Method to increase stability of ceiling in downward slicing development of deposit with backfilling
SUBSTANCE: method to increase stability of a ceiling in downward slicing development of a deposit with backfilling includes serial tunnelling and backfilling of parallel mines - stope entries, leaving ore pillars with width equal to one, two or three spans of mines, backfilling of mines with a concrete mix, and after backfilling hardens, ore pillars left between concrete strips are mined. At the same time the vault of stope entries is arranged as deep, besides, ore pillars are left in the roof between concrete backfilling of adjacent stope entries.
EFFECT: higher stability of a mine ceiling.
The method relates to mining and can be used to develop powerful weak deposits of ores in conditions where it is necessary to prevent subsidence covering goaf ores and rocks. For example, under the water, the bottoms of the pits, flooded Quaternary deposits.
Known "Method of bookmarks when descending extraction of minerals by benches" (patent RU №2069765, publ. 27.11.1996)providing for the laying of the benches in three layers, the top layer with the aim of removing negotated is filled with the mixture with the addition of the expanding component of the NRS-1 (non-explosive expanding mixture for mining and drilling operations), providing an increase of the bookmark 10%.
The disadvantage of this method is that when the small thickness of the underlay layer bookmarks extension of a mixture of 10% does not provide poducavanje PetroChina with a rough outline of the outcrop. In addition, the problem of wicking molded mixture for tightness in the roof benches also not solved.
Known system of development ore at the mine Orel the benches with the tab in descending order (V.V. Mikhaylov, Vfend, Hempology. "Layer-based development system with a mined-out space" Mining magazine. M., Nedra, No. 8, p.39-43). For completeness bookmarks Zachodni pass with a slope of 5-7°.
The disadvantage of this method both the cookies completeness bookmarks is that on sites with big tunes ore for support because of the unevenness of exposure in the roof and tightening mezhramnyh periods of voids behind the lining remain non-pledged.
There is a method of testing weak ores under the reservoir downstream layers from top to bottom with laying the primary and secondary benches. For completeness bookmarks layers are given a slope of 6° (Bphdboot. Layer-by-layer development of ore deposits under artificial roof. M., Nedra, 1978, S, 134).
The disadvantage of this method is that to fill the voids with the tab on the sections with great tunes ore for support, because of the unevenness of exposure in the roof is not enough incline benches 6° to the horizon. The gaps under the roof remain non-pledged.
There is a method of testing benches during construction of the protective covering of the treatment blocks (DINITROL, Unintened. "Assessment of the impact of construction of the protective covering on the deformation capacity of the array"/proceedings of the Tula State University. Tula, 2009, Issue 4, S-148), with the characteristic of Yakovlevsky deposits tunes ore for the project outline (s, 3)taken as a prototype.
The method adopted for the prototype, illustrated by figure 1. Figure 1: 1 - the section of the first stage, laid concrete; 2 - the second section turns to the bookmark; 3 - voids in the roof of arabtec first queue; 4 - rock pillar. In this way treatment Zachodni of the first stage are in a different sequence, through the pillars with a width equal to one (Fig 1,a), two (1,b) or three spans workings, then provide them with concrete. After hardening bookmark develop left between the concrete strips ore pillars.
The disadvantage of this method is that in the benches, fixed arched pliable support, in areas with a large excess of ore for the lining because of the unevenness of exposure in the roof and tightening mezhramnyh periods of voids behind the lining remain non-pledged, because of this mass excavation block, covering PetroChina mining, it hangs above the tab. The space between the backfill and concrete ceilings represent a potential danger of spontaneous, uncontrolled planting of cover thickness on the backfill concrete, demolition and education in roof water conducting fractures. In addition, the roof is in a friable ores has an uneven profile with bumps and hollows.
The technical result is to increase the stability of the ore PetroChina when practicing powerful weak deposits of ores. As a consequence, increases the safety of operations at design time.
The technical result is achieved in that in the method of increasing the stability of PetroChina when the layer is an integral part of the development of deposits in descending order with the tab, including sequential driving of parallel openings (water treatment faces), leaving the ore pillars with a width equal to one, two or three spans of the workings, the tab openings with concrete, after curing bookmark the development is left between the concrete strips ore pillars, according to the invention, a set of water treatment faces perform podjelismy in the roof between the concrete tab adjacent water treatment faces leave the ore pillars.
