Preserved olive paste

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for preservation of olive oil contained in a frozen paste produced of milled olives. The olive oil preservation method consists in freezing a paste produced of milled olives at a temperature from nearly 0°C to -40°C before malaxation.

EFFECT: invention allows to produce olive oil with superior analytical and organoleptic characteristics.

9 cl, 5 dwg, 7 tbl, 3 ex

 

The invention relates to a method of conservation of olive oil contained in the frozen and need not be Packed under vacuum, the paste obtained from the crushed olives. Additionally, the present invention also relates to the olive paste obtained by way of conservation, and the procedure for obtaining olive oil and olive oil, obtained by this method.

Olive oil extracted from olives (Olea europaea L. sensu lato), which are the fruit of the olive tree. The composition of these fruits during the harvest varies greatly depending on the variety of olives, sun, weather and harvest. Olive oil is a living product, and therefore requires special care in handling and storage. If the oil is treated or stored in poor conditions, it changes that lead to its modification (rancid taste, aroma, color and the like).

To prevent negative changes taking place during storage, olive oil currently stored at the following conditions:

- storage containers made of waterproof or water-resistant material that allows them to be washed before filling the new oil;

- storage containers made of inert material that does not react with Mas who ohms;

- storage tanks for not adsorb odors;

- storage containers do not contain materials that accelerate the process of rancidity;

- storage tanks do not leak light and moisture;

- storage tanks for support at a constant temperature, preferably 15°C, since higher temperatures contributes to rancidification, and a lower temperature causes a clouding of the oil.

However, this type of storage is expensive and can lead to growth of a layer of insoluble precipitate during storage, which can ferment and cause unpleasant odors in olive oil. To avoid this, the olive oil must be purified (filtered), this processing is sometimes repeated several times before bottling. During this procedure, the olive oil should be exposed to air as possible in the shortest period of time in order to avoid oxidation or rancidity. Volatile compounds that can occur during the extraction, become less dominant in the process of storage of certain volatile compounds chemical oxidation.

Additionally, to prevent the loss of excellent properties of olive oil, it should not be stored for a long period of time. If possible, it should be kept in a place where there is no excess is EPLO or moisture, not in the light and away from sources of strong odors due to the fact that the oil has the ability to rapidly absorb strong smell these smells can have a negative impact on the characteristics of its fluidity.

Most of the above changes in virgin olive oil during storage, occur due to enzymatic reactions; these reactions not only have a negative impact on the profiles of flavor and aroma, but also can cause positive changes that can produce quantitative and qualitative differences in quality. Some of these enzymes or enzymatic pathways that have a positive impact on the organoleptic characteristics of olive oil:

-lipoxygenase path (LOX): a cascade of enzymes that can oxidize free fatty acids from C5 to C6 volatile compounds responsible for the organoleptic characteristics of olive oil first pressing (Angerosa et al., 1999) and the taste of olives (Sabatini & Marsilio, 2007);

-β-glucosidase: enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of oleuropein and ligstroside related to aglycones, which are more soluble in oil, but more separable from the olive paste compared to glucoside forms, thereby increasing the concentration secoiridoid compounds in olivka the om oil (natural antioxidants), giving stability, taste and natural signs olive oil is the first pressing;

-hydroperoxide of LiAZ (HPL): enzymes responsible for the catalysis of the cleavage of hydroperoxides of fatty acids and the production of volatile aldehydes and oxanilate. Isoform of the enzyme, which uses 13-gidroperekisi, produces C6 aldehydes responsible for the green aroma of olive oil;

-alcoholdehydrogenase (ADH): the enzyme responsible for the catalysis of the reversible recovery of aliphatic aldehydes to alcohols, giving the flavor of foods from vegetables;

-alcoholicbeverage (AAT): the enzyme responsible for the catalysis of the formation of acetate esters derived through acetyl-CoA to acetate esters.

On the other hand, some enzymes have a negative impact on the organoleptic characteristics of olive oil, represent polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). These enzymes are responsible for the oxidation of phenolic compounds (i.e. secoiridoids), which results in a decrease in the concentration of phenol in oil. This oxidation affects the organoleptic characteristics, oxidative stability and nutritional quality of olive oil is the first pressing.

In this regard, in the prior art have been proposed various methods conse the growing of olive oil of the highest quality first cold pressing. The main criterion for the preservation of vegetable materials is the use of very low temperatures or de-hydration to reduce enzymatic activity, thereby enhancing the stability of the material.

