Regulating device for greenhouse
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to agriculture. The regulating device (10) of a greenhouse (15) contains a computer control unit (20), the lighting element (30) and at least one detecting element (40) where the lighting element (30) and the detecting element (40) are connected to the computer control unit (20). The lighting element (30) comprises at least one light emitting device (31) that emits light (32), which lightens the plant (70) growing in a greenhouse (15). At that the detecting element (40) measures the partial pressure of oxygen in the greenhouse (15), and the amount of light (32) emitted by light emitting device (31) is regulated by the computer control unit (20), depending on the measured partial oxygen pressure. In the method the growth of plants (70) is controlled in the greenhouse (15) by measuring the partial pressure of oxygen (101) in the greenhouse (15). At that the indicated partial pressure of oxygen is associated with photosynthetic activity of a plant (70) in the greenhouse (15), the transfer of values of the partial pressure of oxygen to the computer control unit (20), determining the optimal amount of light (111) necessary for best plant (70) growth, depending on the measured partial oxygen pressure, and regulating of the actual amount of light emitted by the lighting elements (30) to the optimal amount.
EFFECT: invention enables to adjust effectively the parameters and the optimal growth of plants in the greenhouse.
11 cl, 2 dwg
This invention relates to a regulating device for the greenhouse computer control element, the lighting element and at least one detector element, in which the lighting element and the detector element are connected to the computerized control element, while the lighting element includes at least one light emitting device that emits light, and the light illuminates the plant growing in the greenhouse.
In the US 2005/0252078 A1 describes a system for optimizing crop cost-effective way. The system includes a processor that communicates with a number of sensors resources, measuring various resources in the greenhouse, such as lighting or the concentration of carbon dioxide. The processor executes an algorithm that includes the desired indicator crop and other input data, such as the running conditions of the system and the environment, and determines the amount of consumption of each resource according to the purpose of crop production and resource cost. Unfortunately, the system described in the referenced patent application, only optimizes the costs of crop production.
Thus, the aim of the invention is to eliminate the above drawback. In particular, the aim of the invention is to provide an effective regulating device for a greenhouse, which will lead to optimal growth of plants.
This goal is achieved regulating device for a greenhouse as set forth in claim 1 of the claims of the present invention. The objective is also achieved by a method of controlling the growth of plants in the greenhouse as set forth in claim 7 claims the present invention. Preferred embodiments of the regulating device and method are defined in dependent clauses.
The purpose of the invention is achieved by the regulating device for the greenhouse, with computer control element, the lighting element and at least one detector element, while the lighting element and the detector element are connected to the computerized control element, the lighting element includes at least one light emitting device that emits light, which illuminates the plant growing in the greenhouse, with the regulating device includes at least one second detector element for measuring photosynthetic activity of plants, and the amount of light emitted from the light-emitting device is controlled by a computer control element, depending on the measured partial pressure the oxygen.
The term "computer control" in the context of the described invention includes all types of computer control machines, such as portable whom Luther, workstation, microcontroller, digital signal processor (DSP) or gate matrix with operational programming (FPGA). It is known that such computer controls provide process and store data, measured all kinds of detector elements. Computer control may also be a PDA (pocket PC), a handheld device, originally designed as a personal organizer, but today the most versatile. Using a PDA as a computer control would allow the gardener to have a mobile system that allows him to control the greenhouse. Any changes in attitudes to the environment could be made during inspections of the greenhouse.
In the context of the present invention, the term detector element includes a sensor-operated electrical or electronic means. This kind of detector elements may be directly or pointing or be coupled with the detector, so that the detected indicator could be perceived. The detector element may be located in the center of the greenhouse. It is also possible that a number of detector elements were spatially dispersed on the greenhouse. In addition, the detector elements may be arranged in groups to measure mi is the microclimate in the greenhouse so to the environmental parameters were measured and managed in accordance with the described method.
According to the present invention, the regulating device includes at least one second detector element for measuring photosynthetic activity of plants. The second detector element can be measured, for example, glucose or starch in the plant, as they are direct indicators of photosynthetic activity of plants. In addition, a second detector element can measure the amount of light absorbed by the leaf of a plant.
