant of the invention, to determine the distribution of the resin and/or air distribution in the sample analyzed, the uniformity of distribution "attached" intensities, coinciding with a predetermined intensity range, in relation to different parts of the surface. For this purpose, the surface of the investigated sample is divided, for example, the number of different surface areas, and the relevant sections of the surface is determined by the content of the resin and/or air content. After this is calculated, the dispersion of the resin content and/or content of the air, allowing you to determine the regularity/irregularity of distribution of the resin and/or air.

According to a further preferred variant of the improvements of the invention compares the recorded data packet with one or more reference data packets, while the characteristic parameter is equal to a predetermined value depending on the reference data packet, which basically corresponds to the recorded data package. This operation provides a very simple way categorization of the recorded data packets. For example, the characteristic parameter, PR is like" to the recorded data packet, you can assign values 1, 2 or 3, where 1 corresponds to unacceptable surface quality, 2 corresponds to an acceptable surface quality, and 3 corresponds to the good quality of the surface.

The reference data packets are preferably used as criteria air content in the sample, the resin content in the sample, the surface quality of the sample distribution of the resin and/or air distribution in the sample, and/or depth of the deviation of the boundary layer in the sample. The reference data packets, which, for example, correspond to the volume of air equal to 1%, 5% or 7%, can be compared with the recorded data package, then the characteristic parameter is assigned the values 1, 5, or 7.

In a further embodiment of the invention, at least one characteristic parameter in a particular way is weighed in the scale. For example, such a likely characteristic parameters of the sample, as the content of the resin and the surface quality are more or less strong impact on the quality of the sample. Weighting is a simple tool to take into account this fact.

Preferably define several characteristic parameters, which are weighed and put together, and the resulting sum is used as a quality criterion of the sample. Defined is thus quality can be very informative in relation to the likely strength of the material, related to the sample.

According to a further preferred variant of the invention, the sample is taken from the same piece of material as the other samples shall be tested for water absorption, and at least one characteristic parameter is assigned to the test water absorption. This enables us to compare the results obtained by the method in accordance with the invention, with the results obtained when testing the absorption of water.

According to a further preferred variant of the invention the cross-section of the sample is exposed to electromagnetic radiation. The cross section reveals the inner structure of the sample. The cross-section preferably takes place in the direction perpendicular to the fiber direction. This cross-section gives a clear picture of the surface areas between the individual fibers, which greatly affect the quality of the manufactured component.

In General, all mentioned here a trial operations, such as, for example, determination or comparison may be performed using an analytical device, in particular a computer.

Brief description of drawings

The essence of the invention is explained in more detail below by means of embodiments with reference to the accompanying drawings, where

Figure 1 shows a step of the method, where the sample is taken, according to an exemplary variant of implementation of the present invention;

Figure 2 shows a further step of the method, where the sample is fixed on the sample holder according to an exemplary variant of implementation of the present invention;

Figa shows another step of the method, which is determined by at least one characteristic parameter of the sample, according to an exemplary variant of implementation of the present invention;

Figv shows another step of the method, which is determined by the characteristic parameter according to an exemplary variant of implementation of the present invention;

Figure 4 shows two of the reference data packet, which describe the distribution of air and/or air content in the reference sample according to an exemplary variant embodiment of the invention;

Figure 5 shows two additional reference data that describe the distribution of the resin and/or the resin content in the reference sample according to an exemplary variant embodiment of the invention;

6 shows two additional reference data that describe the quality of the surface of the reference sample according to an exemplary variant embodiment of the invention;

Fig.7 shows two additional reference puck is and data which describe the depth of the deviation of the boundary layer in the sample according to an exemplary variant embodiment of the invention.

Unless specified otherwise, identical or functionally identical elements in all the figures provided with the same numbers of items.

The implementation of the invention

In figure 1 the example shows the first step of the method, where the sample is taken according to an exemplary variant of implementation of the present invention. In the first step of the method is prepared sheet fragment 1 constituting a unidirectional prepreg. Fiber fragment 1 material preferably directed in the direction indicated by numeral 2. From fragment 1 material taken a few samples.

Samples cut from 3-8 fragment 1 material using appropriate templates. Preferably, samples 3, 4 had approximately rectangular shape, and their longest side were held across the direction of the fibers 2. In contrast, the long side of the approximately rectangular samples 5-8 passes in the direction of the fibers.

As shown in figure 2, sample 3 is attached to the holder 10 of the sample. In this case, the fiber on the side 11 of the sample 3 are in the direction of the Z-axis, i.e. perpendicular to the side 11. The holder 10 of the sample is made in the form of the area, and keeping the hydrated sample 3 all plane adjacent to one shelf 12 area.