The prior art known methods such as those which combine grinding under conditions of low oxygen content, followed by direct freezing olive paste using liquid nitrogen and high pressure (Migliorini et al. 2006), or the methods comprising drying under vacuum at a temperature of less than or equal to -80°C, or under reduced pressure of 10-3up to 10-1bar olive material after crushing and pressing to obtain a lipid composition containing literaturniye and water-soluble antioxidants. These antioxidants then used to protect the food product and a cosmetic product from oxidation.

However, the use of liquid nitrogen or process degidrirovaniya drying olive material results in complete inactivation of enzyme activity, positive stopping enzymes from extraction of phenols, followed by a decline organoleptic and nutritional characteristics and potential positive impacts on health polyphenol olive oil (Visioli &Galli, 1998). Therefore, the CE is still a need to develop simple industrial way of preserving olive oil of the highest quality first cold pressed for a long period of time.

Illustrations:

Figure 1 - change of peroxide number of different controls (1: initial control 2: control 1 month, 3: control 3 months, 4: control after 6 months, 5: control after 12 months).

Figure 2 - change in the acidity of various controls (1: initial control 2: control 1 month, 3: control 3 months, 4: control after 6 months, 5: control after 12 months).

Figure 3 - change in peroxide number of different controls Piqual (1: initial control 2: control 1 month, 3: control 3 months, 4: control after 6 months).

Figure 4 - change of index K270various controls Arbequina (1: initial control 2: control 1 month, 3: control 3 months, 4: control after 6 months, 5: control after 12 months).

Figure 5 - change of index K232various controls Arbequina (1: initial control 2: control 1 month, 3: control 3 months, 4: control after 6 months, 5: control after 12 months).

The present invention relates to a method of preserving olive oil, consisting of direct freezing at temperatures from 0°C to about -40°C and optional packaging under vacuum, pasta directly obtained from crushed olives. The paste used in the present invention (hereinafter referred to as " paste according to the invention), receive smalcinamais obtaining a homogeneous paste, which is then subjected to direct freezing, pasta is not obtained after the process of Malassezia, which means mixing the paste with a continuous oily phase, which facilitates the separation of the oil from the other components of the oil during storage, to prevent separation of the pasta should be slightly heated to reduce viscosity and facilitate the formation of the oil phase and the division. The phase separation occurring during the process of Malassezia, contributes to changes in the organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of produced oil. Consequently, canned and frozen olive paste according to the present invention allows to obtain olive oil with unexpectedly excellent analytical and organoleptic characteristics compared with other methods of preservation.

Olive oil is a product with very complex physical, chemical and organoleptic properties. Preservation of these features is fundamental to the preservation of these properties of the product (taste, smell and the like)that make it a major component of all balanced diets.

Therefore, the actual conservation of olive oil is the main to preserve the nutritional and organoleptic properties of the oil. Method of preserving olive m is provided by the present invention allows easy and quick to get the olive oil of the highest quality of canned and frozen olive paste. Paste allows you to get the olive oil with the physico-chemical and organoleptic score is higher compared with those of the oil obtained using other methods of preservation, and therefore allows to obtain olive oil is the first pressing of excellent quality for long periods of time. Additionally, canned frozen olive paste makes it possible to produce olive oil of the highest quality single cold pressing instantly, as this is necessary for extended periods of time. Therefore, any person in any part of the world has access to the olive oil obtained at the time of consumption, hence, maintaining the physico-chemical and organoleptic properties.

When frozen plant material, usually takes place the formation of extracellular and intracellular water crystals that can destroy the cell wall. According to traditional knowledge is considered that the rapid decrease of temperature during the freezing happens more rapid freezing and best preservation of plant material. This occurs because the enzymes are inactivated and in the process of crystallization of water formed small crystals, which do not destroy or nearly destroy the cell membrane.

p> In the olive oil contained in vacuoles mesocarp, namely in a certain type vacuole called lipovaca. The enzymes in the olives are in different places, mainly in mesocarp and in the cytoplasm, lipid cells and chloroplasts.

