Method for reesterification of esters

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an improved method for reesterification of at least one compound containing at least one ester functional group with at least one compound containing at least one hydroxyl group, in which red mud, formed during production of aluminium through a Bayer process, is used as a reaction-accelerating compound.

EFFECT: method allows for maximum utilisation of wastes - red mud, both in storage and annually formed.

27 cl, 3 ex

 

The technical field

The invention relates to a method of transesterification of at least one component containing at least one functional group of ester, at least one component containing at least one hydroxyl group.

The level of technology

In aluminium production by the Bayer Al2O3extracted from finely ground bauxite with sodium hydroxide solution. From this sodium aluminate solution after depositing the seed of crystallization centers in the sediment drops out of pure Al(OH)3(gibbsite), from which the later stages of the electrolytic method are the aluminum metal. Remains of the mixture, which is chemically composed mainly of oxides or hydroxides of iron III, titanium oxides, residual aluminum oxide, quartz sand, calcium oxide, sodium oxide and residual sodium hydroxide solution. This residue is due to its red color imparted by iron oxide III, called red mud or "red mud".

Per produced tonne of aluminium is dependent on the quality of used bauxite from 1 to 1.5 tons of red mud as an inevitable companion. The quantity annually produced this red mud is several million tons and together with the already and Uusimaa waste red mud is a serious problem concerning environmental protection and waste disposal. The main problem is the high alkalinity of the red mud with pH values in the range from 11 to 13 due to the content in the sodium hydroxide solution. Moreover, ions of aluminum, having a toxic effect, together with iron compounds represent a great danger to groundwater and additionally hamper satisfactory storage regarding environmental protection. With the removal of the red sludge is currently performed mainly by posting on the impervious areas for storage of waste. Eye-catching on the bottom platform of the sodium hydroxide solution is collected and returned to the process through the Bayer process. However, this form of storage is expensive and costly, as it requires large areas for storage of waste and their equipment, while there are high transportation costs red mud. In addition, long-term costs due to waste, difficult to calculate and represent additional economic problem.

There have been many studies to red mud, considered to date as waste, turn it into useful, valuable products and be directed to economic use. Every useful suggestion in PE is first of all should be aimed at reducing alkaline pH and in the second place should also be possible to fully exhaust the potential of red mud and allow full use of the contained components. Processing of red mud hampered by the fact that the particles of red mud due to the process conditions of production are in the cross-section of very small diameter in the range from 0.1 to 1 micron.

According to the latest method developed by Virotec International LTD and patented under the name "Basecon™ Technology", by exchange reactions red mud with sea water is achieved by reduction of the pH to approximately 9, resulting in open various possibilities of application of red mud with low alkalinity, such as, for example, use as a flocculant or as a means for treatment of acidic wastewater or acid soils.

The disadvantage of this method should be considered the fact that the annual use under this method, approximately 1 million tons, corresponds to less than 2% per annum of the resulting number, and therefore the method is unacceptable for processing of annually accumulated quantity of red mud and, in particular, does not give decisions already in the dumps red mud. In addition, the disadvantage is the fact that there is full use of various valuable products contained in the red mud, and, thus, the available economic and environmental potential is not used.

<> Therefore, the objective of the invention is to develop a method which makes possible the fullest possible use of the material already stockpiled, and every year the newly formed red mud.

Description of the invention

The objective of the present invention is solved by the method of transesterification of ester alcohol when using red mud as a component of accelerating the reaction, to the distinctive features of claim 1 of the claims.

Preferred embodiments of with reasonable and non-trivial improvements of the invention are described in the other claims.

According to the present invention of the red mud used in the method of transesterification of one or more compounds containing at least one functional group of ester, one or more compounds which contain at least one hydroxyl group, as a component of accelerating the reaction. This method provides various advantages. Along with a large quantity of sodium hydroxide solution red mud contains various oxides and hydroxides of metals and, thus, serves as a highly alkaline and a catalytically active component reaction that converts an alcohol compound in the alcoholate and makes possible is the interesterification reaction. Along with this alkaline alcoholysis of esters due to the presence of residual water bound in red mud, while also flows alkaline hydrolysis of esters in which the components containing functional groups esters, are oxidized to the corresponding carboxylic acids and alcohols. When such reactions are spent hydroxyl ions, so that the pH of the red mud is reduced. ' That during the reaction are spent alkaline components, under normal conditions, would have constituted a clear disadvantage, as would be necessary or constantly to compensate for the consumption of alkaline components, or to refuse reuse of the catalyst. However, in the case of the method according to the present invention these circumstances are advantageous way, as red mud is available in almost unlimited quantities, and contained in the red sludge alkaline components do not determine the price factor, but on the contrary are the essence of the problem and must be spent in the greatest possible number. Consequently, the method according to the present invention at one stage get interesterified products, free alcohols, salts of free carboxylic acids and red mud with low alkalinity, which, as a rule, allow a very easy separation from each on the UGA. Thus, the method according to the present invention makes full use of the material in red mud with obtaining various valuable products, and trouble-free use as it is already stored, and the newly formed red mud, which can be recycled in large quantities.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention the method includes the following stages: a) mixing a component containing at least one functional group of ester, component containing at least one hydroxyl group, and red mud; (b) heating and/or stirring the resulting mixture for a specified time interval; (c) separating at least one first liquid fraction from at least one of the second fraction and the liquid fraction contains at least one complex alkilany ether carboxylic acids, and the second fraction contains at least red mud with reduced the alkalinity. In many cases transesterification begins when mixing reagents. However, such reactions often take place so slowly that the reaction mixture is required to heat. Therefore, the component containing the functional group of ester, an alcohol component and red mud is mixed and then heated with stirring for definitely is about time. Thus, the reaction mixture can be summed necessary activation energy and achieved a faster and more complete transformation of the original products with a significant degree of neutralization of red mud. After the reaction, separate the reaction products are separated by at least two different fractions can be separated from each other. The first liquid fraction contains at least one ester of carboxylic acid as a product of the interesterification. Red mud with reduced alkalinity settles in most cases without problems within a short time interval and forms a solid fraction, which may be salt free carboxylic acids. Depending on the composition of initial and final products and reaction conditions red mud due to the small size of the particles may, instead of a solid residue to be in the form of a polymorph, colloidal suspensions, which, however, has a clear phase boundary from the first liquid fraction and can be simply identified by its intense red color.