The implementation of the code of the treatment Zachodni podjelismy provides a more uniform distribution of the load of the overlying strata in the protective overlay. The stability of the ore PetroChina enhanced by its support for filling the concrete and allows to eliminate or reduce the negative impact of negotated on the stability of the overlying excavation unit thickness of ores and rocks.
Ore pillars left in the roof between the concrete tab adjacent water treatment faces, act as supports between the ceilings and concrete laying the top layer.
The essence of the method is illustrated in figure 2 and figure 3. Figure 2 shows a cross-section of the treatment benches, where in figure 2,and shows a lower arch treatment benches, adopted on Yakovlevsky mine (the prototype), figure 2,b shows polyamory vault. Figure 3 - cross section of the upper layer of the workings climb the buffer of net code, fixed anchor lining.
The method includes the duties of benches with podjelismy arch (1) in cross-section, leaving the ore pillars of various widths and the mined-out space with concrete, fastening Zachodni anchor supports (2) and a bookmark with the placement of backfill pipeline (3) under the roof of the treatment zagadki. After hardening bookmark develop left between the concrete strips ore pillars. Thanks a modified form of code generation is provided in contact with backfill concrete ore array on the lateral parts of the code regardless of the voids left under the roof of the treatment Zachodni as a result of negotated (4) and shrink backfill concrete.
Example. On the horizon - 370 m Yakovlevsky mine build a protective overlay to protect the underlying excavation blocks from the breakthrough of water from aquifers above the ore body. Protective overlay is a system of treatment benches laid concrete mixture.
Numerous measurements have shown that adopted the technology of construction and cross-section of the water treatment faces does not provide power transmission from the overlying strata on the protective overlay, due to the voids above the backfill array. Ore ceilings hanging over the ceiling and there is the possibility that the ceilings will sit on the overlap, that is, it leads to more intensive vyvaloobrazovanie.
The change of the cross section of the water treatment faces for conditions with low arch polyamory keeps filling with concrete ore array on the lateral parts of the code regardless of the voids left under the roof of the treatment Zachodni as a result of negotated and filling shrinkage of the concrete, which allows to eliminate or reduce the negative impact of negotated on the stability of the overlying excavation unit thickness of ores and rocks.
For the construction of protective overlap with treatment benches with podjelismy vault uses the standard complex tunneling equipment. Zachodni pass drilling and blasting or combine method.
Thus, the method provides increased resistance (strength) PetroChina.
The method of increasing the stability of PetroChina when layering the development of deposits in descending order with tab, including the sequential driving of parallel openings (water treatment faces), leaving the ore pillars with a width equal to one, two or three spans of the workings, the tab openings with concrete, after curing bookmark the development is left between the concrete strips ore pillars, characterized in that the arch of the water treatment faces perform podjelismy in the roof between the concrete tab adjacent water treatment faces leave the ore price is IKI.
SUBSTANCE: stowing mix, containing crushed granulated blast-furnace slag, an inert filler, water and ground limestone, includes the specified acid slag of III grade, containing particles of less than 3 mcm - at least 13%, the specified limestone, containing particles of less than 3 mcm - 45%, the inert filler is represented by rock refuse from wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites and additionally - a superplasticiser SP-1, at the following ratio of components, wt %: specified slag - 12; specified filler - 60; specified limestone - 10; superplasticiser SP-1 - 0.5 of slag content; water - balance.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of binders, higher strength of massif at the age of 28 days, wastes recycling, reduced contamination of environment.
1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: device includes metal pressure shield in the form of rectangular parallelepiped consisting of four triangular prisms attached to each other, the bases of which have the shape of oblique right triangle, drain pipes with filters and sampling pipes with plug, door opening with door made in the shield, soft covers arranged on upper and lateral sides of shield, the height of which exceeds distance between shield and mine working section outline at their complete filling with compressed air. At bottom, on the side of filling mass the shield is equipped with rubber-coated canvas. Soft covers installed to lateral sides of shield are arranged on brackets attached throughout the height of connection strap to its side walls. Width of brackets is accepted equal to 2/3 of width of soft covers, and distance between brackets is determined from the following ratio: hmax>a>hmin, where a - distance between brackets, m; hmax - maximum height of soft covers at supply of compressed air to it, m; hmin - minimum height of soft covers after air discharge from it, m.
EFFECT: reducing labour intensity at installation of connection strap, increasing efficiency and improving reliability of control of filling mass.