Oleic acid, the main component of olive oil (about 70 to 80 wt.%), has a freezing point depression of the melting point of about -10°C at atmospheric pressure and a slower crystallization compared with water due to the fact that water has a melting point of about 0°C at atmospheric pressure. Therefore, when slow freezing at a temperature of from 0 to about 22°With the olive paste is obtained directly from the crushed olives, enzymes, released in the grinding process, and the enzymes released during the destruction of cell membranes major extracellular and intracellular water crystals formed during freezing drops of oil come in contact.

Therefore, strengthening the process of oxidation, but also the production of some volatile compounds necessary for the organoleptic properties, indicates the quality of olive oil is the first pressing. Unexpectedly, the destruction of these cell walls in the process of mechanical grinding of the olives and the formation of large extracellular and intracellular water crystals increases to the concentrations of enzymes, such as β-glucosidase, and the time interval within which they operate, which in result leads to the release of phenolic compounds in the oil, thus increasing oxidative stability.

Consequently, the preservation method of the present invention allows to obtain in the olive oil, rich in phenolic compounds, due to, among other things, prolonged contact of the enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of oleuropein and ligstroside related to aglycones, which are more soluble in oil, and therefore more separable from the olive paste compared to glucoside forms.

To demonstrate the quality of olive oil obtained from canned frozen olive paste of the present invention, several production controls were conducted by using two different varieties of olives (Arbequina and Picual). In order to do this, research carried out in comparison with other forms of preservation oil for various periods of time. Other used forms of preservation are: cooling or freezing canned olives, olive oil, cured at room temperature, and the oil obtained from canned frozen olive paste according to the present invention. These experimental the options described in Examples 2 and 3 below.

Conducting these experiments confirmed (see Table II)that the acidity of the resulting oil remains stable during the first and third month with an indicator about 0,20, except oil obtained from chilled canned olives that demonstrate a high rate of 0.67 in the first month and to 1.21 in the third month. Consequently, it can be determined that the acidity of the oil obtained from chilled canned olives, loses the properties of olive oil first pressing after three months of preservation. The parameters determined for six months and one year, unexpectedly showed that the acidity of the oil obtained from frozen olive paste of the present invention, significantly lower acidity in certain other methods of preservation, thus confirming the fact that the preservation method of the present invention allows to maintain the physico-chemical and organoleptic qualities of the oil.

It is established that the peroxide number (Pl) various canned oils (see Table II) has a lower performance compared to traditional, considering that typically limits the performance of oils obtained from Arbequina, is from 7 to 11 mEq/kg. But Pl olive oil, cured at room temperature, will monstrorum clear tendency to increase over time. It is necessary only to observe the performance of Pl obtained in the third month, where there is a significant difference between the oil from canned frozen olive paste with Pl 3.9 and oil, canned at room temperature Pl of 6.4. However, the results of Pl obtained in the sixth month, in the first year, the oil obtained from canned frozen olive paste, scores worse, than in the third month (table II, figure 1 and figure 2). This confirms the earlier hypothesis that increasing the concentration of phenolic compounds may occur because of the way canning pasta. The results are shown in Tables III and IV demonstrate that chilled and frozen canned olives do not provide olive oil desirable organoleptic properties, because some defects are manifested in them. You can also see that this is the worst compensation olive oil, cured at room temperature in the third month, compared with the oil obtained from canned and frozen olive paste according to the present invention.

From Tables V and VI clearly visible positive trend observed in oil Picual obtained from canned and frozen olive paste of the present invention, which is similar to olive pasta Arbequina.

Therefore, p is pout aspect of the present invention relates to a method of preserving olive oil (hereinafter referred to as a conservation method of the present invention), which consists of freezing at a temperature of from 0 to about -40°C and optional vacuum packaging, a paste is obtained directly from the crushed olives, preferably as rapidly as specified pasta receive, or within a period of time, which allows you to get olive oil, maintaining the inherent physico-chemical and organoleptic properties that are suitable for human consumption or animal.

Preservation method of the present invention can be applied to obtain a paste of crushed olives of any kind, preferably without restrictions from olives of the following varieties: Picual, Hojiblanca, Lechin, Picudo, Arbequina, Cornicabra, Verdial or Empeltre, and more preferred varieties are shown in Table VII, and even more preferably varieties 262, which are grouped in four categories: primary, secondary, common and local, each of which grows in Spain.