In another preferred embodiment of the method according to the present invention the component containing at least one functional group of ester is a vegetable oil. Raise the performance communications oils are composed mainly of mono-, di - and triglycerides, are produced with a wide variety of species and are sold in large quantities throughout the world. Along with various other acceptable vegetable oils palm, soybean or rapeseed oil are preferably acceptable as initial products in the method according to the present invention, since they are fairly inexpensive and available everywhere in the possession of the original products, and due to their ability to biological degradation should be evaluated in the aspect of environmental protection as sufficiently safe products. The German Federal office for the protection of the environment relates, for example, vegetable oil class 1 dangerous for water bodies and thereby qualifies as a low hazard to water bodies. Since in the method according to the present invention does not require the use of oils of high purity, it is possible thanks to the use roughly pressed or contaminated vegetable oils to further reduce costs. Thus, even waste vegetable oil can be directed into useful processing and can also be used to produce valuable products. Moreover, vegetable oils contain some amount of free fatty acids, which can be neutralises is part of the alkaline components of red mud. The formation of the corresponding salts of fatty acids, in which case it is, ultimately, about the Soaps. According to the present invention, they may be allocated as an additional valuable product and used for different purposes. A valuable product, also formed in this way is a glycerine, which is released by alkaline hydrolysis of esters of glycerides contained in vegetable oil. Glycerin is used, for example, in the production of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products as a valuable basis and raw materials and can be obtained by the method according to the present invention in large quantities. Thus, when using vegetable oils as the source of the product in the method according to the present invention, all the main and side reaction products are valuable products and can be used in the future.

In another preferred embodiment of the method according to the present invention the component containing at least one hydroxyl group and used for interesterification, contains one or more alcohols from the group comprising methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol. Combining the use of vegetable oil as a component containing functional groups esters, allows the OS is especially simple way to get complex alkalemia esters of fatty acids, which are so-called diesel biofuel, which is currently the most gentle on the environment fuel for vehicles with a diesel engine. Advantages of biodiesel is known to specialists in this field of technology. Diesel biofuels have significantly lower rates of emissions compared with fossil fuels, it contains almost no sulfur, is non-toxic, relatively neutral CO2and biologically decomposable. In addition, emissions of soot from car filled diesel biofuel, is halved.

Simple and low-cost variant of implementation of the response method according to the present invention is achieved due to the fact that the component containing the functional group of ester, or the component containing the hydroxyl group, itself acts as a solvent and is used for dissolving or education of other suspension components.

In another preferred embodiment of the method according to the present invention in the first stage a) first suspended red mud in the component containing the hydroxyl group, and then add the component containing the functional group of ester. This can be prevented adhesion of red the Lama and achieved perhaps more complete homogeneity of the mixture, which is a prerequisite for the rapid conversion of the reactants.

In another preferred embodiment of the method according to the present invention the temperature of the at least one component prior to its addition to the mixture is brought to the specified value. When this heating preferably the component containing the functional group of ester, prior to its addition to the mixture was preferred. Such heating may be effected, for example, in a tubular heat exchanger and is a simple way, on the one hand, to activate the reaction, and on the other hand, thermal energy released in the process, return process, reducing energy consumption and costs.

In another preferred embodiment of the method according to the present invention, the reaction mixture in stage (b) is heated within one hour, preferably under stirring at approximately 60°C. In most cases, therefore, an optimum compromise between cost effectiveness, duration of response and maximizing output.

In another preferred embodiment of the method according to the present invention after a stage a) and preferably at the stage b) catch the fourth component, which contains at least one component, which gazoo asnam at room temperature and normal pressure. Caught in stage b) gaseous compounds can be used in different ways. A possible use is in thermal utilization of the reaction gases and return the resulting thermal energy in the process, for example, for the heating of the original product or for heating of the reaction mixture.

In another preferred embodiment of the method according to the present invention after a stage b) for an additional stage d) is separated from the mixture fifth and sixth components, and the fifth component contains at least one compound from the group of monohydroxy alcohols C1-C4and the sixth component contains at least water. Depending on the starting materials and the selected process mode process when the reaction was preferred removal from the reaction mixture formed or unreacted or made as a solvent alcohols. While preferably also remove the existing residual water. Thus, on the one hand, can be achieved recovery of valuable products, and on the other hand, is facilitated and accelerated carried out at the stage c) subsequent separation of at least two factions.

In another preferred embodiment of the method according to the present invention to updat the enforcement stage d) is produced by the changing conditions of temperature and/or pressure. This simple feature provides the heating of the reaction mixture above the boiling point of the removed compounds with subsequent distillation of the fifth and sixth components. For example, if you only need to remove alcohols, such as methanol or ethanol, together with the residual water, it is sufficient to raise the temperature of the reaction mixture to approximately 98°C at normal pressure.

In another preferred embodiment of the method according to the present invention the change in the temperature conditions includes temperature control at approximately 80°C, and the change in pressure conditions includes a pressure control at much lower than normal pressure, preferably at 250 hPa. Such a change of conditions of temperature and pressure leads to a considerable acceleration of the process of distillation. This change is especially preferred when the fifth component also contains alcohols with longer chains, such as propanol or butanol, since their boiling points are 97 and 118°C. However, the modification is not limited to use only in the case of these compounds and also valid when the removal of water, methanol or ethanol. Changing pressure conditions can be realized preferably by means of a standard diaphragm pump. Priemel the feasible parameter values, for example, distillation, a mixture of ethanol-water are: a temperature of approximately 80°C, the pressure is below 250 hPa.

In another preferred embodiment of the method according to the present invention the method includes, after stage d) additional step e), which share the fifth and sixth components, separated together on stage d). For example, if at the stage d) separating the mixture ethanol-water, the preferred was again distilled to separate the mixture ethanol-water individual components for long-term use of raw materials and to use alcohol, for example, to another stage of the process. However, it is also possible to carry out stage e) for any separable mixtures, such as, for example, methanol-water or propanol-water.

In another preferred embodiment of the method according to the present invention stage e) comprises at least one operation of the separation of a homogeneous mixture, preferably extractive distillation. Because alcohol and water often form a homogeneous azeotropic mixtures which are simple distillation cannot be fully divided, that for such a case is provided the use of an acceptable method of separation. Along with the method of extractive distillation is also valid for any other acceptable methods of separation, such as, for example, the method of the membrane section is ing. With the method of extractive distillation to a binary mixture, as boiling azeotrope, add the third compound as a separating agent, which formed as a result of ternary mixture. As a separating agent ideal glycerin, which, for example, when using vegetable oils as a source of products of interesterification represents the end product of the reaction and therefore available in large quantities. As valid as separating agents are also other acceptable compounds such as paraffin oil or ethanediol.

