Method of vertical mine backfilling

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method includes layer filling of a mine with a backfilling material. The backfilling layer in the form of a cylindrical concrete block is previously made on the surface in an autoclave chamber. Concrete blocks are made with a cylindrical groove, at the same time the upper and lower surfaces are arranged as truncated. Installation of cylindrical concrete blocks in the shaft is carried out onto a hydraulic insulation putty. A gap between mine walls and blocks is solidified with a shrinkage-free water-resistant hardening concrete mix.

EFFECT: development of a water-resistant and shrinkage-free backfilling massif in a vertical mine to the moment of its backfilling completion.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for the elimination of vertical excavations in existing and liquidated mining enterprises.

When closing and reconstruction of coal mines according to the regulations [Branch instruction on the order of liquidation and conservation enterprises for mining of coal (slate) / Ippodrom, Wassimi, Ammaniti and others - M.: scientific station, RAS, 1997. - 27 S.; instruction on the procedure of conducting of works on liquidation and conservation of dangerous industrial objects associated with subsoil use. - M.: Gosgortechnadzor of the Russian Federation, 1999. - 25 S.] you need to produce a bookmark of liquidated vertical revealing mining non-shrink waterproof material to prevent infiltration of water between aquifers, mine output gas from the goaf to the surface mining and subsidence of the earth surface in the area adjacent to vertical development.

In recent years in the Russian Federation carried out an intensive research to develop effective technical and technological solutions bookmarks workings of coal mines. While methods have been developed layer-by-layer bookmarks hardening mixtures vertical mine workings. To create a dimensionally stable and waterproof Zack is udachnogo array data the methods used expensive hardening mixtures on the basis of mining waste, heat power and metallurgical industries, containing a large amount of cement or lime binder and additives [Korneev E.V. Composite cement-free binder from industrial waste and backfill mixture based on it / Evernew, Shipulina. - M.: Publishing house Association building universities, 2009. - 139 C.].

In the construction and mining industries along with the use of reinforced concrete is widely used and precast concrete.

The use of precast concrete for laying vertical mine workings instead of monolithic will allow to reduce time of bookmarks and immediately get in the vertical development of impermeable non-shrink backfill array with the required properties for cheaper, containing a smaller amount of binder and additives concrete mixtures.

It is known that in autoclave processing of solid mixtures of autoclave type hardening significantly improved physico-mechanical properties of concrete. While the cost of autoclaved materials on 15-35% lower concrete with similar properties [Bozhenov P.I. Technology autoclaved materials. - L.: Stroiizdat, Leningrad. separa-tion, 1978. - 368 C.]. With respect to the vertical tab workings by autoclave processing of filling mixture can immediately get a waterproof non-shrink backfill m is ssiv with the necessary properties for cheaper, containing a smaller amount of binder and additives filling mixtures from waste industry.

A known method of construction of filling the array with large voids, which includes the construction of fences in the developed space, the flow in the upper part of the goaf stowing material, with fences erected by placing them in mined-out space in a checkerboard pattern (patent RF №2013564, CL 21F 15/00, published 30.05.1994).

However, obtained in this case filling the array does not meet the requirements for filling the array in a vertical mine workings on messagecast and vodovoroty to the same fence in the developed space in this way are constructed of wooden elements, which are prone to rot.

Closest to the technical nature of the way bookmarks vertical mine workings, including layer-by-layer formation of the filling mass of the granular backfill mixture, consisting of burnt rocks and lime rock binder (patent RF №2290513, CL 21F 15/00, published 27.12.2006. Bull. No. 36).

However, application of this method requires a large amount of Portland cement, lime and special additives. The process of bookmarks vertical excavation very long, because after laying each slo is necessary technological break on its impregnation with water. In addition, when using this method of filling the array becomes waterproof and dimensionally stable only after complete hydration of the binder components, i.e. after 8-12 months. So after laying the barrel of filling the array may still a long time to filter through its thickness water and shrink, which, consequently, leads to additional costs for monitoring and dsaklad vertical output.

The technical result - the creation of the waterproof and non-shrink backfill array in a vertical mine workings to the end of her bookmarks, shorten bookmarks, reducing consumption of binder and additives.

This technical result is achieved in that in the method of bookmarks vertical mine workings, including layer-by-layer filling of excavation backfill material according to the invention the filling layer in the form of cylindrical concrete blocks made on the surface in the autoclave chamber, the radius of cylindrical concrete blocks accept less than the radius of the vertical development of at least 4 maximum size of a piece of coarse aggregate concrete mixture used for seminolecounty gap between the walls of the barrel and cylindrical concrete block installation of cylindrical concrete blocks in the trunk make hudroisolatsioonimastiks, the upper and lower surfaces of cylindrical concrete blocks carry beveled on the upper surface of cylindrical concrete block in the center include a cylindrical recess, the diameter of which is in a cylindrical concrete blocks increases along the length of the shaft in the upward direction.

