Method of recultivation of damaged soil
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of recultivation of damaged soil in conditions of the Far North and may be used when restoring the soil and vegetation layer disturbed by industrial and economic human activities. The method of recultivation of damaged soil is described, including introduction into the ground of bentonite clay, seeds of perennial grasses, fertilisers, humic compounds and binder, and the bentonite clay is inserted as part of the waste mud, followed by stirring the top layer of soil. Then the fertiliser, humic compounds and seeds of perennial grasses are inserted, and then a binder is inserted, which is used as a solution of xanthan gum.
EFFECT: invention provides a more efficient process of recultivation, expansion of the scope of application on the surface of soils with different steepness.
The invention relates to the reclamation of disturbed lands in the Far North and can be used for restoration of soil and vegetation disturbed by the production-economic activity of the person.
Features reclamation of disturbed lands in the Far North due to the presence of permafrost, which if damaged vegetation layer and, as a consequence, violations of the insulating properties of the upper soil layer leads to an increase in the depth of seasonal thawing, which contributes to the development of erosion processes. The development of these processes ultimately lead to irreversible soil degradation. Methods of soil reclamation, providing for the making of organic compounds in the form of peat and organic compost, which is unsuitable because of the need to deliver them in large quantities.
Known methods of reclamation of sandy soils using waste drilling mud and bentonite clay, forming part of the drilling fluids. Waste drilling fluids have a high content of mobile potassium, phosphorus and trace elements and can be used as a source of minerals for plant nutrition.
A known method for processing drill cuttings (RF patent No. 2298567, C08J 11/00, publ. 2007.05.10), which is pererabotka cuttings carried by mixing with the additive, which use pre-crushed urea foam in an amount of 5÷20% by weight of drill cuttings. The resulting material is used for remediation of contaminated land and water. The disadvantage of this method is the possibility of leaching of foam from cuttings under the influence of rain and pollution urea foam.
Known ruminatively improver, method thereof and method of reclamation of disturbed soils and land use (patent RF №2215769, SC 17/40, publ. 2003.11.10). In the known method in disturbed soils contribute ruminatively improver derived from waste drilling fluids by adding humananimalsex concentrate containing humic acid. The invention allows for better use of waste drilling fluids, their detoxification and restoration of soil fertility. However, such improver cannot be used for reclamation of slopes of roads, borrow pits, ravines, since it is poorly retained on the parent soil is washed away by the flow of rain and winds up to the moment when formed root system of inoculated for fixing ground herbs.
The closest analogue to the proposed method is a way to protect the soil from erosion (U.S. Pat the NT of the Russian Federation No. 2267514, SC 17/40, publ. 2006.01.10). The method involves preparation of an aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol and applying it to the surface of the soil. In the ground pre-make vlagoobmen, which is used as the powder bentonite clay. Additionally, in the surface layer of the soil contribute perennial grasses seeds, fertilizer and humus in the form of powder mixed with the bentonite clay. The invention improves the reliability and extend the time of implementation of the method. The disadvantage of this method is used as a binder of the upper soil layer of polyvinyl alcohol. Polyvinyl alcohol forms on the surface of the polymer film, which hinders the germination of seeds of perennial grasses, as evidenced by the very high rates of herbs to 1 m2described in example 3 known inventions, while the normal seeding rate of herbs is 10÷15 g per 1 m2. In addition, the polymer film impedes gas exchange in the roots of plants and the indigenous microflora, resulting in a slowing of root formation and, as a consequence, plant growth, which reduces the effectiveness of this method. In addition, the preparation of a solution of polyvinyl alcohol is carried out with heated above 50°C, which complicates remediation technology.
The challenge which sent before ageme the invention, is the development of an effective method of biological recultivation of disturbed lands in the Far North.
The technical result achieved by the invention is to increase the efficiency of the reclamation process, extending the scope of application of the method on the surface of soils with different steepness.
To achieve the technical result in the proposed method, including the introduction into the soil bentonite clay, seeds of perennial grasses, fertilizers, humic compounds and binder, bentonite clay make the composition of spent drilling mud, followed by mixing of the upper soil layer. Then make fertilizer, humic compounds and seeds of perennial grasses, and then make a binding substance, which is used as the solution of xanthan resin.