Another preferred implementation of the present invention is a case in which stage c) comprises at least one operation of the distillation and/or filtration and/or sedimentation, and/or decantation. In the separation by decantation of the first liquid fraction from the second fraction, containing red mud, beneficial uses different density of the reaction products. This way it is simple and low-cost way to separate from each other the individual components of the reaction mixture almost quantitatively. For the separation of mixtures are also acceptable methods of sedimentation and filtration. It is also possible separation by distillation, so that the preferred way to separate volatile the e components from non-volatile, in particular from red mud.

In another preferred embodiment of the method according to the present invention at least one operation of the deposition includes the sludge separation of red mud.

Another preferred variant of the method of the present invention includes at least one operation of the filter, and the filtration is performed through a sludge of red mud. Thanks to the consistent implementation stages of sedimentation and filtration precipitation of red mud produced in the first stage of deposition, a favorable image can be formed at a later stage filter active filter elements. Owing to the small size of the particles of red mud get particularly simple and reduce costs by way of very highly loaded filter elements with high retention ability in relation to the solid components. It is also possible first stage instead of the deposition to filter red mud coarse filter elements and use it on other stages of filtering in the filtering element.

In another preferred embodiment of the method according to the present invention at least one operation of filtering includes filtering through a vacuum filter. As in this case, the PE the ed filtration is not required to perform the additional step of deposition, this provides significant time savings and reduces associated costs due to the higher throughput of the reaction mixture.

In another preferred embodiment of the method according to the present invention, the vacuum filter is made of multi-stage. As the particles of red mud are small in size, using a multistage vacuum filter was preferred to prevent clogging of the individual filter elements.

In another preferred embodiment of the method according to the present invention at least one part of the precipitate obtained in stage filtration, thermally processed and preferably burn. The main component of the filtered sludge is a red mud, which due to their large surface holds various combustible reaction products. If in the method as a component containing the functional group of ester, using, for example, vegetable oil, filtered residue red mud after completion of the reaction, along with the remnants of alcohols contains as combustible components glycerin, Soaps and esters of carboxylic acids.

In another preferred embodiment of the method according to the present invention to filtered the precipitate re thermal processing of added waste of synthetic materials, and/or wood and/or materials of biological origin. Along with the addition of combustible waste, such as wastes of synthetic materials, and/or wood and/or materials of biological origin, it is also possible addition to the mixture of waste straw, pulp or combustible organic substances. Thus, this stage also provides an opportunity to make available further beneficial use of materials classified as waste.

In another preferred embodiment of the method according to the present invention, thermal energy released during thermal processing, is served by at least one of stages a) to c) and/or optionally in stage d) and/or (e). Thermal energy can be used, for example, for the heating of the initial reaction products prior to their addition to the mixture, heating the reaction mixture to a predetermined temperature or after completion of the reaction for the implementation of phase separation, in particular the stage of distillation. Alternative it is also possible to use thermal energy to generate electricity.

In another preferred embodiment of the method according to the present invention, after stage c) comprises an additional step (f), which includes separating at least one component containing p is at least glycerin. If at the stage a) as the initial product use, for example, vegetable oils as a component containing the functional group of ester, among other things, receive glycerin as a product of the interesterification reaction. Because glycerin is an important valuable product and can be used for various purposes, at the stage f), it is preferably separated from the rest of the mix.

In another preferred embodiment of the method according to the present invention, the method includes after stage (f) subsequent stage (g), on which at least one component containing at least glycerol, share at least two degrees of quality. This is especially preferred when the selected glycerin does not have the purity required for direct further use. So thanks to stage g) it is guaranteed that the requirements of the specific objectives of future applications is given appropriate attention in the process.

In another preferred embodiment of the method according to the present invention, after stage c) is the next stage h), which includes the selection of at least one ion-containing sodium salt of at least one carboxylic acid, at least one Department of the Neu fraction. As during interesterification at alkaline hydrolysis of esters formed containing ions of sodium salts of carboxylic acids, preferably provided by the Department of such compounds are also valuable products, the additional stage h). If in the method as a component containing the functional group of ester, using, for example, vegetable oil thus obtained salts of carboxylic acids are salts of fatty acids and should be described as soap.

Another advantage of the method according to the present invention is that of the products, understand to date as waste, can be obtained valuable products and even formed during the reaction by-products, traditionally considered to be undesirable, in turn, represents a valuable products. Additionally produced valuable products may be particularly advantageous manner used for other purposes.

Another preferred implementation of the present invention relates to the application selected in stage (h) and containing at least ions of the sodium salt of at least one carboxylic acid as a means for treatment of plants, in particular, with their weed problems. The use of such salts of carboxylic acids as the pest is of CIDA is preferred not only economically, as it gives an opportunity to use the final product of the reaction of the method according to the present invention, but also environmentally, as salts of carboxylic acids can be degraded biologically and thus, in the aspect of environmental protection are largely safe.

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention used as a means for processing plants and containing ions of the sodium salt of at least one carboxylic acid is dissolved in at least one solvent, preferably in water. Thanks to simple and depending on the situation can be installed the required final concentration, without limitation actions or biological compatibility. Thus, a salt of carboxylic acid can be easily applied on the treated plants in aqueous solution by conventional agricultural devices.

Another preferred implementation of the present invention relates to the application selected in stage (h) and containing at least ions of the sodium salt of at least one carboxylic acid as a detergent, in particular, in the cleaning and/or detergents. The use of selected salts of carboxylic acids as detergent preferably contribute Mesopotamia properties is a of this class of compounds, thus, it becomes possible for more economic use of the final product obtained by the method according to the present invention.

Obtained in this way red mud with low alkalinity, for its part, allows a wide range of applications.

Another preferred implementation of the present invention relates to the use of selected red mud with reduced alkalinity as iron-containing component of the glandular fertilizer, preferably applicable in agriculture. An adequate plant iron has, in particular, agriculture is of great importance, as the iron stimulates, for example, trees and herbaceous vegetation osteopathie and, hence, growth. This red mud, depending on the purpose of application can be used in neutral form or a target image obtained with a slightly higher alkaline pH value. This fact is especially preferred, if to take into account the increase in the frequency of acid rain, as this ensures the regulation of the pH of the soil to natural values.