In accordance with another embodiment of the regulating device includes at least one third detector element, measuring a third resource. This additional data provides the regulating device is nothing like total control over all resources that affect plant growth or seed. The selection of the measured third resource depends on the type of cultivated plants or seed. This may be the temperature of the substrate or soil, air temperature, humidity, substrate or soil, the concentration of fertilizer in the substrate or soil, humidity, partial pressure of carbon dioxide or the flow of external sunlight. In addition, the third detector may be a spectrometer to measure the spectrum of the external light of the sun and the light and the emitted light emitting device. It is known that chlorophyll as a photosynthetic pigment found in most plants, helps plants to obtain energy from light. It was determined that chlorophyll a and b absorb blue and red visible light spectrum. Thus, it is useful to cover the plants with light having a wavelength in the blue or red wave range. The spectrometer can be used to test distributed wavelength of light emitted from the light-emitting device. For example, the spectrometer may include a dispersive optical element, which may be a prism, diffraction grating, a holographic optical element or any other suitable element. The light penetrating into the spectrometer and dissipating dispersive optical element is fixed on the linear photodetectors the grid, which may be a CCD grid. Range can also be measured without optical elements and/or filters, using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology.
Because greenhouse interacts with the outside world, the third detector element can, for example, to measure also the amount of air entering and leaving the greenhouse. In this embodiment, the third detector element not only can measure the humidity postupayushih and outlet air, but, in particular, the speed, temperature and oxygen partial pressure. Measured this way, the information is transmitted to the computer control, giving him the opportunity to optimize the amount of light emitted from the light-emitting device.
In accordance with another embodiment of the regulating device includes at least one input element, which supplies the second resource to the plant, the number of the second resource, supplied to the plant is regulated by computer control. The second resource, for example, can be water, fertilizer or other essential plant nutrients. In accordance with the invention, the third detector element measures all the necessary resources needed by the plant for proper growth. All information defined by the third detector element, stored and analyzed in a computer control. In the case of the lack of any kind of computer control tries to compensate for this deficit. As a consequence, the input element is able to supply all kinds of substrates, plant necessary for the proper growth, and which are indicated in the context of the second resource of the invention. As a consequence, the input element may include a feeder water or device p is giving nutrients each of which is connected with computer control. Computer control is able to adjust the amount of the second resource, supplied to the plant by determining the deficit. Moreover, the amount of the second resource and the amount of light supplied to the plant, optimized computer control. Thus, the computer control measures, supplies and optimizes all the necessary resources required to provide high quality plant growth.
In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the lighting device is a light emitting diode (LED), organic led (OLED), a discharge lamp, high-intensity discharge lamp, an incandescent lamp, fluorescent lamp or sodium lamp high pressure. The lighting element may contain a number of light-emitting devices that are spatially distributed in the greenhouse to obtain uniform illumination. In a preferred variant implementation of the lighting element contains a combination of at least two different types called lighting devices. For example, the lighting element can contain a combination of sodium lamps high pressure and LED, a combination of LED and OLED or a combination of sodium lamps povyshen the th pressure and OLED.
The advantage of LED (light emitting diode) is that their range can be selected to precisely match the needs of the plants. This merit also applies to the OLED (organic light emitting diode), which is a special type of light-emitting diode, in which the emitting layer may include a thin film of certain organic components. The advantage of OLED is that, at potentially lower cost it is a source of homogeneous large field light with high efficiency and, therefore, the OLED is better suited for use in horticulture, where what matters is the overall value of the property. To generate light OLED use the current passing through the thin film of organic material. The color of the emitted light and the efficiency of energy transfer from the current to the light depends on the composition of the organic thin-film material. At the same time as the base layer OLED include a core material, which may be made of glass or organic material, or from opaque materials such as metal foil. In addition, organic light-emitting diode is at least one very thin layer with a thickness of approximately 5-500 nm organic matter on glass substrates covered with a conductive and transparent oxide is m This conductive layer is usually made of indium-tin oxide (ITO).
Typically, the ITO layer forms the anode and the aluminum layer forms the cathode, since the aluminum layer is characterized by thickness of approximately 100 nm, the same as the ITO layer. Aluminum such thickness works as a mirror, so that the radiation is only through the transparent ITO anode and through the translucent base. Part of the light can be emitted through the cathode, if the metal of the cathode is thin enough to be partially translucent. Using as the cathode, other suitable materials, can be made translucent OLED. In this case, the OLED can work as a sort of window in the daytime allows sunlight to enter the greenhouse. But at night OLED can work as a lighting device that illuminates the greenhouse.