Table VII
NameDescription/Origin
Picual, or "Martina"Ellipsoidal shape, but with pointed tip (opposite the stem), which gives the name to this variety. This is the most common with the t, grown in Spain, particularly in Andalusia.
HojiblancaThe fruit is almost spherical shape. Grows in Andalusia.
LechinMedium or small fruit with a rounded top. Grows in the West of Andalusia.
ArbequinaOval short and a little fruit. Grows in Catalonia and the valley of the Ebro.
PicudoCharacterized by outstanding upper part. And also called "karraskilla". Can be used as a dressing (double suitability).
Goat''s horn (the horn of the goat) or "cornezuelo"More elongated ellipsoidal shape in comparison with Picual, a little deformed. Grows in Castile - province Lamancha.
VerdialThe form is similar to a small lemon. Grows in Extremadura and Andalusia.
EmpeltreLong sometimes asymmetric fruit blackish in Mature form. Grows in the valley of the Ebro.
BlanquetaSmall fruit serving top chastity in Valencia and Alicante.
FargaSmall or medium long fruit, slightly convex on one side and flat on the other. Grows in the North of Valencia, Tarragona and Tarule.
Chamomile "cacereña"Green fruit, becoming purple, which resembles an Apple. Grows in Caceres and Salamanca.
MoriscaThick fruit, sometimes longer. Grows in Badajoz.
AloreñaAverage fruit with a rounded top. Mixed use. Grows in Malaga.
MorrutGrows in Tarragona and Castellon.
SevilleGrows in Tarragona and Castellon.
CastilianGrows in Guadalajara and Cuenca.
VillalongaGrows in Valencia.
ChanglotGrows in Valencia.
AlfafaraGrows in Valencia.
Chamomile (Chamomile) The fruits are being used as table olives. Came from "Dos Hermanas (Seville) and mainly there and grows.
GordalAnother type of table olives, grown mainly in Seville.

In a preferred variant embodiment of the present invention preservation method carried out by washing the olives before processing and removing such parts of the plant, as the leaves and the remaining parts of the plant. Then paste receive, crushing olives for the destruction of the intermediate layer vacuoles pulp of olives, which contains inside a drop of oil, and thus carrying out the extraction. This treatment is carried out using mills of various types.

Thus obtained paste can be Packed under vacuum, for example, freezing in bags/bags with a low degree of permeability or packaging under vacuum to preserve its properties.

In another preferred variant of embodiment of the present invention canned frozen olive paste according to the present invention is frozen at a temperature of from 0 to -40°C. In a more preferred variant of embodiment of the present invention canned frozen olive paste according to the present invention is frozen at a temperature of from 0 to -22°C ILIT -5 to -18°C. In an even more preferred variant of embodiment of the present invention canned frozen olive paste according to the present invention is frozen at a temperature of from -5 to -15°C or from -7 to -10°C.

The second aspect of the present invention relates to canned frozen vacuum packaged or not packaged under vacuum olive paste obtained by the method according to the present invention, where this paste can be obtained from olives of all shapes and sizes, which are suitable for industrial or domestic use.

Canned frozen vacuum packaged or not packaged under vacuum olive paste may include any type of substance that improves the physico-chemical properties or state of preservation. For example, it may include without limitation, antioxidants, fragrances, dyes, preservatives, spices and the like.

The third aspect of the present invention relates to a procedure for obtaining oil (hereinafter, the procedure of obtaining the oils of the present invention) of canned frozen vacuum packaged or not packaged under vacuum olive paste, comprising at least the following: (a) emulsion, or a mixture obtained by mixing, grinding paste, and (b) decanting or centrifugation of the emulsion. Neoba the consequently, the resulting oil can be filtered.

In a preferred variant embodiment of the present invention upon receipt of olive oil from the paste of the present invention can be used in the following processing:

- mixing paste (grinding shear force).

This procedure consists of mixing the paste with the continuous oil phase, which facilitates the separation of oil from other oil components during the stage preceding the branch where the paste can be gently heated to reduce the viscosity and facilitate the formation of an oil phase and separation. However, the temperature should not be higher than 30°C during mixing, chopping, to minimize oxidation and loss of volatile compounds through evaporation, making thus possible to obtain high-quality oils.

Mixing time shall be sufficient for the solid, aqueous and oil phase are combined, and turned out the mass with a homogeneous temperature. It is not recommended excessive stirring, chopping, because it can cause a decrease in the content of polyphenols in the oil and loss of aroma. Typically, the mixing time is from 10 to 60 minutes, preferably from 30 to 45 minutes.