In another preferred embodiment, the present invention provides that the glandular fertilizer further comprises the least about limestone. When further addition of limestone preferably take into account the requirements of agronomy and uniting the different stimulating plant growth properties in one product, as the limestone in the regulated input quantity is the basis of any fertilizer. Besides the added limestone helps to regulate the pH value of the glandular fertilizer.

Other advantages, features and details of the present invention are given in the following description of some examples of implementation.

Example 1

For a more complete neutralization of alkaline red mud while obtaining the greatest possible number of valuable products in the first example of the method of transesterification using 400 ml of rapeseed oil as a component containing the functional group of the ester, 100 ml of ethanol (96%) as a component containing a hydroxyl group, and 400 g of red mud as a component of accelerating the reaction.

First at room temperature in the reactor is mixed ethanol and red mud and homogenized. To the homogeneous mixture, add canola oil and heated with stirring at 60°C. At the beginning of this reaction often becomes visible by the formation of gaseous compounds. After completion of the reaction p is blithedale within one hour the temperature was raised to about 100°C to the boiling mixture, to remove from the reaction mixture, the excess ethanol and water. Distilled mixture ethanol-water is collected, after which the methods known to experts in the field of technology, it can be divided into separate components. The remaining mixture of products first roughly filtered through glass-fiber filter. The filter cake, containing mostly red mud, is then used as the filter body, which due to the small size of the particles has an exceptional separating ability. The filtrate is passed twice through a filter with red mud, so that the red color in the filtrate became invisible. The cloudy filtrate, having now neutral pH value, transferred into a separating funnel. During the interval of time from about 30 minutes to 2 hours is to divide the mixture into three layers, which are a simple way separated from each other by decantation. The first separated layer with a density of 1.22 g/cm3contains a valuable product glycerine, the second layer consists of a suspension of various salts of fatty acids, and the third layer contains applicable as of biodiesel ester of rapeseed oil with a density of 0.87 g/cm3.

Example 2

In a typical mixer for mixing with a capacity of 1 m3mix 0.5 t KRA the aqueous slurry with a water content of approximately 30% (wt./mass.), that corresponds to approximately 150 l and 500 l of methanol (with a concentration of approximately 90%). Instead of methanol, the alternative can also be used ethanol, other alcohol or mixture of alcohols. Then a mixture of the alcohol/water is drained. Due to this, the water content of the red mud is reduced to approximately 10% (wt./mass.), resulting in improved post-treatment mass of red mud. Highly alkaline mixture of the alcohol/water vacuum-liquid extraction share of 96%alcohol and water. Alkaline water is then used in the apparatus for cleaning gases, which is installed after the steam generator.

Next on the second stage of the process adds biosport with the content of 96% ethanol in the amount of 250 l, which corresponds to two and a half volumes of the quantity required for interesterification, and stirred for several minutes. Then the liquid mass is pumped into the reactor interesterification with a capacity of approximately 1.5 m3and served unfiltered after pressing rapeseed oil in the amount of approximately 1 m3. Rapeseed oil is pre-heated to 60-70°C, which is carried out preferably by means of heat recovery from a subsequent reaction stages.

The mixture is then heated with stirring to temperatures above 50°C, preferably at least d is 60°C, and at this temperature, incubated for approximately one hour. The end of the process can be set by a simple control of the pH value of the solution and, if necessary, may be added an additional amount of vegetable oil or a mixture of alcohol/red mud" to achieve an almost complete transformation.

Then the temperature was raised to about 80°C and the mixture of residual water and unencumbered by interesterification of alcohol sucked off under reduced pressure of about 250 GPa. To lower pressure can be used, for example, diaphragm vacuum pump. Then, at a subsequent stage solvent extraction again carry out the separation of water and alcohol. Alcohol is returned to the process water is neutral and can be used as a technical standard water.

The remaining mixture ester/glycerol/soap" passed through several precipitation filters, filtered and then pumped into the decanter, and the separation layer 3 is achieved quickly due to the difference in densities of the layers, which after the separation of the pump and can be used as stand-alone products. Neutral residue red mud, freed from alkali, but containing relatively much fuel residual solution, thermally processed when you want the tee with the addition of wood or similar waste. Remaining after the oxidation of the mineral residue can be used as glandular fertilizer or further divided into magnetite and component additive to cement and used after the separation.

Example 3

Red mud with storage areas for wastes with a water content in the range of 24-27% (wt./mass.) first heat up due to residual heat of the exhaust gases from the subsequent stage of combustion in the evacuated reactor at a low vacuum of about 100 mbar to about 60°C, allowing the water is removed by distillation in vacuo, resulting removes most of the water. Approximately 30 minutes is only a few percent of water. Then the dried red mud is sent to another reactor.

At a later stage add methanol with a ratio of methanol:red mud" approximately 1:2 (vol./mass.) and the mixture is intensively stirred, to ensure access of methanol to the entire surface of mineral granules and to encourage the formation of sodium methylate by the reaction with NaOH, chemisorbing on the surface. The temperature of the reaction mixture is approximately in the range of 40-50°C, and the duration of reaction is usually 10-15 minutes

Then preferably heated melting process to a temperature in the interval is e from 50-70°C vegetable oil for example rapeseed, soybean or palm oil, contribute to a reactor with a ratio in the range from 1:1 to 1:2 (vol./mass.) in terms of red mud. The temperature of the mixture support in the range of 60-65°C and the reaction is performed for about 30 minutes, and because of the extremely high surface red mud shorter reaction time, as a rule, is irrational. During the reaction the mixture is intensively stirred. When this happens several processes.

The main reaction is the transesterification of vegetable oil with the formation of methyl esters of free or released from vegetable oil fatty acids.

Related adverse reactions include essentially the saponification reaction between the free sodium hydroxide and is derived from the cleavage of esters or already contained in vegetable oil free fatty acids to form soap and glycerin in the presence of water, hydrolysis of proteins, phospholipids, etc. solution, having in the beginning of the process strongly alkaline reaction and the neutralization of sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate with the formation of sodium salts of fatty acids.

After the interesterification from the storage tank into the reactor is pumped non - polar solvent such as hexane in an amount corresponding to the share of the Wu vegetable oil. Then with vigorous stirring extracted all or predominantly nonpolar nonpolar components, which mostly contain unreacted vegetable oil, and the resulting methyl ester.