In accordance with another embodiment of the invention, the lighting element may consist of a sequence OLED comprising at least two different groups OLED, while the first group OLED generates light for growth, and the second group OLED generates light control for plants. It is known that the growth of plants depends mainly on the amount of light having a wavelength absorbed by chlorophyll a or B. To receive intensive growth of plants per the th group OLED light-emitting element must consist of at least two types of OLED that emit light of different wave lengths. Preferably, the OLED of the first type radiated in the range of blue light with a wavelength of from 400 to 500 nm. In addition, the OLED of the second type must emit in the range of red light from 600 to 700 nm. In another preferred embodiment, the light for growth emitted by the first group of the OLED may be approximately 80-90% of the red light and 10% of blue light.
In addition, the described light for growth, the control light should be used to control plant growth. Plant growth can be regulated by light plants light of different colors, depending on whether the plant is huge or small and compact. It is known that the use of a large number of blue light (400-500 nm) results in higher plants, while using a small amount of blue light results in a small and compact plants. In addition, the green spectrum of light enhances the ability of plants to reproduce. In addition, using light with a suitable wavelength can be controlled by flowering plants. Thus, by controlling the type wavelength emitted by plants, you can control the speed and nature of plant growth.
In a preferred embodiment, the regulating device includes the, at least one shading device, by moving which the greenhouse is controlled by the level of illumination of sunlight. The shading device can be used to cover the glass roof of the greenhouse to protect the easily damaged seeds and plants from burn in sunlight. Thus, the shading device equipped with a motor and controlled by computer, can be installed and connected with the regulating device described in the invention.
In an advantageous embodiment of the present invention the regulating device includes a wired and wireless network connecting the computing control element, the detector element, the second and third detector elements, as well as the mentioned devices. When using network all information from the detector element can be easily transferred to a computer control unit that calculates the optimum amount of light to be emitted by the light-emitting device. Wired network preferred in conditions where you need a reliable connection between the control element and the detector element. However, for network management of this type in the greenhouse should be placed additional equipment such as wires. This disadvantage can be eliminated by using a wireless network. A special network of persons who NGOs preferred in an existing greenhouse, because it does not require the installation of a spatially distributed equipment. To create a wireless network can be used a variety of communication technologies, but it is preferable to use such communication technologies as Bluetooth, ZigBee or Wifi. Of particular advantage are the last two, as they are not a hindrance electromagnetic waves emitted from a light-emitting device.
In addition, preferably, the computer control included a database for storing results of measurements of the detector elements. The efficiency of the greenhouse can be enhanced by analyzing the values obtained for a long period of time. By comparing the obtained values of consecutive cycles of plant growth, the quality can be maintained and improved.
The purpose of the invention is also achieved by using a method of regulating the growth of plants in the greenhouse, the method including:
measurement of oxygen partial pressure in the greenhouse, the specified partial pressure of oxygen is associated with the photosynthetic activity of plants in the greenhouse,
transfer the values of the partial pressure of oxygen in computer control,
determination of the optimal amount of light needed for best plant growth depending on the measured partial pressure of oxygen and of arenoso chlorophyll absorption,
the regulation of the actual amount of light emitted by the light-emitting element to the optimal number.
In another preferred embodiment, the method involves measuring the value of a resource greenhouses, such as the partial pressure of oxygen in different spatial locations and calculate the average spatial value. By this method, we calculate the averages of the spatial variance of the resource. In another preferred embodiment, the method includes repeating the measurement values of the resource, such as the partial pressure of oxygen in a limited spatial extent, and the calculation of the average temporary values. Average time value has the advantage that fluctuations of a particular detector element are averaged, and thus are only long-term deviations of the measured values. The spatial or temporal averages can be stored in the aforementioned database. This would allow the user control device to control the deviation of critical resources on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. In addition, the regulating device can be integrated round of feedback. Round of feedback is a system where the output data is returned to the system as input, that leads to self-regulation and self-limiting to the calculation of the new coming data.
The combination of the feedback loop with the database that holds the previous values, leads to the optimal determination of the necessary amount of light for best growth of plants. Preferably, calculated on the amount of light depending on a variety of dimensions that influenced the curves of chlorophyll absorption. Therefore, not only the amount of light, but also the distribution of wavelength can be calculated and monitored described regulating device.