Then, according to an exemplary variant of the invention, the holder 10 of the sample with the sample 3 is installed on the movable table 13, as shown in Figa. Using the control device 16, which is designed to actuate the movable table 13 in the xy plane, the sample is installed under the fixture comprising an annular lamp 14, the microscope 15 and the chamber 17 on the charge-coupled device (CCD). Setting the sample at a desired position, preferably automatically.

Source 21 cold light takes on a circular lamp 14 radiation, for example white light. The radiation generated by the ring lamp 14, falls on the side 11 of the sample 3 and is reflected once in the microscope 15, which is recorded by the camera CCD 17, connected to the microscope. Depending on the recorded radiation CCD camera creates an electronic package 20 data cable 18 is transmitted to the computing unit 19. Received the package 20 of the data is stored in a storage device and subsequently analyzed using the analytical device of the computing unit 19.

On Figv in the example shown, the package 20 of the data. The portion of the data packet 20 data, which refers to the side 11, takes the form of grid 22. Thus, the grid 22 specifies the coordinates of the 01, 02,...0N data, "PR is connected to the surface areas of the same size on the side 11. Intensity I1, I2, ...IN the light reflected by the surface and recorded by the CCD camera, are stored for each coordinate 01, 02, ...0N data. After that recorded the package 20 data can be represented, for example, in the form of gray, from white to black.

In order, for example, to determine the air content in the side 11, tied intensity coinciding with a predetermined intensity range, put together. Alternatively, or in addition, it is possible to provide for the calculation of the coordinates 01, 02, ...0N data that tied the intensity of the match. To define the boundaries of a predetermined intensity range, for example, such a gray area, which corresponds to the presence of air on the side 11, the pre can be calibrated using a standard sample.

Since the resin content can be "linked" to other intensities I1, I2, ...IN radiation, the resin content can easily be distinguished from the content of the air. When determining the content of the resin, in contrast to the determination of air, is used only another predetermined intensity range.

In order to determine the distribution of the resin and/or air distribution in the sample set, for example, the ranges B1, B2, ...BN, which sootvetstvenno who have the same number of coordinate data. The content of the resin and/or the air content in the range B1, B2, ...BN are determined as described above. The deviation of the air content in relation to the ranges B1, B2, ...BN corresponds to the homogeneity/heterogeneity of the distribution of the resin and/air in the sample.

Alternatively, it may be the comparison of the recorded package 20 data with the reference data packets, as shown in Figure 4-7.

Figure 4 as an example of the reference data packets, namely images 41, 42, 43 reference samples with excessive, about 16%, a content of the air. Allowable air content of approximately 6%, and the preferred content of the air is about 1%. Recorded package 20 data is compared with a reference packet 41, 42 and 43 of the data. This is done by comparing the device in the computing unit 19. Depending on which reference packages 41, 42 and 43 data best fits the recorded package 20 data, the characteristic parameter describing the content of air in the sample is assigned, for example, a value of 1, 2 or 3, respectively.

Figure 5 in the example shown, additional reference packages 54, 55 of the data. Reference package 54 data corresponds to the high non-uniformity of resin distribution in the reference sample and the reference PA is no 55 data corresponds to a valid uniform resin distribution in the reference sample. Similarly, as shown in figure 4, the characteristic parameter describing the distribution of resin in the sample is assigned a numerical value.

Figure 6 in the example shown, three additional reference package 61, 62, 63 data describing the characteristic parameter for the quality of the surface. Reference packages 61, 62, 63 describe respectively unacceptable surface quality, acceptable surface quality and preferred as a reference sample surface. In this case, the definition of the characteristic parameter for the quality of the surface is similar to the method described in relation to Figure 4.

7 as an example of the reference packets 71, 72 data reference package 71 data corresponds to a sample with an unacceptable deviation of the boundary layer, and reference package 72 data corresponds to the sample with a standard deviation of the boundary layer. The deviation of the boundary layer typically occurs at the stage of manufacture of prepregs. The characteristic parameter, which describes the depth T of the deviation of the boundary layer is determined in a manner analogous to that described for Figure 4.

After that the respective characteristic parameters can be weighed differently according to their importance for the quality of the sample, for example, quality, otnosyawivosa strength of the manufactured component. Then the weighted characteristic parameters put together, and their sum is used as a quality criterion of the sample. Needless to say, to determine the values that characterize the quality of the sample, apply any other, more informative, a mathematical operation. The value defined for the quality, can be used as a prerequisite for decision-making, for example, the return of the prepreg to the manufacturer about the use of the prepreg for the manufacture of important components.

Samples 5, 6, 7, 8 can be tested using the test for water absorption, and the results of this test are mapped to a certain value describing the quality of samples 3 and 4 for example, the degree of impregnation 5, which was determined in accordance with test water absorption, consistent quality in the range from 20 to 30, which was determined by the method according to the invention. In result, it becomes possible to provide some comparability between different testing procedures, even though the method corresponding to the invention is much more accurate.