At a later stage the extract is pumped into sedimentator. After 20-30 min of sedimentation can be merged separate, distinct fractions. In the upper part there is a methyl ester and vegetable oil, is a mixture of methanol, soap, glycerin and water and, finally, the last layer is the VAT residue, which essentially consists of neutralized red mud. Liquid fraction is drained, while in the subsequent reactors in vacuum distilled hexane respectively or unreacted methanol and then return to the loop.

In conclusion, excess oil and the resulting methyl ester is carefully filtered, getting in possession of valuable products. The yield of complex methyl ester is usually at least 40%. Soap, glycerin and water can be recycled for other stages, the formation of sodium carbonate, water and hydrocarbons, which trap as an additional valuable products and can be used in the future.

VAT residue also pumped and if necessary the cost of higher output fuel at least twice extracted with hexane and sedimentary. The filter cake obtained after coarse filtration drum filter, a screw conveyor is served in the pellet mill. In the press granulator along with the formation of granules optionally separated liquid, which contains virtually all of the components present in the previous stages. The liquid is collected and periodically with fresh or previously recovered oil is pumped back into the reactor to full use.

Granules are served in optimized for this form of energy carrier furnace or a steam generator, in which the organic components are burned with the formation of CO2and water. Due to the high fat content of vegetable oils, respectively, may be released a large amount of energy. Produced water vapor preferably used as the heating agent, for example, to preheat vegetable oil, and any excess may be allocated. Additionally, energy is released from oxidation contained in the red mud of the hydroxides of iron to hematite. In conclusion, the remaining ash, which is neutral or can be obtained with a slightly higher alkaline pH value, stored or after recovery and separation of iron-containing mineral may be used as a placeholder, Stroitel the aqueous material, improver of soil or mineral fertilizers.

1. The method of transesterification of at least one compound containing at least one functional group of ester, at least one compound containing at least one hydroxyl group, wherein the use of red mud generated during the production of aluminum by the Bayer process, as a compound accelerating the reaction.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it comprises the following stages:
a) mixing compounds containing at least one functional group of ester, compounds containing at least one hydroxyl group, and red mud;
b) heating and/or stirring the resulting mixture for a specified time interval;
c) separating at least one first liquid fraction from at least one of the second fraction and the liquid fraction contains at least one complex alkilany ether carboxylic acids, and the second fraction contains at least red mud with low alkalinity.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the compound containing at least one functional group of ester contains vegetable oil, preferably canola and/or palm and/or soybean oil.

4. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized those who, the compound containing at least one hydroxyl group, contains at least one compound from the group of monohydroxy alcohols With1-C4.

5. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that at least one compound dissolved in the solvent and/or itself acts as a solvent.

6. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that in stage (a) a compound containing at least one hydroxyl group, is first mixed with red mud, and then to the mixture was added compound containing at least one functional group of ester.

7. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the temperature of the at least one of the compounds before addition to the mixture is brought to the specified value.

8. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the mixture of stage (b) for about 60 min, heated to approximately 60°C. and/or at least periodically stirred.

9. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that after stage a) is preferably at the stage b) catch the fourth compound, which contains at least one compound which is gaseous at room temperature and normal pressure.

10. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the method after stage b) includes the additional step d), which includes joint separation from a mixture of at least one the th fifth and one sixth connection and the fifth compound contains at least one compound from the group of monohydroxy alcohols With1-C4and the sixth compound contains at least water.

11. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that in stage (d) carry at least changing conditions of temperature and/or pressure.

12. The method according to claim 11, characterized in that the change in the temperature conditions includes temperature control at approximately 98°C.

13. The method according to claim 11, characterized in that the change in the temperature conditions includes temperature control at approximately 80°C, and the change in pressure conditions includes regulation of the pressure at a greatly reduced value compared with the normal pressure, preferably at 250 hPa.

14. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that the method comprises after stage d) the additional step (e), which share the fifth and sixth connections, separated together on stage (d).

15. The method according to 14, characterized in that stage (e) includes at least one operation of the separation of a homogeneous mixture, preferably extractive distillation.

16. The method according to item 15, wherein the operation of separating a homogeneous mixture, separating agent, preferably glycerol, and/or paraffin oil, and/or ethanediol.

17. The method according to claim 2, wherein stage C) comprises what about the at least one operation of the distillation, and/or filtration and/or sedimentation, and/or decantation.

18. The method according to 17, characterized in that at least one operation includes sedimentation of the sludge separation of red mud.

19. The method according to p, characterized in that at least one operation of filtering includes filtering through sludge, red mud.

20. The method according to 17, characterized in that at least one operation of filtering includes filtering through a vacuum filter.

21. The method according to claim 20, characterized in that the vacuum filter is made of multi-stage.

22. The method according to any of PP-21, characterized in that at least one part of the precipitate obtained in stage filtration, processed thermally, preferably burn.

23. The method according to item 22, wherein the filtered precipitate before thermal processing add waste synthetic materials, and/or wood and/or materials of biological origin.

24. The method according to item 22, wherein thermal energy released during thermal processing, is served by at least one of the steps from a) to C) and/or optionally in stage d) and/or (e).

25. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that after stage (C) an additional step f) comprises separating at least one component containing at least glycerin.

p> 26. The method according A.25, characterized in that after stage (f) at a later stage (h) at least one compound containing at least glycerol, share at least two degrees of quality.

27. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that after stage C) at a subsequent stage h) allocate at least one ion-containing sodium salt of at least one carboxylic acid, at least one of the separated fractions.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: personal use articles.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of hygiene in toilet, for washing dishes in the sink and dishwasher.

EFFECT: offer of a cleaning unit which can be easily located on a solid surface, and which is washed away with many washings, and leaves no residue that can not be easily removed, such as with toilet brush.

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: agent contains, g/l: sodium hydroxide - 4-6 sodium, tripolyphosphate - 2-2.5, sodium carbonate - 5-8, oxyethylated mono-nonylfenol based on propylene trimers containing in a molecule 12 moles of ethylene oxide - 0.2-0.35, defoaming additive - 0.002-0.003, silicic acids salts - 1-2, hydrophobic plasticising additive - 2-4, water - balance to 1 l.

EFFECT: prevention of turn-to-turn welding of black iron coils in the process of thermal treatment.

1 tbl

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method of moulding annular detergent comprises annular moulded component is cut from primary article. Note here that annular moulded detergent component is cut by cutting blade arranged at 45° to cutting plane. Note here that annular moulded detergent component cross section is deformed in cutting it from primary article. Note here that cross section of primary article is formed so that deformation in cutting is compensated to produce annular molded detergent component of preset cross section.