The purpose of the invention is also achieved by use of the regulating device in accordance with the described claims, managed in accordance with one of the above methods.
The aforementioned use of a regulating device for greenhouses, fashion, as well as claimed components and the components used in the described embodiments implement according to the invention, are not subject to special restrictions with respect to size, shape, selection of materials both in technical and in the selection criteria known in the relevant area, and can be used without restrictions. Additional details, characteristics and advantages of the subject of the present invention are disclosed in the additional claims and sleduyushij descriptions of the relevant figures. The figures represent only the standard sample and shows the preferred implementation of the lighting device according to the present invention.
Those figures are:
figure 1 shows a schematic view of the greenhouse with the regulating device and
figure 2 shows a block diagram for illustrating the method of the present invention.
Figure 1 shows a schematic view of the greenhouse 15 with the control device 10 of the present invention. In the greenhouse, showing two rows of beds 71. Patch 71 contains soil or substrate in which a plant grows 70. As shown by the study, optimal plant growth 70 depends on the value of the number of resources. Plant growth 70 is directly connected with its photosynthesis, which is the synthesizer of sugar from light, carbon dioxide and water, with oxygen as product waste. Thus, the main resource, responsible for the growth of plants 70, is available the amount of light absorbed by chlorophyll a or B. by measuring the partial pressure of oxygen obtained a very accurate indicator of the efficiency of current photosynthesis and, consequently, the state of the plant 70. To create the optimum environment for plant growth 70 greenhouse 15 includes a computer controlling element 20, the lighting element 30 and at least one detector e is the element 40. The lighting element 30 is mounted over the bed 71 70 plants. Each lighting element 30 may include a number of light-emitting devices 31, emitting light 32. Depending on the season and plants 70 lighting element 30 can be either a light source or a Supplement to natural sunlight. The latter is an advantage, since free of charge, despite the fact that artificial light can easily be adjusted to accurately selected absorption band of chlorophyll a or B. in Addition, the light emitting element 30 may include a number of light-emitting devices 31, comprehensively mounted to illuminate the largest part of the greenhouse 15. As shown in figure 1, the detector element 40 located in the middle of the greenhouse 15, measures the partial pressure of oxygen. To achieve this, the detector element 40 may use a variety of technologies, such as zirconium, mass spectrometry, electrochemical, infrared, ultrasonic and laser.
With the aim to monitor photosynthesis and health of plants 70 regulating device 10 includes a second detector element 45 and the third detector element 46. In the shown embodiment, the second detector element 45 determines glucose or levels of starch plants 70. The third detector element 46 measures the third resource, the cat is which may vary depending on plant growth 70. Consequently, the third measured resource can be, for example, the temperature of the substrate or soil, air temperature, humidity, substrate or soil, the concentration of fertilizer in the substrate or soil, humidity, partial pressure of carbon dioxide or the flow of external sunlight. The past number of a specified resource may also be subject to shading devices 50 mounted on the roof of the greenhouse 15. The shading device 50 covers shown a window through which sunlight illuminates the greenhouse 15. The level of solar light can be adjusted by moving the shading devices 50. As the greenhouse may include a window, a third detector element 46,can measure the amount of air 33, coming in and out of the greenhouse. Measured values can also include speed, temperature and partial pressure of oxygen in the incoming and outgoing air 33. Measured this way, the information goes into a computer controlling element 20, is able to optimize the amount of light emitted from the light emitting element 31.
In addition, the regulating device 10 may include a feeding member that feeds the second resource to the plant, the number of the second resource, intended to plant 70, adjustable computer control element B shown embodiment, the input element is a feeder of water 55, which irrigates the plant 70. According to the invention the third detector element 46 can measure soil moisture on the bed 71. If you define any deficit, computer control 20 tries to compensate for this deficit irrigation of plants 71 using feeder water 55.