When this procedure can also be added to hot water, the 300 ml per kg In this case, the procedure consists of mixing the grinding paste for 10 to 30 minutes without adding water, trying to keep a stable temperature, and then add boiling water and mix by grinding for another 5-15 minutes.

- Centrifugation paste.

Preliminary extraction of the oil is carried out by centrifugation. At this stage the solid phase (including the peel, pulp and seeds of olives) is separated from the liquid phase formed from the olive paste, which is collected in the decanter.

- Decanting oil.

The liquid phase obtained in the process of centrifugation, share when using desantirovaniya into two phases: oil and water phase (alpechin). Time desantirovaniya should be sufficient to separate the phases and collecting oil from the upper part and filling. Typically, the time desantirovaniya is from 5 to 15 minutes.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention between the stage of mixing, grinding and emulsion may be added to the stage, which may consist of pressing the emulsion to separate the solid part from the liquid part.

In a preferred embodiment of the proposed method of obtaining oil, pasta can be processed into an emulsion with any other type of substances and/or food product, such as, without limitation, fruits, fungi, algae, so that the s then extruding the emulsion, centrifuged and decanted to obtain oils with different organoleptic properties, depending on the consumer.

Processing of canned, frozen, vacuum packaged or unpackaged olive paste, as well as the resulting oil can be easily implemented in the home and/or industrial conditions when using the device for emulsification and/or mixing of the paste and centrifugation, desantirovaniya and/or pressing it.

In the fourth aspect of the present invention relates to the olive oil obtained from canned, frozen and/or Packed under vacuum olive paste.

In the context of the present invention acidity is one of the chemical characteristics that determine the quality of the oil. Therefore, a high degree of acidity is not normal for the oil produced by the destruction of the triglyceride molecules through the ether connection.

The degree of acidity of the oil indicates the content of free fatty acids, expressed as percentage of oleic acid.

In the context of the present invention peroxide number (Pl) is a parameter of the quality of the oil. This shows the degree of oxidation of the oil. During the oxidation of the oil superoxide pass into other substances, and this number also indicates the possibility of damage is definitely the certain components, such as α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and polyphenols. Peroxides are the result of the oxidation process in the sample at a certain time, and they are the first products of the oxidation of fat. This number measures the primary degree of oxidation of the oil, i.e. the content of superoxide, and indicates the state of its preservation. Peroxide number determines the degree of oxidation of the oil before conducting organoleptic evaluation despite its inaccuracy and low representativeness in relation to the overall oxidation of the oil together with the photometric spectrum under UV light (K232and K270), the parameters also indicate oxidation of the oil, i.e. from the beginning of the oxidation until rancidity.

The average peroxide number is based on determining the amount of peroxides present in the samples ("mEq" activity O2/kg oil)that is causing the oxidation of potassium iodide in the work environment.

In the context of the present invention UV-test shows the quality of the oil, the state of preservation and change, induced technological processes (such as refining). The absorption of these waves is due to the fact that they are dieny with conjugated double bonds, measured at 232 nm, and triene with conjugated bonds at 270 nm. These indicators absorption expressed define the TES weakening, traditionally, K, called the attenuation coefficient. This method allows to get a first impression of fresh olive oil.

In the context of the present invention is applicable restrictions for the definition of quality given in the Regulations (Regulation EEC) No. 2568/91 and modified by Regulation (EC) (Regulation (EC) no 1989/2003, where specified pH value lower than 0.8%, the maximum peroxide 20 mEq/kg and 0.22 and 2.5 for absorbance at 270 nm and 232 nm, respectively, for olive oil of the highest quality first cold pressing. For olive oil is the first pressing of the maximum limit of acidity is 2%, and the absorbance at 270 nm is 0.25 and 2.6 at 232 nm. Peroxide number is equal to 20 mEq/kg

In the context of the present invention and with respect to the data organoleptic assessment given in the Examples (Tables IV and VI), olive oil is classified according to the categories listed below, depending on the average values of the defects and the average value of the quality characteristic "fruity" (with a fruity note). The average defect is the average of the negative characteristics found with greater intensity.

The coefficient of variation of this negative characteristics must be equal to or less than 20%.

a) Olive oil of the highest quality first cold pressing: redni defect 0, that corresponds to the "fruit" of the characteristic greater than 0.

b) Olive oil is the first pressing: the average value of defects is higher than 0 and lower than or equal to 2.5, which corresponds to the value of the quality characteristic "fruity" higher than 0.

c) Pure olive oil: the median of the defects is higher than 2.5, which corresponds to the value of the quality characteristic "fruity"0.