EFFECT: efficient and reliable means of producing annular moulded detergent components.

8 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex

Technosol detergent // 2439205

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: detergent for cleaning surfaces contains a nonionic surfactant based on propylene trimers with boiling point higher than 230°C at pressure 760 mm Hg and with pH of the water-alcohol emulsion with concentration of 10 g/dm3 less than 6.0-8.0, characterised by no bursts before the beginning of effervescence, and a petroleum solvent of the paraffin fraction C7-C18, with the following ratio of components in wt %: nonionic surfactant 0.02-0.5, petroleum solvent with a paraffin fraction - the rest. The nonionic surfactant used is Neonol 9-(4-12) or Neonol 9-6, and the petroleum solvent used is a liquid wide-fraction petroleum paraffin. 0.3-7.0 wt % anionic surfactant consisting of a mixture of sodium salts of alkylsulphonic acids is also added to the detergent.

EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a detergent which is compatible with a wide range of materials, which provides high degree of cleaning by using paraffin solvents of said surfactants, which have demulsifying properties and stabilising capacity and enable to use the use the detergent repeatedly.

5 cl, 2 tbl

Technosol detergent // 2439205

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: detergent for cleaning surfaces contains a nonionic surfactant based on propylene trimers with boiling point higher than 230°C at pressure 760 mm Hg and with pH of the water-alcohol emulsion with concentration of 10 g/dm3 less than 6.0-8.0, characterised by no bursts before the beginning of effervescence, and a petroleum solvent of the paraffin fraction C7-C18, with the following ratio of components in wt %: nonionic surfactant 0.02-0.5, petroleum solvent with a paraffin fraction - the rest. The nonionic surfactant used is Neonol 9-(4-12) or Neonol 9-6, and the petroleum solvent used is a liquid wide-fraction petroleum paraffin. 0.3-7.0 wt % anionic surfactant consisting of a mixture of sodium salts of alkylsulphonic acids is also added to the detergent.

EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a detergent which is compatible with a wide range of materials, which provides high degree of cleaning by using paraffin solvents of said surfactants, which have demulsifying properties and stabilising capacity and enable to use the use the detergent repeatedly.

5 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention describes fabric softening compositions containing approximately from 0.01 to 50% cationic or nonionic softening compound; approximately from 0.01 to 5% fragrance component; and at least 0.001 wt % polymer material capable of holding ingredients of a volatile fragrance component, containing: at least approximately 0.001 wt % cross-linked polymer containing at least one vinyl monomer; and approximately from 5000 to 100000 ppm divinyl cross-linking agent. Also disclosed is a fabric softening method which involves bringing fabric into contact with the composition of a fabric softening agent in an effective amount, where contact takes place by sprinkling, rubbing or rinsing.

EFFECT: improved composition properties.

26 cl, 5 ex, 4 tbl

FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, veterinary science, food industry, domestic service and concerns biocide disinfectants and sterilising agents. The biocide composition contains a mixture of three quaternary ammonium compounds in total contents 19-21 %, in the form of a mixture of 50 % water solution of didecyldimethylammonium chloride containing 20 % 2-propanol, 50 % water solution of cocobenzyldimethylammonium chloride containing 2 % ethylene glycol, 30 % water solution of N,N-bis(3-aminopropyl)-dodecylamine, and water and ethanol and/or isopropanol as a solvent. Also, what is disclosed is a method for preparing the biocide composition.

EFFECT: composition is more effective and can be used for disinfection and sterilisation of the various technological items.

3 cl, 7 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to compositions for extreme media used in agriculture, cosmetology and everyday life. The compositions contain a surfactant based on an organosilicon compound of the formula: MM', where M=R1R2R3SiO1/2; M'=R4R5R6SiO1/2; where R1 is selected from a group consisting of a branched monovalent hydrocarbon radical containing 3-6 carbon atoms, and R7, where R7 has the formula: R8R9R10SiR12, R8, R9 and R10 are each independently selected from monovalent hydrocarbon radicals containing 1-6 carbon atoms and monovalent aryl or alkylaryl hydrocarbon radicals containing 6-13 carbon atoms, and R12 is a divalent hydrocarbon radical containing 1-3 carbon atoms, R2 and R3 are each independently selected from a group of monovalent hydrocarbon radicals containing 1-6 carbon atoms or R1, with R4 in form of alkyl polyalkylene oxide of general formula: R13(C2H4O)a(C3H6O)b(C4H8O)cR14, where R13 is a divalent straight or branched hydrocarbon radical, having the structure: -CH2-CH(R15)(R16)dO-, where R15 is H or methyl; R16 is a divalent alkyl radical with 1-6 carbon atoms, where the subscrip d is equal to 0 or 1; R14 is selected from a group consisting of H, monovalent hydrocarbon radicals with 1-6 carbon atoms and acetyl, where subscripts a, b and c are equal to zero or positive numbers and satisfy the following relationships: 2≤a+b+c ≤20 for a≥2, and R5 and R6 are each independently selected from a group of monovalent hydrocarbon radicals containing 1-6 carbon atoms or R4. The compositions have hydrolysis resistance in a wide pH range.

EFFECT: invention increases hydrolytic stability of the compositions.

65 cl, 21 tbl, 13 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to compositions for extreme media used in agriculture, cosmetology and everyday life. The surfactant compositions for extreme media contain organically modified hydrolysis-resistant disiloxane surfactants which are based on an organosilicon compound of formula: MM', where M = R1R2R3SiO1/2; M' = R4R5R6SiO1/2; where R1 is selected from a group consisting of a branched monovalent hydrocarbon radical containing 3-6 carbon atoms, and R7, where R7 has the formula: R8R9R10SiR12, R8, R9 and R10 are each independently selected from a group of monovalent hydrocarbon radical containing 1-6 carbon atom and monovalent aryl or alkylaryl hydrocarbon radical containing 6-13 carbon atoms, and R12 is a divalent hydrocarbon radical containing 1-3 carbon atoms, R2 and R3 are each independently selected from a group of monovalent hydrocarbon radicals containing 1-6 carbon atoms or R1, with R4 in form of alkylpolyalkylene oxide of general formula: R13(C2H4O)a(C3H6O)b (C4H8O)cR14, where R13 is a divalent straight or branched hydrocarbon radical, having the structure: -CH2-CH(R15)(R16)dO-, where R15 is H or methyl; R16 is a divalent alkyl radical consisting of 1-6 carbon atoms, where the subscript d can be equal to 0 or 1; R14 is selected from a group consisting of H, monovalent hydrocarbon radicals consisting of 1-6 carbon atoms and acetyl, where subscripts a, b and c are equal to zero or positive numbers and satisfy the following relationships: 2≤a+b+c≤20 for a ≥2, and R5 and R6 are each independently selected from a group of monovalent hydrocarbon radicals containing 1-6 carbon atoms or R4. The compositions are resistant to hydrolysis in a wide pH range.