Shows the detector elements 40, 45, 46, 46' are connected with the computer control element 20. The detector element 40, which measures the partial pressure of oxygen, is connected wired network 62 with computer control element 20. Other specified crystal elements 45, 46, 46', as well as the lighting element 30, the feeder 55 water and shade devices 50 are connected with computer control element 20 via a wireless network 60. The wireless network 60 includes multiple communication devices 61. The first communication device 61 is attached to a computer driven element 20. Other communication devices 61 are connected with the second and third detector elements 45, 46, 46' or the lighting element 30. The wireless network 60 can be used mainly in existing greenhouses 15 for implementing the described regulating device 10. Special networks are used mainly because they do not require a base station. Instead, to create a network of computer control e is ment 20 participants discover other devices within range. These samoformiruyushchikhsya network is easy to use, reliable and cheap, and, consequently, the ideal solution for communication with the computer control element 20. In the shown embodiment, the computer control element 20 is a workstation. As mentioned earlier, to obtain the mobile control system it can also be a PDA. Computer control element 20 may include a user interface 25, consisting of a keyboard. Computer interface 25 allows the user to enter in the computer control 20 information concerning plants 70. Combined measured and accumulated information of the computer control unit 20 can control the amount of light 32 emitted from the light emitting unit 31, based on the measured partial pressure of oxygen.
To illustrate the method used to control the growth of plants 70 in the greenhouse 15, figure 2 shows the block diagram. In the first stage 101 repeatedly measured the partial pressure of oxygen. Further, we calculated the average value 102 measured oxygen values. If multiple detector elements 40 are evenly placed in the greenhouse 15, by averaging the calculated average for the entire greenhouse. On the other hand, a multiple number of measurements made is s single detector element 40, may be averaged to calculate the average time value. In addition, the values measured by a single detector element 40, can be analyzed to determine the effect of the established parameters of microclimates in the greenhouse 15. At the next stage 110 of the measured value of oxygen partial pressure were compared with the established optimal values. Using the calculated deviation was determined 111 optimal amount of light needed for best growth of plants 70. In the future, the actual amount of light emitted from svetoizluchateli element 30, was regulated to the calculated optimal number 121.
After a certain period of time, the timer 130 has begun to initiate computer 100, the control element 20 and the detector element 40, respectively. The user 131 may communicate with computer control element 20 during the entire process. When entering varieties of plants 70 regulating device 10 can guarantee that calculates the optimum amount of light that depend on multiple dimensions and taking into account the influence of the curves of chlorophyll absorption. In addition, the method of controlling the growth of plants 70 includes a feedback loop 140, which affects the comparison of measured values and the optimal values. Thus, narrative the camping experience, based on the long-term behavior of the plant 70, allowing the user control device 10 to optimize the efficiency of its production of horticultural crops.
The LIST of REFERENCE POSITIONS
10 regulating device
20 computer control
25 user interface
31 light-emitting device
40 detector element
45 second detector element
46, 46' third detector element
50 the shading device
55 feeder water
60 wireless LAN
61 communication device
62 wired network
100 enabling regulatory element
101 measuring the partial pressure of oxygen
110 comparison of the measured partial pressure of oxygen
111 determination of the optimal amount of light
121 emitted optimal number
130 the timer to repeat
131 user input
140 feedback loop
1. Regulating device (10) for the greenhouse (15) with computer control element (20), the lighting element (30) and at least one detector element (40)in which the lighting element (30) and the detector element (40) is associated with a computer managing elements stored is (20), in which the lighting element (30) includes at least one light emitting device (31)that emits light (32), which illuminates the plant (70), growing in the greenhouse (15), characterized in that the detector element (40) measures the partial pressure of oxygen in the greenhouse (15), while the amount of light (32)emitted from the light-emitting device (31), is regulated by the computer control element (20) in dependence on the measured partial pressure of oxygen.
2. Regulating device (10) according to claim 1, characterized in that the regulating device (10) comprises at least one third detector element (46, 46'), measuring the third resource, in particular the temperature of the substrate or soil temperature (33), the humidity of the substrate or soil, the concentration of fertilizer in the substrate or soil humidity (33), the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, the amount of air (33)entering or leaving the greenhouse (15), the flow of external sunlight, the range of external sunlight or range light (32).
3. Regulating device (10) according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the regulating device (10) comprises at least one feed element, which feeds the second resource to the plant (70), the number of the second resource is controlled by a computer control element (20).
4. Regulating the trojstvo (10) according to claim 1, characterized in that the light-emitting device (31) is led, organic led, hid lamp, high-intensity discharge lamp, an incandescent lamp, fluorescent lamp, sodium lamp high pressure or a combination of them all.
5. Regulating device (10) according to claim 1, characterized in that the regulating device (10) includes at least one shading device (50), through which is controlled by the level of sunlight, illuminating the greenhouse and/or feeder water (55), which irrigates the plant (70).