The advantage of the proposed method is used for the formation of fertile layer of soil waste drilling mud, which includes bentonite clay, which simultaneously solves the problem of disposal of waste drilling mud. Using the proposed method as a binder xanthan resin having a high viscosity at low concentrations, allows you to apply the proposed method on the surface of grunts different steepness, and to reduce the rate of seeding of perennial grasses in 2-4 times, and the specific rate of application of binder. Xanthan gum is a natural polysaccharide, a product of bacterial activity, it has excellent adhesive properties, and these properties are preserved for several cycles of freezing and thawing, which is very important in the Far North. In addition, xanthan gum is a food source for soil microorganisms, which in turn Admira turns into humus that contributes to the development of the fertile layer of the soil and reduces the consumption of fertilizers. Xanthan gum is used in the preparation of solutions for the conservation of the wells, which ensures a constant presence on the field.
Below are examples of implementation of the invention.
Example 1. On rekultiviruemye the plot is flat land make waste drilling mud at the rate of 0,5÷1,5 (m3solution at 100 m2of the earth). The surface layer of soil mix to a depth of 5÷7 cm, mineral fertilizers at the rate of 2 kg per 100 m2, humic compounds in the form of sodium HUMATE based 600÷1000 (ml per 100 m2and seeds of perennial grasses local climate zone at the rate of 1.5 kg per 100 m2. Then the plot happen even earlier and watered (0,2÷0,3)% of water is a solution of xanthan resin at the rate of 400÷600 (l of solution per 100 m 2).
Example 2. On rekultiviruemye plot of sloping land, such as slope career or osypnoi road, make a waste drilling mud based 1,0÷2,0 (m3solution at 100 m2of the earth). The surface layer of soil mix to a depth of 5÷7 cm, mineral fertilizers at the rate of 2 kg per 100 m2, humic compounds in the form of sodium HUMATE based 600÷1000 (ml per 100 m2and seeds of perennial grasses local climate zone at the rate of 1.5 kg per 100 m2. Then the plot happen even earlier and watered (0,3÷0,5)% aqueous solution of xanthan resin at the rate of 400÷600 (l of solution per 100 m2).
The soil on the proposed method of waste drilling mud, which includes bentonite clay, mineral fertilizers, humic compounds and xanthan resin provides obtaining topsoil saturated organic-mineral complexes, which promote intensive development of the root system of perennial grasses and restoration of disturbed lands. The invention also allows for the reclamation of disturbed lands, as gently sloping areas, and the consolidation of slopes, within one season.
Thus, the present invention improves the efficiency of the reclamation process by reducing the norm of seeding megale them herbs and consumption of fertilizers, extending the scope of application of the method on the surface of soils with different steepness.
Method of reclamation of disturbed lands, including the introduction into the soil bentonite clay, seeds of perennial grasses, fertilizers, humic compounds and a binder, characterized in that the bentonite clay in the soil contribute to the composition of the waste drilling mud, followed by stirring of the upper soil layer, then make fertilizer, humic compounds and seeds of perennial grasses, and then make a binder, and the binder substance use xanthan solution of the resin.
SUBSTANCE: sapropel and natural loosener are ploughed into soil at the depth of 10-15 cm. Natural loosener is represented by siftings of open pits of construction materials, at the following weight ratio of components, %: sapropel 8-12%; siftings of pits of construction materials 13-32%; upper layer of clayey soil - balance.
EFFECT: increased bioproductivity of soils and protection of recultivated soils against wind erosion.
1 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and may be used to reduce soil acidity, improve its structure and fertility. Method implies soil application of deoxidiser, which is a mixture of organic and mineral components with a deoxidising agent. Peat of 30-70% decay degree and pH 3.5-4.5 is used as organic component, borogypsum is used as mineral component and 53% alkaline solution (potassium hydroxide) is used as deoxidising agent. Ratio of components (kg per 1 tonn of resulting deoxidiser) is as follows: peat of 30-70% decay degree and pH 3.5-4.5 1200-1230, 53% potassium hydroxide solution 48-49, borogypsum 70-74. Deoxidising agent is applied in amount of 2-3 t per 1 ha.
EFFECT: reduced soil acidity, improved structure and fertility.
SUBSTANCE: binding composition for processing material of solid particles with formation of solid aggregated matrix is prepared including the following stages: blending of polar solvent and additional quantity of urea; addition of emulsified bitumen; addition of ureaformaldehyde precondensate; addition of other binding promotors in order to enhance bonding between the binding composition and solid particles; addition of sugar into weak organic acid; addition of weak organic acid mixed with sugar with formation of the binding composition; blending of binding composition with solid particles, which harden during over 30 minutes while mixing with above mentioned material of solid particles, besides weak organic acid is being chosen to ensure pH value of binding composition from 2.0 to 5.3.
EFFECT: binding composition was prepared for processing of materials of solid particles.