Surface vertical excavation has many irregularities, while the descent of cylindrical concrete blocks in the trunk to place of installation, the necessary clearance between the cylindrical concrete block and barrel walls for the passage of air, therefore cylindrical concrete blocks should be made with a diameter smaller than the diameter of the barrel, and to fill the gap hardening of the concrete mixture with the desired physical and mechanical properties, and the gap between the walls of cylindrical concrete blocks and wall framing must be greater than the diameter of beenapproved and at least 4 times to exceed the maximum size of a piece of coarse aggregate concrete mix adopted for seminolecounty gap between the walls of the barrel and cylindrical concrete block. (According to SNiP 3.03.01-87 "Bearing and enclosing structures" the largest size of aggregate for thin-walled structures must be no more than 1/3-1/2 of the thickness of the product and not more than 0,33 internal diameter of the pipeline. With regard tog is, that the outer diameter of the pipe must be less than the clearance between the cylindrical concrete block walls and framing, it is necessary that this gap is at least 4 times exceeded the maximum size of a piece of coarse aggregate concrete mix.) Since filling the array must be waterproof, it is necessary to minimize the filtration of water through the surface of contact between the cylindrical concrete blocks on the upper surface of cylindrical concrete block is applied waterproofing mastic.

To prevent displacement of cylindrical concrete blocks relative to each other in case of strong lateral pressure, as well as for the alignment of cylindrical concrete blocks when installed, the upper and lower surfaces of cylindrical concrete blocks are beveled.

The creation of cylindrical concrete block cylindrical indentations caused by the necessity to reduce the cost of backfill materials and the weight of cylindrical concrete blocks to facilitate its transportation and descent in the vertical output.

As the pressure on cylindrical concrete block increases with the depth of excavation, the bottom of cylindrical concrete blocks should have a higher strength than the overlying, this is achieved by reducing the size of the cylindrical recess in the lower cyl is Harikesa concrete blocks compared to its size at the top of a cylindrical concrete blocks, and in the sediment to bedrock must be applied cylindrical concrete blocks without cylindrical grooves. The diameter of the cylindrical recess in the cylindrical concrete blocks (wall thickness) is determined on the basis of the strength and seepage calculations.

To ensure the sustainability of the cylindrical walls of concrete block and make it vodovoroty it is advisable to fill the cylindrical cavity non-toxic, non-flammable waste industry that must be disposed of (for example, fuel ash mixture). The use of toxic and combustible waste is excluded, as in the case of a tectonic disturbance these wastes can enter the environment and cause significant environmental harm.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, there is shown a schematic bookmarks vertical mining (stem) (figure 1), type cylindrical concrete block on top (figure 2) and the vertical section of cylindrical concrete block (figure 3).

The way bookmarks vertical excavation is as follows (figure 1). Produce a bookmark mine workings horizons 1 where they mate with the vertical output 2 by the construction of insulating bridges 3. To the mouth develop deliver and store the cylindrical concrete blocks 4 (hereinafter - blocks). Put a certain amount the in the blocks in the trunk, then beenapproved 5 serves an estimated quantity of concrete mix 6 and blocks zamonolichivajut. After installing the unit, proceed to the next installation. Before lowering the unit into the barrel on its upper surface, apply a layer of waterproof mastic.

The implementation of the method is illustrated on the example bookmark the vertical development of dimensionally stable and waterproof blocks made from a mixture of autoclaved type of hardening on the basis of the burnt rocks, lime and dowolnego gypsum [Knigin of GI Construction materials from the burnt rocks. - M.: stroiizdat, 1966. - 206 S.].

For the calculation of parameters bookmarks take the following initial data:

name of excavationtrunk
the depth of the trunk500 m
trunk diameter6,0 m
power load50 m

Block design is shown in figure 2 and 3.

The diameter of the notches in the blocks and its depth is determined as follows.

The diameter of the recess (d1) is determined from the condition

where dp- the diameter of the recess of the i-th block of the conditions ensure the required strength in rikaline compression, m;

dNR- the diameter of the recess of the conditions ensure the required water-block, M.

where D is the diameter of the block, m;

Pithe pressure of the overlying blocks, N;

kC- factor is equal to 3;

RSG- tensile strength of concrete in compression, MPa.

where δithe wall thickness of the block, m

where J is the hydraulic gradient, is determined experimentally, for used concrete it is 0.1;

- required permeability backfill block is 1.0·10-3m/day;

the permeability of concrete block for the adopted composition is 6.0·10-6m/day.