6. Regulating device (10) according to claim 1, characterized in that the regulating device (10) comprises a wired (62) or wireless network (60)connecting the computer control element (20), the detector element (40), the second (45) and the third detector element (46), and these devices (50, 55).
7. Method of controlling plant growth (70) in the greenhouse (15), comprising: measuring the partial pressure of oxygen (101) in the greenhouse (15), with the specified partial pressure of oxygen is associated with the photosynthetic activity of plants (70) in the greenhouse (15), the transmission of the values of the partial pressure of oxygen to computer driven element (20), determining the optimal amount of light (111)necessary for the best growth of plants (70) in zavisimost and from the measured partial pressure of oxygen, and regulation of the actual amount of light emitted by the lighting elements (30) to the optimal number.
8. The method according to claim 7, additionally comprising measuring the partial pressure of oxygen (101) in different spatial positions and calculating a spatial average value or the repetition of the measurement of partial pressure of oxygen (101) in a confined space and calculating the time averaged values, and the preservation of the values in the database.
9. The method according to claim 7 or 8, further comprising comparing the calculated spatial or temporal average values with the values measured in the past, as well as measurement and averaging of spatial or temporal values of the second resource and/or the third resource.
10. The method according to claim 7 or 8, further comprising repeating the method of controlling the growth of plants round of feedback and affect regulation optimal number using the information input through the user interface (25).
11. Regulating device (10) according to claim 1, operating in accordance with the method according to claim 7.
SUBSTANCE: cabinet contains a glased working chamber with a glased front door to observe the plants, light sources, located on the outer side of the working chamber, an air preparation unit and a control unit. The inner surface of the door is equipped with a mirror coating with a given light-transmission factor.
EFFECT: increased lighting is provided inside the working chamber without using extra energy consumption.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: system comprises water-distribution devices, by means of which water, which is colder than dew point of greenhouse air, is sprayed directly into air space of greenhouse. Parametres of devices are such that their use makes it possible to spray at least 50 litres of water per m2 of greenhouse area per hour into air space of greenhouse. System additionally comprises water-collecting device to collect water sprayed into air space of greenhouse and to return it at least partially to specified devices of system. Method is characterised by the fact that air is cooled and dried directly in air space of greenhouse by supplying water, which is colder than dew point of greenhouse air by means of spraying or otherwise. Volume of water supplied per unit of time and temperature have such parametres that as supplied water passes through air space of greenhouse, more moisture is condensed in it from greenhouse air than amount of water, which is evaporated from it into greenhouse air. Volume of water supplied per unit of time sprayed into air space makes at least 50 litres of water per m2 of greenhouse area per hour. Some water supplied to air space of greenhouse is returned for repeated circulation in air space of greenhouse. Greenhouse comprises water-distribution devices to supply water, which is colder than dew point of greenhouse air, into air space of greenhouse. Parametres of specified devices are arranged so that quantity of specified water used for cooling is more than 50 litres per m2 of greenhouse area per hour. Greenhouse additionally comprises water-collecting devices, using which, at least one water, falling or passing through air space, is used repeatedly, and devices, using which, at least some reused water is again supplied into air space of greenhouse.
EFFECT: simplified process and reduced operational expenses to monitor moisture and temperature of air in greenhouse.
18 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises three serially coupled layers that are tightly joined. Upper layer is arranged as non-transparent and light-absorbing, middle layer - in the form of heat accumulator, material of which has alternating heat conductive properties, and lower layer is arranged as highly heat-conducting. Device contains temperature sensor in the form of controlling thermocouple installed into protected ground and connected to heat accumulator.
EFFECT: device makes it possible to automate monitoring, control and maintenance of required temperature condition of protected ground.
SUBSTANCE: vegetation installation contains a hollow cylindrical chamber, a domed wall and a floor consisting of an outer dismountable translucent wall and an inner stationary translucent wall with sources of light mounted between them. The sources of light are of the spot-type and are separated with horizontal partitions forming rectangular sections horizontally. In the section lower, middle and upper rows spot sources of blue, green and red light are accordingly arranged. Opposite each rectangular section light-diffusing panels are arranged along the perimeter inside the hollow cylindrical chamber between racks with plants and the inner stationary translucent wall.