In the context of the present invention in regard to the definitions given in the description of the organoleptic characteristics of olive oil first cold pressing (IOOC, 1987; IOOC, 1996), positive qualitative characteristic of olive oil first cold pressing is explained as:

fruity note (fruit): the main positive quality characteristic of olive oil first cold pressing characterizes the oil obtained from healthy, fresh fruits, both Mature and immature. Fragrance oils obtained from unripe olives, as a rule, characterized by grassy or green quality characteristic, while the olive oil first cold pressing, derived from the ripe fruit, is characterized by a pleasant aroma (IOOC, 1987).

Bitterness: the primary taste produced by dilute aqueous solutions of various substances, such as quinine, caffeine, and many alkaloids. This characteristic taste olivkovaya from green olives or olives, changing colour (IOOC, 1987).

Pungency: the characteristic sensation of sharpness of oils obtained at the beginning of the harvesting season, mainly from unripe olives (IOOC, 1987).

The usual defects organoleptic quality of the oil is described below using a dictionary:

Stale: characteristic flavour of oil from olives stored in nabalco significantly thick layer or in jute bags for a long period of time before extraction and at an advanced stage of anaerobic fermentation. This is a common defect essentially characteristic of small processing factories, which lack of space for storing fruits (IOOC, 1996). The total amount of volatile compounds in stale oil and high esters and acids contribute to a feeling of stuffiness.

Zaplesnevelye-raw: characteristic flavour of oil obtained from the fruit, infected a large number of fungi or yeast in the storage at low temperature and high humidity. Fungi have the ability to oxidize free fatty acids to volatile compounds such as 2-heptanone and 2-nonanone. On the other hand, the yeast can easily reduce carbonyl compounds (IOOC, 1996; Morales et al., 2005).

Muddy sediment: characteristic flavour of oil that was left in contact with the lees for an extended period of time (IOOC, 199).

Wine-vinegar: aroma, mainly because the process of fermentation in the olives, leading to the formation of acetic acid, ethyl acetate and ethanol. This fragrance is reminiscent of wine or vinegar (IOOC, 1996; Morales et al., 2005).

Rancid: fragrance oils, oxidized. The main substances that cause it, are unsaturated aldehydes (IOOC, 1996; Morales et al., 2005).

Below to illustrate the present invention are examples.

EXAMPLES

Example 1

For the implementation of the present invention, a study was conducted canning olives and/or olive paste to obtain olive oil, immediately before use. To achieve this goal for each grade of olives was conducted the following experiment:

- preservation of whole olives (chilled and frozen);

- conservation of the olive paste (chilled and frozen). To obtain a paste of olives wash and remove the leaves; crushed to obtain a homogeneous paste, then a portion of this emulsion is cooled at a temperature of 5°C, and another part of the canned pasta, freezing at -18°C;

sequential control of the oil obtained from the pasta, and other food preservation techniques;

analytical control of oil, carried out by measuring the peroxide number, and therefore, dienes and trienol.

Oil is achala get to control its evolution over time, storing at room temperature, refrigerated and frozen.

Example 2: changing the analytical and organoleptic parameters Arbequina

To control the change indicators within one month for this grade do the following:

- acquisition of Arbequina olives in a cooperative Association of Salomo (Tarragona);

- obtaining oil and olive paste for research. In order to do this, first of olives Arbequina receive oil, this oil can at room temperature for monitoring changes over time, and can whole olives and olive paste (chilled and frozen);

analytical control of the initial oil;

- obtaining oil from olives and olive paste, canned after a month of treatment and three months;

analytical control of the taste of the obtained oils.

Spend the first control oil at room temperature after its extraction and receive the following indicators:

- peroxide number=5.8 mEq/kg (S=0.4 mEq/kg; RSD=6,7%);

- total acidity=0.20 g oleic acid/100 g of oil.

Organoleptic analysis of this oil did not reveal any defects.

One month after the first inspection is carried out the second control oil. In the Table I below shows the results of the analytical analysis.