The depth of the notches is determined by the formula (5)

where h is the depth of excavation, m;

H - height of the block, m;

Hbottomsthe thickness of the bottom of the block, m (the thickness of the bottom block take from the condition Hbottomsi,).

The parameters of the blocks are changed after every 100 m depth of the trunk, they are listed in the table.

Table
The parameters of the blocks used in the bookmark
Value is the depth (m)
0-5050-100100-200200-300300-400400-500
Height, m1,0
The diameter D, mthe 5.7
The tensile strength of concrete in compression RSG, MPa15
Brand concrete waterproofingB2
The diameter of the cylindrical cavity d, m0,00and 5.305,004,400,000,00
The depth of the cylindrical cavity, m0,000,800,650,350,000,00
The volume of concrete in the same block, the m3is 25.507,86was 12.7520,19is 25.50Unit weight, kg510001572025500403805100051000
The volume of the cavity, m30,0017,6412,765,320,000,00
The volume of the cavity, % of total0,0069,1750,0220,860,000,00
Mass of burnt rocks in one unit, kg400661235020033317234006640066
Weight of lime in one unit, kg359011071795284235903590
Weight dowolnego plaster in one unit, kg1353 417677107113531353
The concrete density, kg/m32000

In the calculation tab get that to bookmark shaft concrete blocks should: 16,43 tons of burnt rocks, 1,47 tons of lime and 0.55 tons dowolnego plaster.

The blocks are made on the surface of the autoclave. The parameters of autoclave processing take on the peak standard mode according to the recommendations [of Bozhenov P.I. Technology autoclaved materials. - L.: Stroiizdat, Leningrad. separa-tion, 1978. - 368 C.]: maximum vapor pressure of 2.1 MPa; duration predstatelnoy exposure 4 hours; the duration of the lifting pressure of water vapor for 1 hour; duration of exposure at a maximum pressure of 0 hours and the duration of the descent pressure for 7 hours.

The descent of blocks in the trunk carry crane KS-8362. Before lowering the unit in the trunk on the upper surface of the block is applied waterproofing mastic, such as bitumen.

For seminolecounty blocks take dimensionally stable and impermeable backfill mixture.

The claimed method allows to ensure the safety support complex on all the protected period, to provide favorable e the ideological environment in adjacent areas (prevention of failures of the earth surface, the formation of the hydraulic connection between aquifers, the output of the mine gases on the earth's surface and so on) by creating vertical mine workings waterproof and non-shrink backfill array to the end of her bookmarks and reduce the period of its erection, the flow rate of filling materials, binders and special additives.

1. The way bookmarks vertical mine workings, including layer-by-layer filling of excavation backfill material, wherein the filling layer in the form of cylindrical concrete blocks made on the surface in the autoclave chamber, the radius of cylindrical concrete blocks accept less than the radius of the vertical development of at least 4 maximum size of a piece of coarse aggregate concrete mixture used for seminolecounty gap between the walls of the barrel and cylindrical concrete block installation of cylindrical concrete blocks in the trunk to produce waterproofing mastic top and bottom surfaces of cylindrical concrete blocks perform oblique.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that on the upper surface of the filling unit in the center include a cylindrical recess, the volume of which in the backfill blocks increases along the length of the shaft in the upward direction.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method to increase stability of a ceiling in downward slicing development of a deposit with backfilling includes serial tunnelling and backfilling of parallel mines - stope entries, leaving ore pillars with width equal to one, two or three spans of mines, backfilling of mines with a concrete mix, and after backfilling hardens, ore pillars left between concrete strips are mined. At the same time the vault of stope entries is arranged as deep, besides, ore pillars are left in the roof between concrete backfilling of adjacent stope entries.

EFFECT: higher stability of a mine ceiling.

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Stowing mix // 2445464

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: stowing mix, containing crushed granulated blast-furnace slag, an inert filler, water and ground limestone, includes the specified acid slag of III grade, containing particles of less than 3 mcm - at least 13%, the specified limestone, containing particles of less than 3 mcm - 45%, the inert filler is represented by rock refuse from wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites and additionally - a superplasticiser SP-1, at the following ratio of components, wt %: specified slag - 12; specified filler - 60; specified limestone - 10; superplasticiser SP-1 - 0.5 of slag content; water - balance.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of binders, higher strength of massif at the age of 28 days, wastes recycling, reduced contamination of environment.