EFFECT: invention enables improved efficiency of plant growing.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular to methods for intense growth of cucumbers in spring film greenhouses with application of electric heating of soil. In method greenhouse and soil are prepared, beds are formed, heating wires are installed into beds, cucumber seedlings are planted and looked after. At the same time heating wires for heating of soil layer are arranged at the depth of 10-12 cm from surface in 1-2 threads, with established capacity of heating that amounts to 4.4 - 8.8 W/m2. Cucumber seedlings are planted into beds in one row at a phase of 5-7 leaves onto sand layer with thickness of 1-2 cm arranged over heating wires. Beds are formed with width of 90-95 cm and height of 30-35 cm, and heating wires are laid in bed at the distance of 10-15 cm.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase productivity of cucumbers in greenhouses at Middle Urals with minimum costs for maintenance of greenhouses and fighting deceases.
3 dwg, 8 tbl
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture and crop sector. Method includes arrangement of trays to make vertical tiers, cultivation of plants, maintenance of required light mode in greenhouse, the latter of which is supported by displacement of light source between tiers of trays. Plant seedlings are planted into vegetation trays, required climatic mode is created, at the same time source of light in the period of radiation is moved by continuous reversible motion up and down between extreme tiers, and speed of light source motion and capacity of light source are established depending on extent of natural illumination and/or air temperature. Device comprises system of plants cultivation, including vertical multi-tier rack installation for vegetation trays with plants, systems for maintenance of required climatic and light modes, the latter of which includes at least one source of light arranged with the possibility of displacement up and down between tiers of rack installation, comprises facility that provides for continuous reversible motion of light source between tiers in the period of plants radiation. Rack comprises sections of shelves that are mounted in tiers on four stands. Sections are combined into modules, every of which includes three serial stages arranged in a row, two extreme ones and one central, joined to each other by means of a hinge with the possibility of extreme sections rotation around vertical axis to center of module to form a "П"-shaped profile.
EFFECT: usage of group of inventions makes it possible to speed up development of plants due to provision of even illumination of plants, increasing density of photosynthetic flow of photons, elimination of overheating and damages of grown plants leaf canopy and reduction of light losses.
30 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to rural and municipal services and is designed for control of heating hot houses, living spaces and premises. The essence of the invention is as follows: an output signal of a compensator is obtained by means of summing signals from outputs of two circuits of additive compensation by illumination and ratio of temperature in open air, inside the premise and of fence (glass cover), also by utilising compensation of heating graph by wind speed and degree of ventilating window opening; notably slope of the heating graph is multiplied by product of values of wind speed and ventilating windows position.
EFFECT: facilitating upgraded accuracy of control over heating in premise and improved compensation and stability.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering. The proposed device allows heat exchange between fluid medium and gas and comprises the casing, at least, one flat screen carcass made up of several heat-conducting-material capillaries arranged in parallel and equidistant relative to each other, and several heat-conducting-material wires connected to aforesaid capillaries to transfer heat via metal contacting, and pass at equal distance and crosswire relative to capillaries. The distance between wires approximates to that of their diametre. Gas flows along the wires to transfer heat to fluid medium that flows in capillaries, through capillary walls and via wires. The heat exchanger design allows the gas flowing along each screen carcass, lengthwise relative to the wires, and prevents flowing of a notable amount of gas through screen carcasses. The hothouse comprises soil surface with plants arranged thereon or in bearing pots, cultivation chute and, at least one heat exchanger. Note here that one gas inlet or outlet holes is located above leaf surface, while the other one is located below the said level, or both holes are located within the limits of the said surface. At least one heat exchanger purifies air. Several heat exchangers make the central heating system. Thermal pump system incorporates the heat exchanger.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and simplified servicing.
28 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device enabling regulation of microclimatic conditions inside a green-house consists of two heat radiators (the upper one and the lower one) interconnected via side pipes; the upper radiator is mounted inside the green-house above the ground level with the lower one being buried in the soil. In the central part of the device overground section there is an additional horizontally positioned radiator installed contained in a tank filled with cold water and connected to the side pipes. At the points of the additional heat radiator connection to the side pipes there are solenoid-operated regulator valves installed. The device is equipped with an electrical heater unit.
