Method of ore and rock breakage in development of solid mineral deposits
SUBSTANCE: during performance of drilling and blasting works in the lower part of each explosive well a bottom charge is arranged, on the outer surface of which there is a circular cumulative groove arranged, the top of which lies in the horizontal plane, which separates the volume of the bottom charge in two and matches the plane of a working site of an open pit ledge or a bottom of an underground stope. The value of well subgrade drilling is accepted as equal to the half of the cumulative groove base width.
EFFECT: reduced drilling flow due to reduction of subgrade drilling and higher quality of arrangement of a working site of open pit ledges and a bottom of stopes at underground mining works.
The invention relates to mining and, in particular, to the open and underground mining of solid minerals.
There is a method of blasting ores and rocks, consisting in drilling and detonations well pereboom determined by well-known methods, but not exceeding 3-4 m . The disadvantage of this method is the need for unnecessary consumption of drilling at least 15-20%, to ensure a fairly smooth working area of the next ledge, and overruns BB and significant disruption of the surface of the work platform, fixed with additional works at its layout.
The closest in technical essence is a way of blasting ores and rocks using boiler charges . The disadvantage of this method is the high complexity, highly complex organization of work and high material costs on the formation of an additional volume of the charging chamber at the bottom of blastholes.
The aim of the invention is the reduction of General and specific volume of drilling and improving the quality of design work platform ledges quarry and the bottom of the treatment blocks in underground mining operations.
This goal is achieved by the fact that when carrying out blasting at the bottom of each vertical downward wells have Donne the first charge, on the external surface of which is formed an annular cumulative recess, the top of which lies in a horizontal plane dividing the volume of the bottom charge in half and coincident with the plane of the working surface of the ledge career or bottom groundwater treatment unit. When blasting each such charge in the blasting process is formed of a flat annular cumulative stream with a high concentration of energy, which, meeting with the same stream of shaped charges of the neighboring wells, forms a horizontal plane fracture of the array, passing through the vertex cumulative excavation and forming the working space of the next ledge career or flat bottom of the underground unit. The amount of perebor wells thus equal to half the width of the base of cumulative extraction.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a General scheme of conducting blasting vertical downward wells. Figure 2 shows the location of the horizontal annular cumulative notches in the bottom charge and its parameters.
The way blasting ores and rocks in underground and open cast mining contains the thump of hands tonnes mined array 1, a vertical downward borehole 2, the bottom charge 3 with the outer surface 4, cumulative ring in the recess 5, the top 6 cumulative extraction, horizon is inuu plane 7, base 8 and a depth of 9 cumulative indentations, perebor 10.
The method is implemented as follows. The thump of hands the amount of the massif 1 amerivault vertical downward wells 2 using well-known methods for the determination of passport drilling (figure 1). In each hole 2 establish a pre-made base charge 3, which has on the outer surface of the battery 4 is formed an annular cumulative recess 5, a top 6 which lies in a horizontal plane 7, dividing the volume of the bottom charge in half 3 and coinciding with the plane of the working surface of the ledge career or bottom groundwater treatment unit. The amount of base 8 and a depth of 9 cumulative recess 5 is determined by known methods (figure 2). Thus perebor 10 for each well 2 is equal to half the value of the base 8 cumulative notches 5. After installation of the bottom charge 3 hole 2 is charged in a known manner using known EXPLOSIVES and blasting agents. After loading all wells produce 2 initiating, starting from the bottom of the battery 3, and blasting in accordance with the applied technology of blasting ores and rocks.
Sources of information taken into account
1. Trubetskoy, K.N., Krasnyansky GL, Cronin V.V., Kovalenko V.S. the quarries Design: a Tutorial. M.: Higher school, 2009. 694 S. (Str, RES; str-430).
2. Ibid (P.41 and 431).
The way blasting ores and rocks in the development of solid mineral deposits, including blasthole drilling, loading using conventional and shaped charges and blasting charges, characterized in that in order to reduce the flow of drilling by reducing perebor and improve the quality of blasting in the lower part of the vertical descending wells have a bottom charge on the outer surface of which is formed an annular cumulative recess, the top of which lies in a horizontal plane dividing the volume of the bottom charge in half and coincident with the plane of the working surface of the ledge career or bottom groundwater treatment unit, and the magnitude of perebor well take equal to half the width of the base of cumulative extraction.
