Displacement sensor

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: silicon monocrystalline microheater is used as a displacement sensor and the value of heat lost from the microheater to a heat receiver serves as the measuring signal. The microheater has the shape of a variable section beam, the wide part of which is a resistor and has a region of opposite conduction type, and the narrow part is form of current leads having low-resistivity silicon regions and a silicide coating, wherein the end of the current leads is in form of a platform for forming metal contacts. Displacements vary from 5 to 800 mcm and measurement accuracy is equal to 20 nm.

EFFECT: high accuracy and stability of sensor readings.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to measurement devices, and more particularly to a device for measuring displacements of great importance in robotics, precision mechanisms in the operation of buildings and structures, etc. in Addition to the movement as such, has a practical value measurement of small displacements caused by thermal expansion and deformations, the control of which is necessary in the feedback devices equipment precision machining. Very often, the measurement of displacement is one step more complex signal conditioning: the offset aperture is used monovakuumetr, bimetallic sensors and relays, deformation consoles in dynamometers and accelerometers, displacement floats - in gauges, etc.

Due to the vast range of applications used many types of sensors that operate on different principles, which are analogues of the proposed invention. Characteristics of the most common ones below.

Potentiometric sensors based on measuring the electrical resistance of the conductor, changing with the moving contact.

Have the following disadvantages:

- move the contact requires significant effort, which is summed with the measured value, distorting the result.

- TREN is in contact and the magnetic excitation lead to heating and the parasitic resistance change, to compensate which is very difficult;

low stability due to the exposure surface area from environmental influences.

Optical strain gauges or displacement can operate on the principle of deflection of the beam or step-by-step quantized measurement using Reiki, consisting of opaque and translucent areas (optical generator increments). This sensor is read out using light source: led and the receiver is a phototransistor located on opposite sides of the rail.

The lack of optical motion sensor is limited in sensitivity, because the step of measuring the transparency can not be less than a few micrometers, and analog measurement of light intensity within a transparent window in normal circumstances it is impossible because of the inevitable influence of dust and geometrical imperfections of the "window".

Piezoelectric sensors based on the electrification of the crystal under the action of forces. Since the deformation in this case is low, such converters are used as force sensors and pressure, where the amount of movement rarely exceed 0.2-0.5 mm Disadvantages of piezoelectric sensors appear in the fragility of the material of the piezoelectric ceramics, the unreliability of metal contacts to her, sensitivity to external whom they influence as an active material, and the measuring circuit, which may for various reasons be picking up the variable parasitic EMF causing the error.

Capacitive sensors on the achieved result are the most common and universal means of measuring the micrometric movements in the range of 0-2 mm, contains two capacitor plates, the change of the distance between them leads to a proportional change of the capacity to be converted into an output signal with a resonant pavement or capacitance-diode circuit. This design / US Patent 5006952 - Capacitive transducers - analog / is treated as equivalent. The disadvantages of the capacitive sensor are primarily related to the measurement of very high internal resistance, reaching at a frequency of 50 Hz 10^7 Ohms. When this inevitable errors caused by leakage currents, which is affected by the volatility of insulation resistance. To reduce the resistance of the power frequency increase up to units MHz, but then the wires and elements of the measuring circuit to be shielded. Any changes in the status of the shielding (humidity atmosphere vibration, changing the position of the current-carrying wire relative to the screen and so on) lead to errors. To reduce it possible to reduce the length of the chain, and the secondary device fitted near the sensing element and termostate the comfort, that greatly complicates and increases the cost of the device. Difficulties in the measurements is partially eliminated in the manufacture of the sensor displacement methods microelectronics / US Patent Application 20050223811 - Precision multi-dimensional capacitive transducer prototype /so how do you manage to combine capacitive sensor and the processing circuitry on a single chip. The disadvantages are small, not more than 20 micrometers, the range of measured displacements and the possibility of occurrence of electrical discharge in the interelectrode space. This possibility occurs when passing through the microelectronic sensor measuring current of high frequency, often with gaps between the electrodes in units of micrometers, the magnitude of the electric field strength exceeds the breakdown voltage of the gas environment in which the sensor. Electrical discharge in this case leads to sputtering of the material of the plates, which, in turn, means a change of sensitivity and care zero value.