51 cl, 15 dwg, 3 tbl, 11 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular improvement of soil physical, biological and agronomic characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes introducing of carbonate-containing material into soil, wherein as said material bergmeal containing (mass %): calcite 13-19; zeolite 18-25; glauconite; and balance: clay and silicate material is used. Bergmeal is introduced into soil in amount of 1.5-5 t/hectare.
EFFECT: enhanced assortment of ameliorants; improved soil agronomic characteristics and productivity.
FIELD: production of filled gel-like composition with viscoelastic properties.
SUBSTANCE: claimed composition contains (vol.pts): 0.5-2.0 mass % sodium tetraborate aqueous solution 1-2; 1.0-8.0 mass % polyvinyl alcohol aqueous solution 1-5; 1.0-8.0 mass % carboxymethyl cellulose aqueous solution 1-5 or 1.0-8.0 mass % polyacrylamide aqueous solution 1-2; and filler 1-3. Composition has dynamic viscosity of 642-2467.87 mPa.s; elasticity modulus of 61.12-81.12 N/m2, and adhesion of 53.76-86.79 N/m2. As filler sand with particle size of 0.23-0.5 mm; lavsan or propylene fiber of 70-100 mum in diameter and filament length of 3-6 cm, or Teflon granule at most 1 mm in diameter. Composition of present invention is useful in production of petroleum industry, oil line purification, as anticorrosion, biocide and wear resistant coatings.
EFFECT: new viscoelastic composition of improved quality.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and can be used for sowing cereal crops. The method consists in the fact that sowing of spring and winter crops or perennial grass is carried out with spacing of 12.5 … 20 cm in one band with seeds of one culture, or a mixture of seed crops, by one band or row with seeds of winter crops or perennial grasses, or unsown. Sowing is carried out with width bands of not less than 5 cm and not more than half of the spacing between rows, with a gap between the bands of no mote than 10 cm, or in a row with the spacing between rows of 20…23 cm and with a spacing between bands of 20…30 cm. The device for planting crops contains the capacity for seeding material with two compartments and two shafts with sowing machines, general lead-in devices, openers connected by the seed-pipes. At that on one shaft universal machines for sowing of grain crops and perennial grasses are mounted. The openers are mounted on leashes, pivotally attached to the frame and spring-loaded to the soil. Openers for seeding in the band of width of not more than half of the spacing between rows are set with the spacing of 12.5, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 and, respectively, with a bandwidth of 5, 5, 5, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 cm. Openers for sowing in the band can also be set by one through an opener for the row, or narrowband or narrow-row sowing when the spacing between rows 20, 21, 22, 23 cm of bandwidth of at least 10, 12, 13, 14 cm, respectively.
EFFECT: use of the invention enables to reduce the debris of fields without herbicides, to accelerate ripening of bread crops, to increase resistance of spikes to drowning, crop yield and grain quality.
7 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and can be used for sowing crops. The method consists in the fact that spring and winter sowing of crops are carried out with spacing of 9…12 cm and 15 … 20 cm respectively with 2 or 3 bands with the seeds of one culture, or a mixture of seed crops, in one or two bands or one or two rigs of seeds of winter crops, or unsown. Sowing is carried out with bands width of no more than half of the aisle, and with an interval of not more than 10 cm between the bands. The device for planting crops contains a box for seeding material with two compartments, and two shafts with sowing machines, general lead-in devices, working bodies connected by the seed-tubes. The working bodies are installed on leashes, pivotally attached to the frame and spring-loaded to the soil. The openers for seeding in the band of width of not more than half of the spacing between rows are set with spacing of 9, 10, 11, 12 with a band of not less than 2 cm, or 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 cm with a band respectively of at least 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 cm. The openers for seeding in the band are grouped respectively for 2 or 3 in 1 or 2 openers for drill seeding.
EFFECT: use of the invention enables to reduce the debris of fields without herbicides, to accelerate ripening of bread crops, to increase resistance of spikes to drowning, crop yield and grain quality.
7 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method includes mechanical handling and application of herbicides. In the first half of the steam period pinned and non-pinned mechanical handling is carried out, and in the second period nonselective herbicide such as Roundup are applied, the rate of which increases with the rise of the vegetative mass of weeds. Regulation of nitrogen application is carried out based on the level of applied herbicide dose increase and from its optimal number, where calculated amount for the planned harvest determined by the formula Nf=Ni*C is taken as initial rate of nitrogen where Nf is factual nitrogen application rate, kg / ha, Ni - initial nitrogen application rate, kg / ha B - crop removal of nutrients, kg / ha P - supply of nutrients in the soil, kg / ha, Kn is use of nutrients from the soil, % Cn is current nitrification, %, Np is previous rate of fertiliser, kg / ha, the Kaf - the aftereffect of fertilisers,%; Kf is the use of nutrients from fertiliser,% C - correction factor, units.