SUBSTANCE: inclusions may be represented by layers of hard rocks, various lenses and other inclusions, such as permafrost (eternal frost) in less hard enclosing rocks. Explosive charges in additional shortened wells are placed at the level or below the soil of hard inclusions and are exploded with moderation relative to charges in the main wells. The proposed invention makes it possible to execute efficient grinding of solid inclusions that are previously softened by explosion of charges in the main wells, due to dynamic effect of explosive gases from explosion of charges in additional wells at the lower part of inclusions.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of grinding of various solid inclusions available in the upper and middle part of the ledge and arranged in less hard enclosing rocks.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method for forming hose charge in wells involves well drilling, arrangement of hose charge in it and stemming by means of inert materials. At that, hose charge is made in the form of a spiral wound on thin-wall perforated plastic pipe, with winding pitch equal to 4.0…5.0 diameters of hose charge. Hose charge and detonating cord is attached to thin-wall perforated plastic pipe. After the assembled structure is arranged in the well, cavity of the pipe and gaps between coils of hose charge are filled with water to the level of hose charge and the well is stemmed with inert materials.
EFFECT: reducing the specific flow of an explosive, increasing the crushing efficiency of rock masses, and reducing the dust loading of ambient air.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises shot hole or bore-hole drilling, loading them with explosive material so that the bottom part of the shot hole the explosive material density or energy concentration would exceed the one in the wellhead of the shot hole. The mass of explosive material charge in the bottom part of the shot hole is calculated mathematically, depending on the line of least resistance value, the diameter of explosive material charge, fissure parameters and physical and technical mountain mass parameters, the rock pressure and detonation velocity of the explosive material.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and safety of drilling and blasting operations alongside with ore beneficiation efficiency.
1 dwg, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: suspended well stem comprises flat elements and an elastic link. At the same time flat elements are made as two hingedly joined half-discs joined to each other, length of each equals 0.55-0.7 dw, and width - 0.65-0.9 dw. At one side each element is rounded, following the well circumference. A rope is fixed to the hinged joint, so that the hinged joint is arranged at the bottom.
EFFECT: higher operational reliability of the device, intensified process of rocks grinding, reduced specific consumption of explosive, higher quality of rock mass grinding, simplified and cheaper design.
SUBSTANCE: during development of arrangement diagram of bore pits the location points of bottoms of bore pits are arranged on explosion plane on bottom-hole of set of bore pits. Programme product of design of arrangement diagram of bore pits determines absent parametres of bore pits considered from bottom-hole of set of bore pits to navigation plane. Programme product is capable of determining initial location point of bore pit and direction of bottom-hole. Programme product also makes explosion technical calculation of arranged bore pits.
EFFECT: method and programme product for development of arrangement diagram of bore pits is improved.
25 cl, 20 dwg
SUBSTANCE: location of first queue wells is shifted in relation to last queue wells of the previous blast of current horizon and wells of higher horizon, and the location of next queue wells is shifted in relation to wells of previous blast of higher horizon.
EFFECT: increase of drilling-and-blasting operations effectiveness ensured by decrease of wells waste due to rock falling, improvement of rock crushing quality and bench toe working out.
3 tbl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to blasting and may be used in mining industry in blasting of lengthy pieces of rocks of various strength. Invention consists in the fact that well blasting is carried out with number of wells in a row equal to 5 and with delay between sections equal to (10÷15)×a ms, where a - distance between wells in a row, wells in a wedge explode relative to each other with the delay equal to (15÷25)×b ms, where b - distance between rows of wells, besides, at first well is exploded, which is arranged in the top of wedge, and then - in the order of moving away from top of wedge.
EFFECT: reduced height of heap of exploded rock mass, less throwing of exploded rock mass, reduction of seismic effect from mass explosion and increased quality of rock mass grinding.
SUBSTANCE: in the proposed method there defined is the quantity of air supplied to the dead-end underground working ventilated by infusion method. EC charge with diametre not less than 50 mm and length not less than 6 charge diametres is blasted in steel shell with wall thickness not less than 5 mm in test room, which is created in the underground working by means of isolating cross-piece that has a hole for ventilating air output. After explosion ventilating air is exhausted and with the aid of gas-analyser there performed is constant measurement of toxic gases concentration till the decrease of their contents up to gas-analyser threshold response and gaseous air pollutants are calculated. Note that additionally at explosion moment there measured is EC charge detonation speed for detonation process completeness control.