SUBSTANCE: method involves arrangement of reinforcing elements made in the form of mesh in filling chamber at the boundary with rock ore to be developed. Reinforcing elements are arranged at distance of 0.05b from each other, where b - chamber width. After installation of reinforcing elements the worked out space is filled with filling mass of various strength. Lower, central and upper part of chamber is filled at 1/10 of its height with curing mixture, and space between them with hydraulic fluid from fine material without binding agent.
EFFECT: reducing the costs; improving manufacturing capabilities.
SUBSTANCE: method involves driving of mine workings of the first order at an angle of 5-7° to horizon through pillars with width equal to one bay, their further stowing with stowing mixture and its solidification, driving of entry ways of the second order with their further stowing with stowing mixture. Entry ways of the second order are driven with the height increased in relation to entry ways of the first order by 0.7-1.0 m. Cavities under roof of adjacent entry ways of the first order are filled with stowing mixture of entry ways of the second order, thus providing their stowing and contact of covering mining thickness with stowing mass.
EFFECT: increasing ore development safety.
SUBSTANCE: composition of a filling mixture, containing cement, a surfactant, a filler and water, as a binder it additionally contains a ground blast-furnace granulated acidulous slag, containing particles of less than 1 mcm of at least 4.3%, the surfactant is a superplasticiser SP-1, and the filler is a mixture of wastes of dressing of wet magnetic separation of ferric quartzites with slag crushed stone at the following ratio of components, wt %: cement - 4.85; specified slag - 12.1; specified crushed stone - 10; specified wastes - 55; superplasticiser SP-1 - 1.0% from cement; water - balance.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of cement, increased strength of massif, recycling of mining and metallurgical industry wastes and wastes of ferric quartzites dressing, reduced contamination of environment for considerable improvement of environment in the region.
1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: filling mixture compound contains the following, wt %: cement - 4.85, ground byproduct of vanadium production - 14.5, washery refuse of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites - 60.2, superplastising agent SP-1 - 1 of cement, and water is the rest.
EFFECT: reducing the consumption of cement at maintaining the accuracy of massif, utilisation of wastes.
2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: filling mixture compound includes ground granulated acid blast-furnace slag containing particles, %: less than 1 mcm - 4.3; less than 3 mcm - 12.6; less than 5 mcm - 17.2; as inert filler are processing wastes of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites, which contain particles, %: less than 1 mcm - 3.4; less than 3 mcm - 12.6; less than 5 mcm -17.2, water and in addition - composition of lime-gypsum byproduct of vanadium production and SP-1 superplasticising agent at the following component ratio, wt %: the above slag 16.1, the above composition 4.8, the above wastes 57.7, SP-1 superplasticising agent 0.0805 and water is the rest.
EFFECT: avoiding expensive cement, use of slag of lower grade, increasing the strength, enlarging and increasing volumes of utilised technogenic wastes for sufficient improvement of ecological environment of the region.
FIELD: mining engineering.
SUBSTANCE: according to the procedure mine working is filled with backfilling mixture layer by layer. Upon laying each layer of backfilling mixture is subjected to autoclave treatment; for this purpose an autoclave chamber is constructed in the vertical mine working by arranging an isolating bridge in it at distance for backfilled part of borehole equal to thickness of a backfilling layer. Thickness is multiple to a step of shaft furniture. The bridge is positioned under the tier of a divider. Upon autoclave treatment of the laid layer all furniture above it is dismantled by height of the backfilling layer.
EFFECT: reduced expenditures, facilitation of favourable ecology.
SUBSTANCE: method involves arrangement in worked out area of backfill material speed converter, supply to the well adjacent to the worked out area of subsequently loose and hardening backfill materials. Elastic closed cover with weight in its lower part and which is fixed on rope with hose is used as speed converter. The above cover is laid on dry backfill material layer; then, it is filled with compressed air till working pressure. Loose backfill material is supplied till the layer is filled with height not exceeding D diameter of cover. Then, hardening backfill material is supplied. Cover is lifted vertically through the height of new layer. Then, cycles for supplying of backfill materials and movement of cover are repeated till complete filling of the worked out area. Diameter D of cover in filled state is accepted equal to 0.2 B, where B is maximum linear size of the worked out area, m.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing distribution efficiency of fineness of backfill material and reducing the wear of speed converter.