EFFECT: invention increases hydrolytic stability of the compositions.

65 cl, 21 tbl, 13 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: mother-of-pearl liquid composition for treatment during laundry contains a fabric care agent selected from a group consisting of silicone derivatives, fatty sugar derivatives, dispersed polyolefins, polymer latex, cationic surfactants and mixtures thereof, a mother-of-pearl agent having D0.99 volumetric particle size less than 50 mcm, as well as a precipitation-enhancing agent selected from cationic ethers of cellulose and copolymers.

EFFECT: improved stability and appearance.

9 cl, 25 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of producing organic carbonates and carbamates. Described is an alcoholysis method, involving: feeding reactants and a trace amount of a soluble organometallic compound, which is soluble in the reactants, into a reactor containing a solid alcoholysis catalyst, wherein the trace amount ranges from about 1 ppm to about 3000 ppm with respect to total mass of the added reactants; where the soluble organometallic compound and the solid alcoholysis catalyst each independently contains a Group II to Group VI element. Described is a method of producing dialkylcarbonates, involving: feeding an alcohol and an alcoholysis reactant, containing at least one compound from urea, organic carbamate and cyclic carbonate, in the presence of the catalyst system described above. Described is a method of producing diarylcarbonate, involving: feeding an aromatic hydroxy compound and dialkylcarbonate in the presence of the catalyst system described above. Described is a method of producing alkylarylcarbonate, involving: feeding an aromatic hydroxy compound and dialkylcarbonate in the presence of the catalyst system described above. Described is a method of producing biodiesel, involving: feeding an alcohol and glycerine in the presence of the catalyst system described above The methods described above involve reaction of a spent solid alcoholysis catalyst, involving: removal of polymer materials deposited on the catalyst; and redeposition of catalytically active metals on the solid catalyst.

EFFECT: longer duration of the cycle of the alcoholysis method.

36 cl, 7 tbl, 18 dwg, 14 ex

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: method for production of fat and butter containing triglycerides of 1,3-disaturated long-chain fatty acid, 2-monounsaturated long-chain fatty acid and triglycerides of 1,2-disaturated long-chain fatty acid, 3-monounsaturated long-chain fatty acid at a weight ratio of 9/1 or more involves iteresterification of fat and butter containing 50 wt % or more of triglycerides of 1,3-disaturated long-chain fatty acid, 2-monounsaturated long-chain fatty acid and triglycerides of 1,2-disaturated long-chain fatty acid, 3-monounsaturated long-chain fatty acid with treatment of 1,3-selective lipase chosen from the group consisting of lipases produced from Thermomyces sp., Rhizopus oryzae and Rhizopus delemar.

EFFECT: invention allows to produce chocolate products with intensified crunchiness and good melting when in the mouth.

23 cl, 1 dwg, 10 tbl, 10 ex

FIELD: organic chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to using a flocculating and sequestering agent with the organic solution as an agent to facilitate such purification. A method of purifying an organic solution, comprising contacting a flocculating and sequestering agent with the organic solution, which organic solution comprises fatty acid alkyl esters, wherein the water content of the organic solution is equal or less than 5% by weight, when the pH in the organic solution is 9 to 12, wherein the flocculating and sequestering agent is chosen from polyaluminium coagulants. There is provided a process for purification of an organic solution of fatty acid alkyl esters suitable for use as biodiesel, comprising: adding a flocculating and sequestering agent chosen from polyaluminium coagulants to the organic solution so as to facilitate the purification when the pH in the organic solution is 9 to 12 and removing a portion from the organic solution, which portion comprises the flocculating and sequestering agent, and impurities, wherein the water content of the organic solution is equal or less than 5% by weight.

EFFECT: process will enable less energy input and becomes less time-consuming and less costly, as compared to the known processes using water to purify the organic solution.

10 cl, 3 tbl, 12 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves preparation of raw material, stage-by-stage treatment and obtaining of fuel. Preparation of raw material is performed by means of refining. Treatment is performed at three stages. At the first stage fish oil is mixed with absolute ethanol or methanol in ratio of 1:2-1:5. At the second stage concentrated sulphuric acid in quantity of 2-10% is added to the obtained mixture and ester interchange reaction is performed at temperature of not more than 40°C during 20-60 min. At the third stage the mixture temperature is brought to boiling temperature and kept at this temperature during 60-480 min with separation into glycerin and mixture of ethyl or methyl ethers of fatty acids. Then, mixture is neutralised with alkali liquor, washed with water and settled. After that, impurities are removed by centrifuging so that fuel is obtained, which is then dehydrated and cleaned.

EFFECT: improving physical and chemical properties.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: randomisation is performed at presence of catalyst - potassium hydroxide - at continuous mixing components in reactor of randomisation. Upon completion of mixing produced mixture is pumped over into a settling reservoir where mixture settles for not less, than twenty four hours. Further, settled glycerine is drained from the settling reservoir whereto water is pumped. After not less, than twenty four hours, settled water is drained into a reservoir for water, while residue is dried to finished product. Preferably, vegetable oil should be heated to temperature 66÷68°C before randomisation.

EFFECT: simple and safe procedure for production of lubricating additive to diesel fuel corresponding to mixture of ethyl ethers of fat acids.

2 cl

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: hydrocarbon fuel obtaining method involves contacting of glycerides of fatty acids with C1-C5 alcohol in presence of solid double cyanide of metals as catalyst at temperature of within 150-200°C during 2-6 hours, cooling of the above reaction mixture to temperature within 20-35°C, filtration of reaction mixture for separation of catalyst with further removal of unreacted alcohol from the obtained filtrate by vacuum distillation so that hydrocarbon fuel is obtained; at that, one metal of catalyst is Zn2+, and the second one is Fe ion.

EFFECT: high output of hydrocarbon fuels.