EFFECT: provision of defining of explosives gaseous air pollutant at the places of their use.
1 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in mineral resource industry for testing of industrial explosives (EC) made at the places of their use. The proposed method includes location of EC charge into shell cavity, EC charge blasting in it, defining the volume of extended cavity and calculation of relative working efficiency of EC charge. As the shell there used is steel seamless pipe with diametre not less than 50 mm, wall thickness not less than 5 mm and length not less than 10 charge diametres. Over the pipe at a distance of 0.54-0.60 of charge length away from initiation beginning there tightly arranged is gauging ring made of steel 45 with diametre not less than 150 mm, height 30-50 mm. Note that there performed is the blasting of EC tested charge and 6ZHV ammonite charge as reference one and there defined are the changed volumes of inner cavities of gauging rings of tested and reference EC charges. The calculation of explosive working capacity is performed in relation to the volumes of inner cavities of gauging rings of tested and reference EC charges after explosion. Note that additionally there measured is EC charge detonation speed for detonation process completeness control.
EFFECT: provision of relative working capacity defining of modern industrial large particle explosives.
1 tbl, 12 ex
SUBSTANCE: method for destruction of solid rocks or concrete, includes installation and driving of devices filled with mixture of substances in blast holes, initiation of combustion reactions in devices in non-detonation mode, accompanied by development of appropriate pressure in blast holes. Non-detonation mode of combustion is provided by application of mineral oxidiser in the form of pellets with size of 0.1-5.0 mm, which fills up to 95% of sealed device volume, besides prior to installation of device into blast hole, device cover is opened, liquid hydrocarbon fuel is poured into it in stoichiometric amount, cover is closed, and device is shaken. In version of method, dry sealed blast holes are filled with mixture of mineral oxidiser in the form of pellets with size of 0.1-5.0 mm with liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Initiation of combustion reactions is done by means of initiation facility arranged in the form of thin exploding wire, connected to source of high-voltage electric pulse.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to considerably simplify operations at site of works performance, to increase reliability of method actuation, its safety, to reduce cost of works and therefore increase landmine effect from method application.
SUBSTANCE: combined charging stem bag includes suspension cone made from organic material, for example from rubber or plastic mass, which is connected to cable traction, and polyfractional charging part with predominance of crushed stone with fraction size of 10-20 mm in the first portions. At that, suspension cone has biconical groove in its middle part.
EFFECT: simplifying the design and increasing the explosive energy owing to improving the locking reliability of the explosion products, thus providing continuous circularity of charging cavity.
SUBSTANCE: in charging steam bag with spacer gate, which includes suspension part made from organic material, for example from plastic mass and polyfractional charging part with predominance of crushed stone with fraction size of 10-20 mm in the first portions, according to the invention, the suspension part is made in the form of a reservoir with thickened bottom, which has biconical shape.
EFFECT: simplifying the design of combined stem bag due to rejection of housing of the suspension part.
SUBSTANCE: combined organic plug comprises a spacer part in the form of a cylinder, in the cavity of which a spacer cone is inserted, connected to a cable traction. At the same time the cylinder is made in the form of a jacket from a soft material, for instance, from a dense cloth, the upper part of the jacket is equipped with a split ring from elastic material along well diameter, and the lower one - with a cord, the spacer cone is made of organic material, for instance, from plastic mass or wood, with a bore in the central part, and a filling part, for instance, from bore mud, is placed into the jacket and on top of the spacer part.
EFFECT: increased reliability of detonation productions enclosure in a charging cavity to the moment of complete destruction of adjacent rocks with a combined plug.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: well charge spread method involves suspension at the specified depth of the borehole gate made in the form of cone with biconical groove in the middle part, and its wedging up by filling of several portions of crushed stone to biconical groove. At that, borehole gate can be made from rubber, wood or plastic mass.
EFFECT: simpler formation of air gap in the explosive charge and higher reliability of the charge spread.
SUBSTANCE: method of charge dispersal in the well involves suspension of bore-hole gate at the specified depth and its locking. At that, as the bore-hole gate there suspended is hollow reservoir of biconical shape, which is made from plastic mass, and it is locked by filling to the well of several portions of crushed stone with particle size of 10-20 mm.