Table I
Processing typeTotal acidity (g oleic acid/100 g)
*Max 0,8
Peroxide number (mEq O2/kg)
*Max 20
Index To the270
*Max 0,22
Index dienes, µmol/gIndex of tranov, µmol/g
Frozen canned butterThe concentration is5,1The concentration isa 4.90,6
Chilled canned butterThe concentration is5,6The concentration is5,10,6
Oil, cured at room temperature0,205,90,095,50,4
The oil obtained from the fresh canned olives0,67 5,30,095,20,5
The oil obtained from frozen canned olives0,223,60,074,50,4
The oil obtained from canned frozen olive paste0,173,00,084,60,4

The Table below shows the indicator "Max" corresponds to that of olive oil of the highest quality first cold pressing. In the case of olive oil first cold pressing of these indicators are as follows: maximum acidity 2,0, K270a maximum of 0.25. The concentration is not determined.

The third inspection is carried out after three months after the first control, the fourth inspection is carried out after six months and the fifth control is carried out through the 12 months.

Table II below summarizes the changes of analytical parameters in the first year for Arbequina.

Table II
Parameters is p Oil
Arbequina
Initial controlControl after 1 monthControl after 3 monthsControl in 5 monthsControl after 12 months
Total acidity (g oleic acid/100 g)
*Max 0,8
Oil, conserve automatic
room temperature
0,200,200,220,210,25
The oil obtained from canned frozen olive paste0,200,170,220,180,22
The oil obtained from the fresh, conserve skilled olives0,200,671,21--
The oil obtained from frozen conserve skilled olives0,200,220,23 --
Peroxide number (mEq O2/kg)
*Max 20
Oil, conserve automatic
room temperature
5,85,96,4to 6.8010,3
The oil obtained from canned frozen olive paste5,83,0a 3.93,253,45
The oil obtained from the fresh, conserve skilled olives5,85,33,1--
The oil obtained from frozen conserve skilled olives5,83,62,1--
Index To the270
*Max 0,22
Oil, conserve automatic
room temperature
The concentration is0,090,10 0,100,13
The oil obtained from canned frozen olive pasteThe concentration is0,080,070,100,10
The oil obtained from the fresh, conserve skilled olivesThe concentration is0,090,10--
The oil obtained from frozen conserve skilled olivesThe concentration is0,070,07--

The Table below shows the indicator "Max" corresponds to that of olive oil of the highest quality first cold pressing. In the case of olive oil first cold pressing of these indicators are as follows: maximum acidity 2,0, K270a maximum of 0.25. The concentration is not determined.

As soon as conduct the third (3 months) and fourth (6 months) control, estimating taste of oil obtained using different processing using the hedonic method, i.e. C is frozen pasta chilled olives and frozen olives, with the participation of experts from La Garriga (Lleida), who noted that the best oil is obtained from the frozen paste and the oil obtained from frozen olives, has such a defect, as the stale aroma of olives. In Tables III and IV shows the results obtained in the evaluation of taste.

Table III
Processing typeDescription
Oil, cured at room temperatureThe worst balance/
kompensirovannoi.
The oil obtained from the fresh canned olivesBest color, clean smell.
The oil obtained from frozen canned olivesInadequate color, good taste, no smell.
The oil obtained from canned frozen olive pasteThe best kompensirovannoi/
balance, taste, smell and color

The data of sensory analysis are given in Tables IV and VI, obtained with the participation of the Commission, consisting of kvalificerad is the R tasters.

DE
Table IV
GradeArbequina
ControlTime 0Time: one month, oil, conserve automatic at room temperatureTime: one month, the oil from frozen blessed pastaTime: three months, oil, conserve automatic at room temperatureTime: three months, the oil from frozen blessed pastaTime: six months, oil, conserve automatic at room temperatureTime: six months, the oil from frozen blessed pasta
Features : -stick tasteAANF+1PCT1AAFT3APCT3AAFTO6APCT6
Put-AUX high quality item is isnack The intensity-CIV-nessDEThe intensity-CIV-nessDEThe intensity-CIV-nessDEThe intensity-CIV-nessDEThe intensity-CIV-nessDEThe intensity-CIV-nessDEThe intensity-CIV-nessDE
FruitThe concentration isThe concentration is3,20,73,00,9of 5.40,53,50,43,11,72,20,2
BitterThe concentration isThe concentration is1,51,22,31,02,91,01,80,6 2,10,51,60,4
PungencyThe concentration isThe concentration is2,70,52,90,84,20,23,40,53,10,62,81,3
SweetThe concentration isThe concentration is4,80,3the 4.70,54,20,94,50,44,40,45,10,6
DefectsThe intensity-CIV-nessDEThe intensity-CIV-nessDEThe intensity-CIV-nessDEThe intensity-CIV-nessThe intensity-CIV-nessDEThe intensity-CIV-nessDEThe intensity-CIV-nessDE
Wine-vinegarThe concentration isThe concentration is0,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,91,61,4
Salesave-ly/WetnessThe concentration isThe concentration is0,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,01,22,92,5
Muddy sedimentThe concentration isThe concentration is0,0 0,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,0
MustyThe concentration isThe concentration is0,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,01,0
RancidThe concentration isThe concentration is0,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,0