SUBSTANCE: filling mixture compound including ground granulated blast-furnace slag, binding agent, inert filler and water contains the specified acid slag as binding agent with the following particle size distribution: less than 1 mcm - 4.3%, less than 3 mcm - 12.6%, less than 5 mcm - 17.2% and dolomite powder containing not less than 10% of particles with size of less than 1 mcm; wastes of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites as inert filler containing not less than 3.4% of particles with size of less than 1 mcm. In addition, composition includes surface active additive - superplasticising agent SP-1 at the following component ratio, wt %: the above slag 12, the above dolomite 10, the above wastes 60, water is the rest, and superplasticising agent SP-1 0.5% of slag.
EFFECT: larger volumes of utilised industrial wastes for sufficient improvement of environmental safety at maintaining the strength during 28 days.
1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: extraction sections or blocks are mined with vertical cuts including two vertical layers of various thickness, the internal one of which is mined by means of drilling method of large-diameter scavenger wells and external one is not mined. In order to ensure safe labour conditions at upper drilling level and uniform output of mineral deposit extracted during large-diameter well drilling, drilling of those wells is performed by shrinking of broken mine rock in them. If the deposit is represented with a bench of conformable beds, the cutting height is accepted equal to total thickness of all beds of that bench, including intermediate rocks. Drilling of scavenger wells is performed throughout the cutting height with shrinkage of broken mine rock in them, and separation of mineral deposit and hollow rock is performed at the stage of general release of racks by means of selective bed-by-bed supply.
EFFECT: creation of safe conditions from the point of view of hydrogeology for high-efficiency development of reserves of extraction sections or blocks outlined with natural or artificial barrier or inter-block pillars.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: weakening a spring of natural balance at both sides of the block and damaging a key stone is done simultaneously by exploding rows of parallel wells drilled at the borders with interchamber sight pillars and along the axial line of the stope, in sections length of which is equal to the thickness of the damaged layer. Weakening of the spring at both sides of the block and damaging of the key stone is done by sectional explosion of clusters of parallel adjacent wells: linear ones at borders with interchamber sight pillars and bulk ones along the axial line of the block. The spring at both sides of the block is weakened ahead of erection of artificial interchamber sight pillars.
EFFECT: improved efficiency and safety of production works.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: when developing mineral deposits in the form of ore bodies, ore zones are divided along the depth into stories and levels and are mined top-down with sloughing of the above rock massif or filling of the mined space with foreign ground material with lower strength and resistance of rock massif. Ore bodies are mined bottom-up with a layer method with the limited minable width of the layer using the bore hole method from drilling crosscuts with application of drilling mechanisms and conveyor transportation of ore material. Parameters of the broken layer comply with receiving capacity of conveyors that supply the material into the ore chute, and from there into the transport lifting vessel. Mining is carried out starting from the hanging wall of the deposit, and gradually, layer by layer is mined towards the underwall of the deposit. To collect the material sliding off the conveyor flight and during mining of intermediate layers between the extraction ones along the height and ground later, trenches are developed at the bottom. From the trenches the material is sent to a common conveyor via chutes.
EFFECT: complete mining of the deposit, prevention of weakening in the surrounding massif of the mined space.
SUBSTANCE: air supplying gate and the main air gate pass along opposite boundaries of mine field so that they run ahead of extraction front through the length equal to distance between axes of the rooms. At that, rooms have the length equal to width of mine field and are located between air supplying gate and ventilation air gate. Fresh air is supplied through the tunnel located in front of extraction front. At that, return ventilation air is removed along auxiliary air gate.
EFFECT: improving concentration of mining operations, reducing volumes of preparatory mine work, and decreasing air leaks through the worked-out area.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in maintaining the stable state of worked-out area with inter-chamber support pillars; at that, sizes of inter-chamber support pillars are determined from actual pressure of rocks on them, which are located inside the natural arch in its final position, and the pillar located at the joint of natural arches is determined considering the pressure on abutments of arches of those rocks which are located above the outlines of natural arches.