The purpose of the invention is to create a movement sensor for measuring in the range of 5-800 micrometers, with increased accuracy and stability of readings.

This objective is achieved in that the displacement transducer contains thermally stabilized microsegregation containing a resistor, the current leads and the metal pads and the heat sink, p is ramasawmy from microaggregates distance 5-800 micrometers under the action of the applied force, pressure, including acoustic, or in a stationary state, but changing size due to shrinkage, thermal expansion of electro - magnetostriction, characterized in that microsegregation made of monocrystalline silicon, microsegregation has the form of beams of variable cross section, the wide part of which is a resistor and contains a region of opposite type conductivity, and a narrow current, which formed the field of low-resistance silicon and a silicide coating, and the end of the current leads are sites for the formation of metal contacts. The device of microaggregates in the context presented in figure 1, where

1 - resistor;

2 - the current leads;

3 - podkonicky diffusion;

4 - pads.

As a heat source is any massive body.

The novelty of the claimed invention lies in the fact that as a motion sensor uses a silicon single crystal, microsegregation, and the measured signal is the magnitude of the heat loss from microaggregates to the heat sink. The implementation is carried out in a device for measuring the residual pressure, known under the General name "Barton". As a sensitive element used to measure absolute pressure, applies the tone of the second membrane, to which, on the one hand, is supplied calibrated pressure, and on the other, the pressure in the working chamber. The movement of the membrane, measured in such devices, is a measure of the pressure in the working chamber. The displacement sensor is fixed in stationary relative to the membrane base. The massive frame is rigidly attached to the thin baroquestyle membrane, which on the other hand hermetically connected to the working volume of the chamber. Moving massive frame relative to the displacement sensor is a signal of change of pressure in the chamber. For accurate measurement of heat flux necessary control and maintenance of a constant temperature of microaggregates. To do this, use a specific feature of the single-crystal semiconductors, namely the presence of the transition from the impurity conductivity to own that is recorded by the processing circuit as a change of the sign of the temperature coefficient from positive to negative, depending on which scheme is to increase or decrease the magnitude of the current flowing through microaggregation. However, the transition from impurity conductivity to own is in the range of 15-20K, which complicates the computation of the sign of the temperature coefficient of resistance, because in this range the value of b is izka to zero, the result is increased accuracy of temperature maintenance of microaggregates. To make the transition more abrupt is possible in the manufacture in the resistive part of microaggregates region with the opposite conductivity type. At temperatures below the temperature of this transition region is electrically isolated p-n junction, and above insulation disappears, and the conductivity of the resistive part of microaggregates increases sharply.

Was made experimental setup measurement of micrometric movements. Figure 2 shows a plot of the output signal of microaggregates-thermistor on the distance to the measured object. When the step of digitizing signal 0.1 mV measurement accuracy of micrometric movements is 20 nm. The design is implemented in a device for measuring the residual pressure. As the sensor uses a thin membrane, to which, on the one hand, is supplied calibrated pressure, and on the other, the pressure in the working chamber. Moving membrane is a measure of the pressure in the working chamber. The following metrological characteristics at different ranges of measurement residual pressure: 1 ATM...10000 PA 100 PA; 10000 PA... 1000 PA - 10 PA. Thus, the experimental model of the device is not inferior in performance produced at the moment like the Lassa devices.

Displacement transducer containing thermally stabilized microsegregation containing a resistor, the current leads and the metal pads, wherein microsegregation made of monocrystalline silicon, microsegregation has the form of beams of variable cross section, the wide part of which is a resistor and contains a region of opposite type conductivity, and narrow is the current in which is formed the field of low-resistance silicon and a silicide coating, and the end of the current leads are sites for the formation of metal contacts.



 

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