Example 3: changing the analytical and organoleptic parameters Picual

the La control change indicators within one month for this grade do the following:

- acquisition of Picual olives;

- getting canned frozen oil and olive paste Picual for research on canning;

- analytical and organoleptic control initial oil;

- analytical and organoleptic control oil one month after the first control.

Spend the first control oil Picual at room temperature after its extraction and receive the following indicators:

- peroxide number=6.1 mEq/kg of oil (up to 20 mEq/kg oil);

- the index of the K270=0,08 (max 0,22);

- total acidity=0,30 g oleic acid/100 g of oil.

Organoleptic analysis of this oil did not reveal any defects.

One month after the first inspection is carried out of the second oil control, the third control carried out after 3 months and the fourth 6 months.

Table V below shows the results of analytical control.

Table V
Processing typeTotal acidity
(g oleic acid/100 g)
*Max 0,8
Peroxide number (mEq O2/kg)
*Max 20
The index K270
*ax 0,22
Initial oil0,306,10,08
Oil, cured at room temperature for 1 month0,366,50,09
The oil obtained from canned frozen olive paste - 1 month0,285,20,08
Oil, cured at room temperature for 3 months0,32the 10.10,09
The oil obtained from canned frozen olive paste - 3 months0,284,30,06
Oil, cured at room temperature for 6 months0,309,30,13
The oil obtained from canned frozen olive paste - 6 months0,283,70,07

After p is Ogadenia second control assessing taste oil obtained using different processing, using the hedonic method, the results are shown in Table VI below.

Table VI
GradePicual
ControlTime 0Time: 1 month oil, cured at room temperatureTime: 1 month oil from canned frozen pasta
Characteristica tasteFiltered PicualPAFT1PPCT1
Positive qualitative featureIntensityDEIntensityDEIntensityDE
Fruit4,20,64,30,52,1 0,9
Bitter3,00,42,11,72,00,0
Pungency3,50,03,00,42,80,9
Sweet4,60,44,81,3a 4.90,6
DefectsIntensityDEIntensityDEIntensityDE
Wine-vinegar0,00,00,00,01,61,1
Salesave-ly/Wetness0,00,00,00,01,2
Muddy sediment0,00,00,00,00,00,0
Musty0,00,00,00,01,51,5
Rancid0,00,00,00,00,01,0

Results for Picual show a similar trend already observed in Example 2 for Arbequina.

Sources of information

1. Method of preserving olive oil, consisting of freezing pastes, obtained from crushed olives, at a temperature of from about 0 to -40°C before the process of Malassezia.

2. The method according to claim 1, in which the olive paste is additionally subjected to vacuum packaging.

3. The method according to claim 1, in which the freezing of the paste is carried out at a temperature from the Colo 0 to about -22°C.

4. The method according to claim 3, in which the freezing of the paste is carried out at a temperature from about -5 to about -18°C.

5. The method according to claim 4, freezing the paste is carried out at a temperature of from about -7 to about -10°C.

6. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 5, in which the fruits of olives include fruits olives of different varieties.

7. The olive paste is obtained by the method according to any one of claims 1 to 6.

8. The way to get olive oil from the olive paste, including:
a. emulsification or mixing olive paste according to claim 7;
b. pressing paste;
c. the extraction of oil by centrifugation;
d. separating the aqueous phase from the oil phase by decantation.

9. Olive oil obtained by the method according to claim 8.



 

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Fat composition // 2437548

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EFFECT: invention enables production of a product with increased content of fatty acids as well as development of a pharmaceutical agent on its base.

4 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: medicine, pediatrics.

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EFFECT: improved preparing method, valuable properties of composition.

23 cl, 5 ex

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