EFFECT: reducing the losses of developed mineral resources and improving the safety of mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: method for development of thick flat beds of minerals includes division into layers, arrangement of development openings in upper and lower layers, strengthening of development openings. Layers are developed downstream in longwalls. Development openings of lower layer pass under edge portion of bed, formed in process of upper layer longwalls development. Prior to arrangement of development openings in the lower layer, edge part of bed is weakened over route of development openings arrangement in the lower layer, for instance, by means of wells drilling in bed or creation of slot in bed. Development openings of the lower layer are fixed by anchors, at the same time depth of bed weakening is accepted as larger than width of development opening in the lower layer. Length of anchors is accepted as larger than distance from lower layer openings to bed roof, and depth of bed weakening above route of lower layer development openings arrangement is determined from the expression.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce labour intensiveness of works and costs for strengthening, to increase speed of development openings arrangement.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used to develop bedded deposits, for instance potassium ones, in case of reverse order of mining with unstable immediate roof. In process of panel preparation, tunneling combine is used to arrange one transport, two ventilation drifts and also mined slots on workable beds for the whole length of panel. Conveyor drift is tunneled with cutter-loader in sections as mining front advances. Stopes are mined on one of half-panels from conveyor drift. Transport drift is expanded by cutter-loader to section of its working element by periodic cuts, as mining front advances by the length multiple of distance between axes of stopes. During preparation of panel, ore passing wells are drilled from field conveyor drift down to design elevation of bed conveyor drift soil, and these wells are opened when conveyor drifts are tunneled on mined beds, as mining front advances. Distance between ore passing wells is selected as multiple of distance between axes of chambers.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to significantly reduce scope of mining-preparation works required to commission the panel, and to reduce time of its preparation.
8 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation and cutting operations, creation of horizontal 1,5,6,8,9 and vertical delineation 7 and separation artificial massifs 10, clearing withdrawal and filling in of developed area 12. All of the vertical artificial massifs 7,10, parallel to one of mutually perpendicular axis of a developing area horizontal cross section, to be trapezoid shaped with a long bottom foundation, to the delineation ones - rectangular shaped with a vertical side along the ore body contour 4 or developing area, the separation massifs 10 - isosceles shaped, and the trapezoid sides inclination angle defines form an equation tgα =hστ/(Poλσ - (Pa-Pb)τ), where h - floor height, m; σ and τ - the artificial massif compression and shear strength limits accordingly, MPa; λ - horizontal stress factor; Pa, Pb, Po - natural arch limit rock weight, part of the top artificial border massif weight and ore massif in a gap block weight accordingly. H.
EFFECT: invention allows creating a safe environment condition for high efficiency rate mine sections, delineated with artificial separation slabs, treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining and may be used in development of strong sloping beds of minerals, mainly coal minerals, by layer systems of development in descending order. Method for layerwise development of strong sloping beds of minerals at high depths, including separation of bed into layers, separation of layers into columns of mineral, development of columns in long breakage faces in descending order with abandonment of interlayer pack and performance of preparatory ventilation and haulage drifts of lower layer with displacement to the side of exhausted space relative to drifts of the first layer and abandonment of inter-column pillars. Prior to beginning of breakage works in upper layer, unloading slot is created from preparatory drifts of upper layer at the angle of 45° to vertical plane in direction of lower layer, at the same time depth of slot is identified according to the following formula - L=2/3m, where L is depth of unloading slot, m; m is efficiency of lower bed layer, m.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve stability and to reduce costs for maintenance of preparatory drifts, to increase safety of mining works performance.
SUBSTANCE: development method of lodes by layers with backfilling includes driving of preparatory-temporary workings 1, excavation of ore by diagonal layers 3, breaking by explosive blast holes into open area of layer, shipping of ore and filling of open area of layer by backfilling. Angle of slope of diagonal layer 3 is accepted equal to minimal limit angle, overcoming by self-propelled equipment. Backfilling is implemented up to designed taking-out capacity of lode by undermined rocks of bottom layer and/or granulated laying mixture from mill tailing.
EFFECT: effectiveness increase of development, cost cutting for development of lodes, losses of minerals and anthropogenic load to environment.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes use of screw-drilling machine for driving of several first ventilation shafts in ore body and driving several second shafts, while second and each second shaft crosses, at least, one matching first shaft, forming first support walls, supporting ceiling. First supporting ceilings consist of ore body zones between neighboring second shafts, each first support wall has portion of at least one first shaft, passing horizontally through it. Horizontal channels are formed, each of which is placed transversely to matching second shaft between appropriate portions of first shaft, formed in adjacent support walls, for forming of group of continuous ventilation shafts. Second shafts are filled for forming second supporting walls, supporting well ceiling, and first supporting walls are extracted. First ventilation shafts can be made parallel to each other. Second shafts may be directed perpendicularly relatively to first ventilation shafts. In ore body air-outlet and air-inlet ventilation mines can be formed, placed at distance from each other along horizontal line, while first or each first ventilation shaft passes through portion of ore body between air-inlet and air-outlet ventilation mines. Driving of second or each second shaft can be performed by cutting machine, or by drilling or explosive mining.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
7 cl, 11 dwg