1 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: device includes metal pressure shield in the form of rectangular parallelepiped consisting of four triangular prisms attached to each other, the bases of which have the shape of oblique right triangle, drain pipes with filters and sampling pipes with plug, door opening with door made in the shield, soft covers arranged on upper and lateral sides of shield, the height of which exceeds distance between shield and mine working section outline at their complete filling with compressed air. At bottom, on the side of filling mass the shield is equipped with rubber-coated canvas. Soft covers installed to lateral sides of shield are arranged on brackets attached throughout the height of connection strap to its side walls. Width of brackets is accepted equal to 2/3 of width of soft covers, and distance between brackets is determined from the following ratio: hmax>a>hmin, where a - distance between brackets, m; hmax - maximum height of soft covers at supply of compressed air to it, m; hmin - minimum height of soft covers after air discharge from it, m.

EFFECT: reducing labour intensity at installation of connection strap, increasing efficiency and improving reliability of control of filling mass.

5 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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1 tbl

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves driving of mine workings of the first order at an angle of 5-7° to horizon through pillars with width equal to one bay, their further stowing with stowing mixture and its solidification, driving of entry ways of the second order with their further stowing with stowing mixture. Entry ways of the second order are driven with the height increased in relation to entry ways of the first order by 0.7-1.0 m. Cavities under roof of adjacent entry ways of the first order are filled with stowing mixture of entry ways of the second order, thus providing their stowing and contact of covering mining thickness with stowing mass.

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FIELD: mining.

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1 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: mining.

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2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: filling mixture compound includes ground granulated acid blast-furnace slag containing particles, %: less than 1 mcm - 4.3; less than 3 mcm - 12.6; less than 5 mcm - 17.2; as inert filler are processing wastes of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites, which contain particles, %: less than 1 mcm - 3.4; less than 3 mcm - 12.6; less than 5 mcm -17.2, water and in addition - composition of lime-gypsum byproduct of vanadium production and SP-1 superplasticising agent at the following component ratio, wt %: the above slag 16.1, the above composition 4.8, the above wastes 57.7, SP-1 superplasticising agent 0.0805 and water is the rest.

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4 tbl

FIELD: mining engineering.

SUBSTANCE: according to the procedure mine working is filled with backfilling mixture layer by layer. Upon laying each layer of backfilling mixture is subjected to autoclave treatment; for this purpose an autoclave chamber is constructed in the vertical mine working by arranging an isolating bridge in it at distance for backfilled part of borehole equal to thickness of a backfilling layer. Thickness is multiple to a step of shaft furniture. The bridge is positioned under the tier of a divider. Upon autoclave treatment of the laid layer all furniture above it is dismantled by height of the backfilling layer.

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EFFECT: higher safety, higher efficiency.

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FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of rows of main platforms along bed length in staggered order with length equal or divisible by step value for support displacement, and placing filling material thereon. Along length of main platforms between ceiling and bed soil post support is mounted, upon which filling material is fed. After that between main platforms additional platforms are erected with wedge supporting, and main platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support and it is displaced for one drive step. During that filling material, while lowering, unwedges wedge support between ceiling and bed soil and forms artificial supports. After that additional platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support. After movement of cleaning face for two drive steps operations for constructing artificial supports are repeated. Distance between main platforms along bed fall line are selected from mathematical expression.

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2 dwg

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FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of deposit resources by chambers through one of them, construction of ice-rock backfill in extracted space of primary chambers and following extraction of inter-chamber blocks. In inter-chamber blocks wedge-shaped slits are formed immediately in ceiling of deposit, space of slits is filled with ice-rock backfill, while slits are formed of inter-chamber blocks for 1/3 of width.

EFFECT: higher durability, higher effectiveness.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has surface composed of upper section with wedges and lower section and backfill material placed on said surface. Upper section is made in form of a rectangle, composed of rectangular triangle and rectangular trapezoid with possible displacement of trapezoid along triangle hypotenuse. Lower section is made of two plates, mounted on holder, fixed to pipe for feeding compressed air. Plate, positioned above the trapezoid, is mounted with possible counter-clockwise rotation around holder. Value of greater base of trapezoid hδ is selected from relation hδ = m - 0.9k, where m - bed massiveness, m, k - size of backfill material, m.

EFFECT: simplified construction, lower laboriousness.

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Backfill mix // 2270921

FIELD: mining industry, particularly to develop mineral deposit along with backfilling of worked-out areas.