The invention is not limited to the shown in figures specific method for determining at least one characteristic parameter of the sample, the angular end the piss, reinforced carbon fiber, in particular, the sample of the prepreg used in the aerospace industry.

The sequence of the individual steps of the method corresponding to the invention can be modified in various ways. In addition, it may be mutated form, which take the individual steps of the method.

For example, the sample can be attached so that its sides will be held at an angle to the direction of fibres, which are analyzed according to the invention.

Compared with manual option is preferable to the complete automation of the method corresponding to the invention, that is, for example, automation of the installation process sample at a desired position under a CCD camera, or the process of taking samples.

It goes without saying that the invention can be also applied to samples of plastic reinforced by carbon fibers in which the fibers are held in different directions.

Moreover, using the method corresponding to the invention, it is also possible the analysis of samples of various materials, in particular fiber-reinforced materials, such as GLARE.

The list of designations

fiber orientation
1the piece of material
2
3sample
4sample
5sample
6sample
7sample
8sample
10the sample holder
11side plate
12shelf area
13mobile style
14ring lamp
15microscope
16the control unit
17the camera on the charge-coupled device (CCD)
18cable
19computing unit
20package data
the cold light source
22mesh
41...72reference data packages
Tthe depth of the deviation of the boundary layer
01, 02, ...0Ncoordinates data
I1, I2, ...INintensity
B1, B2, ...BNranges

1. Method for determining at least one characteristic parameter of the sample (3, 4) plastic reinforced with carbon fiber, in particular sample of the prepreg used in the aerospace industry, which includes the following steps:
the provision of the sample (3, 4);
the impact on the sample (3, 4) electromagnetic radiation of the predetermined spectrum;
record the interaction between the sample (3, 4) and electromagnetic radiation in a data packet (20); and
determining at least one characteristic parameter recorded in the data packet (20), while in the data packet (20) write attached to different areas of the sample surface (3, 4) intensity (I1, I2, ...IN) radiation interacting with these parts of the surface, and the nature of the statistical parameter describes the air content in the sample (3, 4) and/or the resin content in the sample (3, 4), which is tied intensity (I1, I2, ...IN), coincident with a predetermined intensity range, put together to determine the air content and/or content of the resin in the sample (3, 4).

2. Method for determining at least one characteristic parameter of the sample (3, 4) plastic reinforced with carbon fiber, in particular sample of the prepreg used in the aerospace industry, which includes the following steps:
the provision of the sample (3, 4);
the impact on the sample (3, 4) electromagnetic radiation of the predetermined spectrum;
record the interaction between the sample (3, 4) and electromagnetic radiation in a data packet (20); and
determining at least one characteristic parameter recorded in the data packet (20), while in the write data packet attached to different areas of the sample surface (3, 4) intensity (I1, I2, ...IN) radiation interacting with these parts of the surface, and the characteristic parameter describes the distribution of air in the sample (3, 4) and/or the distribution of resin in the sample (3, 4), and analyzed to determine the distribution of the resin and/or air distribution in the sample (3, 4),
the uniformity of the bound intensities (I1, I2, ...IN), coincident with a predetermined range and is tensively, in relation to different parts of the surface.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that it has entered into an interaction with the sample (3, 4) electromagnetic radiation prior to entry in the package (20) data is carried out through the microscope (15).

4. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation is chosen in the range of visible light.

5. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the package (20) data recorded using a camera (17) on the charge-coupled device and store in the storage device.

6. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the side (11) sample (3, 4) is exposed to electromagnetic radiation, with fiber reinforced plastics, carbon fiber, are essentially perpendicular to the side (11).



 

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12 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics; measurement.

SUBSTANCE: proposed monitoring device contains a support arm unit, light emitter, light receiver for receiving light emitted by the source. The device also contains a bar with two opposite ends on which are fitted the source and receiver, and a double regulated hinge, by which the bar is attached to the support arm. The double hinge has two axes of rotation (y, z), perpendicular to each other and to the main path (x) of light between the emitter and the receiver. The bar is arched between the ends. The emitter and the receiver are equipped with devices for angular transmission of light and are parallel each other and perpendicular to the main path of light. The method of monitoring the section, realised using the method, involves fitting the device such that, the main path (x) of light is at a tangent to the monitored section, and the bar can be adjusted in this direction through adjustment of the double hinge.

EFFECT: wider field of vision due to panoramic rotation of the axis of sight, increased resolution and range of operation of the device.