EFFECT: way to reduce energy costs for processing steam field, destroy weeds and to optimise nitrogen application for crop.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular, to crop husbandry and can be used for cultivation of corn. The technical solution is that the herbicide of systemic action shears-turbo in an amount of 50-60 g/ha is dissolved in water, after which the biologic Baykal EM-1 is added into the aqueous solution in the ratio 1:10, and with the corn plantings are treated with the mixture in phase of 5-6 leaves. At that, only aqueous solutions are mixed and sprayed to plantings without delay.
EFFECT: method enables during one agronomic practice to reduce weediness of plantings, to increase yield of corn grain and its quality.
1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method includes tillage, planting, application of herbicides and their embedding. After herbicide application in the aisle the adsorbing culture of amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) is seeded. In the phase of branching the seeding is processed with a mixture of biologics Baykal EM-1 and Baikal EM-5, after which the green mass of amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) is buried in the soil as green manure with simultaneous processing the spacings.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce the toxicity of soil, increase yields of corn and obtain high-quality, environmentally friendly product.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method includes presowing treatment of soil, sowing and treatments between rows. At the same time presowing treatment is carried out for the depth of the assumed covering of seeds and is combined with sowing. Seeds are sown into the moist layer of soil onto the compacted bed for depth of 1-2 cm from the field surface level and are filled with loose and warm layer of soil moved from the surface between rows with its simultaneous mixing, forming a soil comb above sown seeds. Besides, height of soil combs is equal to the depth of seed covering specified by agrotechnical requirements reduced by 1-2 cm. Top and sides of the comb are compacted simultaneously with sowing, and soil combs are formed on the field surface in direction from the north to the south. During treatments between rows simultaneously with cutting of weeds and tillage of soil between rows of the cultivated crop, the upper layer of soil is shifted from the surface between rows into protective areas of a row of plants with simultaneous earthing up of crops. Thickness of filled layers of soil makes 2-4 cm and 6-8 cm during the first and second treatments between rows accordingly.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase crop capacity of tilled crops and to improve crop care.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and erosion. The method includes the main treatment of soil and simultaneous formation of strips in the form of links from mixed cut stubble and soil and their laying into furrows across the slope as partially elevated above the soil surface. During the main treatment of soil simultaneously links are arranged equidistantly from each other and serially alternating as blown and non-blown. Non-blown links are formed from mixed cut stubble and soil laid into more than one furrow, depth of which is commensurable with depth of soil treatment, and is arranged with the interval of 200-350 cm from each other. Blown links are represented by stubble strips that are 25-45 cm wide and are cut for the depth of soil treatment and left on the field surface.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase erosion resistance of ploughed field, to increase water reserves in soil and to reduce power inputs of soil treatment process.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to agricultural engineering, and in particular to multiple-purpose tillage machines for surface mulching tillage and for elimination of weed seeds. The tool includes a frame, rotary operating elements in the form of knives with the functional surface in the shape of a frustum that are fixed on the rotating hubs with spokes. The frame is made in the form of two pivotally connected lateral sections. Unilateral razors are installed on the front cross arm of the frame in front of the first row of the rotary operating knives along the line of digging. They are designed for the maximum running depth of the working elements. The second section of the frame contains screw spiral seedbed rollers made with right and left spiraling. They are placed in two rows and can be adjusted for height. The diameter of the front seedbed roller is twice larger than of the back one.
EFFECT: improvement of the quality of mulching surface tillage and elimination of the weed seeds.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, grasscropping.
SUBSTANCE: this method includes seeding of legume-grass mixture comprising festulolium, Dutch clover and medick. Seeding is performed in 2 stages. Stage 1: white clover and festulolium are seeded in proportion 1:2 accordingly. Stage 2: Dutch clover is seeded 1.5-2 months before grass vegetation period ends. Dutch clover is seeded in the amount of 20%-30% of white clover and festulolium seeding rate.
EFFECT: increase in productivity of feed mass and useful life of developed grass lands.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and reclamation. The method includes removal of segregated wastes outside the residential area and their stacking. At the same time initially a layer of segregated domestic wastes is formed on the surface of marsh lands. Then a layer of wood ashes is formed on the surface of the wastes layer with height of 0.2-1.0 cm, and then the third layer is applied from fertile land with capacity of 5-15 cm, where grasses are sown with high generative productivity, for instance, leguminous plants - yellow sweet clover, Hungarian sainfoin, which assist in saturation of wastes and soil with nitrogen and reduction of marsh lands acidity.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to improve marsh lands with simultaneous usage of marsh lands.
3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.