SUBSTANCE: backfill mix comprises cement, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag, filler and water. The backfill mix additionally has shredded straw. Grinded diabase is used as the filler. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): cement - 2.9-5.07, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag - 15.21-16.91, grinded diabase - 52.24-53.22, shredded straw - 0.02-0.076, water - remainder.

EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance.

2 tbl

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in development of minerals with systems involving filling mined-out space with solidifying stowing mix. The latter is composed of broken lime-containing binder in the form of active aluminosilicate material (5.6-33.2%) and fired carbonate rocks (1.0-16.7%), tempering water with phlegmatizer (10.6-27.5%), and filler. Carbonate rocks are fired at 900-1200°C, contain active calcium-magnesium oxides CaO+MgO at least 40% and not more than 9.1% based on the total weight of mix, which are broken to screen residue 0.08 mm not more than 15%. Active aluminosilicate material is fired marl or fired clay, or fired kimberlite ore concentration tails, or granulated blast furnace slag. Tempering water contains phlegmatizer in amounts found from formula [Ph] = (0.005-0.021)*Cr/Cw, where [Ph] amount of water in 1 L tempering water, kg; (0.005-0.021) coefficient taking into account proportion between phlegmatizer and fired carbonate rocks in mix; Cr amount of carbonate rocks in mix, kg; and Cw experimentally found consumption of tempering water with mix, L. When indicated amount of CaO+MgO in mixture is exceeded, CaO and MgO are converted into hydroxides by spraying with water in amount not higher than 20% of the weight of fired carbonate rocks (on conversion to active CaO+MgO). As carbonate rocks, host rocks of kimberlite deposits are used; as filler, sand and/or concentration tails, and/or broken aluminosilicate rock; and, as phlegmatizer, industrial-grade lignosulfonate or superplasticizer.

EFFECT: improved workability of mix and reduced cost.

5 cl, 4 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: mining and underground building, particularly underground mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves double-stage mineral deposit development; erecting artificial rock-and-concrete supports of previously cut primary chamber roof rock in at least two adjacent primary chambers; extracting secondary chamber resources; filling space defined by cut rock with hardening material mix. Mines for drilling and/or filling operations performing are arranged in deposit roof over or inside ore pillars of secondary chambers. Primary chamber roof rock is cut by well undercharge method. Hardening material mix is supplied via cross headings located between mine and cavities and/or via undercharged well sections remained after rock cutting operation.

EFFECT: increased safety and economical efficiency due to reduced number of drilling and filling mines or accompanying mineral excavation, possibility to use drilling and filling mines at secondary chamber development stage for ore cutting, venting and roof condition control.

5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, particularly underground mineral mining with excavated space filling with hardening filling mix.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing grinded lime-containing binding agent, mixing water and filler; delivering the filling mix to area to be filled; filling mine space with the filling mix in several layers. The lime-containing binding agent is active silica-alumina material and burnt carbonate rock including at least 40% of active Cao+MgO. Above rock is grinded so that not more than 15% of grinded material remains on sieve having 0.08 orifice dimensions. Amount of the grinded burnt carbonate rock is selected so that active Cao+MgO is not more than 9.1% of filling mix mass. Water consumption for oxide Ca and Mg conversion in hydroxide is not more than 20% of burnt carbonate rock recalculated to active CaO+MgO. Retarder is added in mixing water in amount determined from R=(0.005-0.021)-Cr/Cw, where R is retarder content in 1 l of mixing water, kg; (0.005-0.021) is factor, which considers retarder-burnt carbonate rock ratio in the filling mix; Cr is burnt carbonate rock content in filling mix, kg; Cw is experimentally determined mixing water content in filling mix, l. Mine space filling rate is chosen from hardening time and self-heating degree of filing mass. The filling mix contains active silica-alumina material in amount of 5.6-33.2% by weight, carbonate rock burnt at 900-1200°C and containing active CaO+MgO of not less than 40% in amount of 1.0-16.7%, mixing water with retarder in amount of 10.6-27.5%, remainder is filler.

EFFECT: increased operational safety due to improved quality mine space filling, reduced costs and increased mine intensity.

6 cl, 4 tbl, 5 dwg

Fill mix // 2282724

FIELD: mining, particularly to develop valuable mineral deposits along with goaf filling.

SUBSTANCE: fill mix comprises quick lime, grinded blast furnace slag, filler, industrial lignosulphonate and water. The fill mix additionally comprises trisodiumphosphate. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): quick lime - 1.61-4.8, grinded blast furnace slag - 10.79-14.4, filler - 60.85-62.14, industrial lignosulphonate - 0.016-0.11, trisodiumphosphate - 0.124-0.35, remainder is water.

EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance of fill mix over the full fill body.

2 tbl

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