EFFECT: easier formation of air gap in the explosive charge and higher reliability of charge dispersal by using the mechanical bore-hole gate.
SUBSTANCE: during implementation of the method a stem the cross dimension of which is smaller than well diameter is lowered into well by means of stem lowering mechanisms attached to the stem. First, expansion is made in well at distance of 1-2.5 m from day surface; then, stem with stem lowering mechanisms fixed on one of its sides is lowered into well and its edges are located perpendicular to well wall till it reaches the expansion into which the stem ends are led.
EFFECT: increasing blast efficiency, reliability if stem installation, and reducing the cost of blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: combined charge shaping method involves formation of charge in water-flooded part of the well from water-resistant explosive, arrangement on mirror of water displaced upwards in the well of the mixture consisting of the material having floating properties, capable of withstanding the weight of charge from non-water-resistant explosive, on which non-water-resistant explosive is lowered. At that, material having floating properties and binding agent are pre-mixed; the obtained mixture is poured on surface of water displaced upwards with water-resistant explosive; after mixture is moistened due to contact with water, it is left in the well for the period required for mixture to cure on water surface, and after the obtained mixture is cured, non-water-resistant explosive is arranged on it.
EFFECT: enlarging the capabilities of the material having floating properties, and reducing the manufacturing cost of blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: suspended well stem is arranged in the form of a solid cylinder, diametre of which is approximated and comparable to the well diametre to the maximum. The cylinder is installed at the depth of the massif with intensive cracking. Between a charge and a stem there is an air gap. The upper and lower ends of the cylinder are arranged as truncated in parallel to each other, besides the length L of the large axis of the formed ellipse equals 1.15-1.25 of the well diametre, besides, the upper end is fixed to the crosspiece arranged above the well head with a rope fixed near the lower edge of the truncated part of the stem.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to use the energy of explosion products to the maximum, to intensify the process of rocks grinding, to reduce the specific weight of explosives, to increase quality of rock mass grinding, to increase reliability of the well stem, to simplify its manufacturing.
SUBSTANCE: method provides for delivery of emulsion explosive by means of pump to charging hose and during transportation via the latter of components of emulsion explosive components the supply to annular gap between the hose wall and the flow of water composition with surface-active substance. Alkyl benzene sulphonate (NP-1 sulphanole) or alkyl sulphate of secondary alcohol (penta-surface active substances) in quantity of 0.05-0.1% is used as surface active substance.
EFFECT: introduction of surface active substances allows reducing inter-phase surface tension between emulsion explosives and wall of charging hose, which considerably reduces the pressure during the charging process and excludes the break of the charging hose.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of blast-hole drilling and may be used in various industries, using blasting in rocks with application of emulsion explosive substances (EES). In method to charge deep dry wells with emulsion explosive substance sensibilised by method of gas generation, including preparation of emulsion ES in mixing-charging machine, addition of gas generating additive into emulsion matrix and charging well with emulsion ES, according to invention, well charging is carried out in stages: at first lower charge of emulsion ES is formed with height sufficient to provide for charge tightness in bottom part, corresponding to critical diameter of emulsion ES charge detonation for this diameter of well with installation of primer in it, then charge separator is placed to lower charge of emulsion ES to transfer pressure of mass arranged above part of charge of emulsion ES at walls of well, for instance, in the form of column of cellular polystyrene with height of 4…6 diameters of well, and well charging is continued, when required, repeating procedure of charge separation into parts and arrangement of a separate primer in each part.
EFFECT: easier formation of emulsion ES charge of increased length by application of regular permanent parameters of emulsion by separation of emulsion ES charge into parts along height.
FIELD: earth or rock drilling, particularly means adapted to reduce mutual impact influence of explosives during well development and operation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves arranging one or more shock-absorbing members near one or more explosive doses, which prevent propagation of shock caused by detonation of the explosive doses. Shock-absorbing members include porous material, for instance gas-filled liquid or porous solid material, having 2%-9% porosity. Shock-proof screen may be arranged between detonating cord and explosive doses. Hollow charges may be placed in capsule.
EFFECT: increased reliability and capacity.
57 cl, 30 dwg