11 cl, 9 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a reesterification catalyst and its preparation method. The invention describes a reesterification catalyst of general formula: Zn3M2(CN)n(ROH)·xZnCl2·yH2O, where R is tertiary butyl and M is a transition metal ion selected from Fe, Co and Cr; x lies between 0 and 0.5, y lies between 3 and 5 and n equals 10 or 12. Described is a method of preparing the catalyst, involving the following steps: a) dissolving ZnCb in a mixture of water and tertiary butanol, b) adding the said solution obtained from step a) to an aqueous solution of K4Fe(CN)6 while stirring, c) adding a ternary block copolymer of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (EO20-PO70-EO20; molecular weight of approximately 5800), dissolved in a mixture of tert-butanol and water, to the above mentioned mixture obtained at step (b) while stirring and at temperature 25°C-70°C, d) filtering the reaction mixture obtained at step (c) to obtain a solid product ad then washing with distilled water and drying at temperature 20-50°C and e) activating the said dried solid product at temperature 150-200°C to obtain the desired reesterification catalyst.

EFFECT: ensuring high catalyst activity even in moderate conditions during reesterification of glycerides, esters of fatty acids and cyclic carbonates during reaction with alcohols; leaching of metal ions from the solid catalyst is not observed.

12 cl, 2 tbl, 12 ex

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to compositions of breast milk fat substitutes, methods of their production, compositions of fat bases and methods of their production; baby formula containing specified substitutes. Composition of fat base according to invention includes mixture of triglycerides of vegetable origin, characterised by the fact that less than 50% of remains of fatty acids bound in sn-2 position are saturated; and/or amount of remains of saturated fatty acids bound in sn-2 position of glycerin frame makes less than approximately 43.5% of overall amount of remains of saturated fatty acids, 45-65% parts of unsaturated fatty acids in sn-1 and sn-3 positions make parts of oleic acid and/or 7-15% parts of unsaturated fatty acids in sn-1 and sn-3 positions make parts of linoleic acid. Composition of breast milk fat substitute according to invention includes mixture of at least 25% or at least 30% of specified composition of fat base according to the invention and up to 75% or accordingly up to 70% of at least one vegetable oil, in which specified vegetable oil is randomised. Baby formula according to invention includes composition of fat base or composition of breast milk fat substitute.

EFFECT: compositions of fat base make it possible to optimally imitate breast milk fat and are suitable for use in various baby formulas, and methods of production provide for low consumption of fat bases in process of their production.

28 cl, 17 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to oil-and-fat industry. Method and system for fermentative treatment of initial material containing lipides comprises brining initial material in contact with process admixture, passing initial material at, in fact, constant flow rate through treatment system that includes several reactors with ferments and stationary layer connected in series. Reactors with stationary layer may be serviced individually while initial material flow rate being, in fact, constant in cutting one reactor off for servicing purposes. Process admixture is, in fact, dehydrated silicon dioxide with pore size exceeding 150 angstrom. Said admixture may be placed in one or several reactors above layer of ferment, or be placed in pretreatment system that includes one or several reactors.

EFFECT: increased fermentative activity of treatment.

32 cl, 6 dwg, 20 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: composition consists of an interesterified fat prepared by interesterification of a mixture containing 5-95 % of at least one dodecanic fat and 95-5 % of at least one non-dodecanic fat; the composition of non-hydrogenised vegetable fats contains at least 50 wt % and less than 15wt % of solid fat (SFC) at a temperature of 20°C and 35°C accordingly; the composition of non-hydrogenised vegetable fats contains C12+C16 fatty acids in an amount of at least 55wt % of the total weight of the fat composition, the C12/C16 of fatty acids ratio being at least 1. The mixture of at least one dodecanic fat and at least one non-dodecanic fat undergoes a process of chemical and fermentative interesterification. The produced fat is added to the composition of confectionery fat, a confectionery product, coffee whitener or an ice-cream composition.

EFFECT: invention allows to produce a fatty composition suitable for application in confectionary industry; this composition does not undergo hydrogenisation and needs no tempering; it is characterised by a high profile of solid fats content, a property to melt well when in the mouth, a waxy sensation absence, good thermal endurance and rather a high crystallisation rate.

17 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: raw material composition based on fatty acids or esters of fatty acids, obtained by hydrolysis of oil from seeds or by re-etherification of oil from seeds with C1-8-alkanol, contains more than 70 wt % of unsaturated fatty oleic acid, and less than 1.5 milliequivalents of admixture(s), poisoning methathesis catalyst, per kilogram of composition, after purification with adsorbent. Admixture contains one or more organic hydroperoxides. Method of olefin methathesis lies in contacting of raw composition, obtained from seed oil and containing one or more unsaturated fatty acids or esters of unsaturated fatty acids, with lower olefin in presence of catalyst based on phosphororganic transition metal complex. Used raw material composition contains less than 25 milliequivalents of admixture(s), poisoning methathesis catalyst, per kilogram of raw material composition, able to inhibit methathesis catalyst. As a result of reaction olefin with shortened chain and unsaturated acid or unsaturated ester with shortened chain is obtained. Method of obtaining complex polyether polyepoxide lies in carrying out the following stages. At the first stage raw material compositiojn, obtained from seed oil, containing one or more unsaturated fatty acids or esters of fatty acids, contacts with lower olefin in presence of olefin methathesis catalyst. Used raw material composition contains less than 25 milliequivalents of admixture(s), poisoning methathesis catalyst, per kilogram of composition. At the second stage (re)etherification of obtained unsaturated acid with shortened chain or unsaturated ester with shortened chain with polyol is carried out. At the third stage epoxidation of obtained complex polyether polyolefin is carried out with epoxidising agent optionally in presence of catalyst. Method of obtaining α,ω-oxoacid, complex α,ω-oxyester and/or α,ω-diol with shortened chain lies in carrying out the following stages. At the first stage raw material composition, obtained from seed oil, containing one or more unsaturated fatty acids or esters of fatty acids contacts with lower olefin in presence of olefin methathesis catalyst. Used raw material composition contains less than 25 milliequivalents of admixture(s), poisoning methathesis catalyst, per kilogram of composition. At the second stage hydroformilation is carried out with hydrating of obtained unsaturated acid or ester with shortened chain in presence of hydroformiolation/hydration catalyst.

EFFECT: increase of catalyst serviceability and obtaining chemical compounds with high productivity.

25 cl, 3 tbl, 12 ex

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