14 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: physics, measurement.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to controlling and measuring equipment. Flaw detector includes body that contains television camera and annular system of directed light radiation that consists of light diodes. Light reflector with mirror surface of concave cone shape is fixed to body on brackets. Rays of light coming from light diodes are reflected from mirror surface and are concentrated on internal surface of pipe in the form of narrow annular belt S. Signals coming to computer make it possible to define longitudinal dimensions of defects and coordinates of defects position in pipe length.

EFFECT: detection of defects such as minor burrs, including the ones of longitudinal direction, and definition of dimensions and locations of these burrs.

10 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: flaw detection device for optic carriers includes light unit; optic carrier; objective lens connected optically to multielement photo receiver, input and output of which are connected to the first output and the first input of control unit where the second output is connected to actuator input. The device features also an active memory unit, input and output of which are connected to the third output and the second input of control unit, and optic diffusion filter and diaphragm fixed at the opposite ends of a shaft linked to the actuator and parallel to the principal optic axis, so that the surfaces of optic diffusion filter and diaphragm are perpendicular to the shaft axis, optic diffusion filter is located between the light unit and optic carrier, and diaphragm is located in front of entrance pupil of the objective lens.

EFFECT: lower measurement error.

4 dwg

FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials by the use of optical means.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises endoscope of side vision with measuring scale that is secured in the central flange provided with circular scale. The flange is set in the bushing at the outlet face of the space for permitting rotation of the flange together with the endoscope whose lens is mounted at the center of the space. The axis of sighting is positioned in the zone of ring weld joint that connects hemispheres of the space. The device is additionally provided with flexible passage for lightening internal surface of the space by flat laser beam under various angles. The passage for laser illumination is composed of semiconducting micro-laser mounted at the axis of gradient lens that is mounted at the outlet face of the light guide coincident with the back focus, second gradient lens mounted at the outlet face of the light guide, cylindrical lens, spherical lens, and flat mirror.

EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.

5 dwg

FIELD: non-destructive inspection.

SUBSTANCE: device has standard side-view endoscope, which has system for illuminating object and system for observing object provided with measuring scale. Device is additionally provided with bushing having linear and angular scales, which bushing is capable of translation and rotation about axis of symmetry of flange fastened to input opening of cavity to be controlled. Tube with optical system for laser illumination of object is mounted inside bushing; tube has microscopic laser and mirror. Tube is mounted in bushing for linear movement relatively endoscope in parallel to its longitudinal axis. Precision of measurement of sizes of objects disposed at long distances to surfaces to be controlled is improved. Measurement of coordinates of defect location on surfaces of object can be made with higher precision.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.

3 dwg

FIELD: measurement engineering.

SUBSTANCE: odometer for intratube gear-flaw detector, which odometer is fastened to air-tight container of flaw detector, has electronic unit, light source, optical fiber provided with image forming system. Electronic unit, light source in form of IR radiation range LED and image forming system in form of fiber-optic bundle, couplers and CCD array are built hermetically inside resilient polyurethane base fastened from outside to air-tight container. Electronic unit has also CCD array controller to process information based on algorithms of calculation of distance. IR radiation range LED is connected with control output of controller through switch-transistor. Control input and video output of CCD array are connected with controller by means of serial terminal.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.

4 dwg

FIELD: identification of units and members.

SUBSTANCE: method and device apply for identification units used for storing and transporting used heat-generating assemblies. Identification mark is applied along circle at side surface of cylindrical object and image of total circular mark is registered due to transferring optical image reflected from three fragments of mark to non-overlapping parts of photo-registrar. Any fragment embraces part of circle by arc of 120°. To transfer images of fragments being outside direct area of receiving of optical radiation from side surface of cylindrical object, the light-reflecting mirrors are used.

EFFECT: simplification in design; reduced cost.

9 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to methods of producing composite materials and device to this end. Proposed method comprises building up layer of reinforcing material, impregnating said layer with matrix and orienting reinforcing layer by applying electromagnetic field in building up of reinforcing layer at acute angle to reinforcing layer. Note here that formation of the layer of catalyst particles for catalysis of building up of reinforcing layers may be conducted by spraying fluid drops on surface. Note also that fluid contains catalyst particles in suspension or solution. Proposed method may also include making two or more sheets of composite material. Note that every sheet is manufactured by building up reinforcing material layer and impregnating it with matrix. Then sheets are folded together to produce laminar structure. Proposed device comprises system for building up layer of reinforcing material, electrode to apply electromagnetic field at acute angle to said layer, and system for applying matrix material on the layer so that impregnate every layer with matrix material. Besides, said device may incorporate printing head to make layer of catalyst particles for catalysis of reinforcing layer building up by spraying fluid drops onto surface through printing orifice.

EFFECT: lower process temperatures, possibilities of latch-batch production.

23 cl, 20 dwg

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