EFFECT: improvement of the green-house microclimatic conditions due to the thermal regime stabilisation.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to agriculture, industry, power engineering and can be applied for room heating and cooling. Environmental heat based on developed method and device for heating and cooling of industrial and agricultural facilities, accommodation spaces with environmental heat by means of natural self-organisation effect, i.e. ensuring maximum efficiency of heat energy conversion to electric energy, and possibility of operation without primary energy supply owing to use of environmental heat. Method of heating and cooling with environmental heat based on self-organisation effect by start of accumulator, switch box, capacitive heat converter to electrical energy and heat pump, used for energy heat closure by means of capacitive converter, and by capacitive converter in heating mode moved outside the heated room. At that automatic control of heat pump is matched with control of capacitive converter moving away from the heated room, as well as by the fact that to provide maximum efficiency of heat energy conversion to electric energy, operating mode of capacitive converter is performed at golden ratio of charge-discharge stroke Sc/Sd=0.618. Electric power of capacitive converter is set up not lower 25% of pump heating capacity. Besides, device for heating and cooling with environmental heat is described.
EFFECT: availability of widely used energy source.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device to clean air exhausts of livestock farms using plants comprises reservoirs to grow plants, an air pump, a system of pipelines to discharge polluted air. The pipelines to discharge polluted air are installed under a roof ridge of the livestock farm, at the same time the outlet of the air pump is connected via a heater with pipelines of aeration drainage, installed at the depth from 10 to 25 cm off soil surface and located in a hothouse.
EFFECT: invention ensures biological cleaning of air medium from ammonia, hydrogen sulphide and carbonic acid gas and supply of oxygen-saturated air back into a livestock house.
SUBSTANCE: suggested invention is related to heat and power engineering and agriculture and may be used to reduce contaminations and greenhouse effect of environment and increased crop capacity when growing vegetables in closed areas. Device comprises zone of treatment connected to transit gas duct 1 via discharge gas duct 2. Zone of treatment includes vertical tubular heat exchanger - absorber 3, which is made of the following components arranged serially by gas in tube space top down air heater 4 and condenser, which is connected by condensate with anionite filter 6, and by gas - with ejector 7, gas duct of working mixture 8 and greenhouse 9, in roof of which there is a deflector 10 arranged. Tube space of air heater 4 is connected to blowing air 11. Tube space of condenser 5 is connected to air duct of ambient air 12 and fan 13.
EFFECT: increased ecological and economical efficiency of purification and recycling of smoke fumes.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, growing of plants in protected ground, for example in greenhouses, on neutral substrate with feeding of plants with macro- and micro elements supplied to zone under roots and feeding with carbon dioxide.
SUBSTANCE: method involves growing C3 plants in greenhouses on substrates by feeding nutritive solution under plant roots, feeding of plants with carbon dioxide and also by providing illumination with the use of lamps; hermetically covering plants with transparent film laid over constructions which may be adjusted in vertical plane as plants grow. Carbon dioxide is automatically supplied to zone under film by means of programmer. Nutritive solution is supplied into substrate in accordance with signal generated by moisture content sensor.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of carbon dioxide supplied for feeding of plants, decreased capital and operation costs, reduced consumption of power for heating greenhouses, and increased yield of plants.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has vented space, apparatus for removal of carbonic acid gas from atmospheric air and carbonic acid gas generator for generating of carbonic acid gas with low content of carbon 14 isotope. Temperature mode inside greenhouse is reliably maintained by air conditioning and by employment of shock resistant light-transmitting covering tending to retain infrared heat energy. Self-cleaning of light-transmitting covering is provided by means of oxide coating. Sealing capacity of greenhouse is not affected by passage of personnel and equipment therein owing to employment of double door, wherein doors are mutually blocked. Soil air drainage is used for preventing gaseous carbonaceous soil decomposition products from getting into inner atmosphere of greenhouse. Intensified ripening of plants is enabled by addition of ethylene into inner atmosphere of greenhouse.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified construction.
14 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. In the method organic and/or mineral fertilisers are introduced into soil, as well as natural zeolite in an amount of 2-5 t / ha; a potential difference of a constant electric field is made on the soil on the depth of the root system of plant. At that natural zeolite is injected into the ground in the form of granules 10-3-2.5·10-3 m in the amount of 2-5 t / ha; silica sand in powder form with particle size of 10-4-10-7 m in the number of 2-5 t / ha. An electrode-cathode is placed horizontally to the depth of the root system; grounded conductive mesh with holes for the stems of plants is applied to the soil surface. On a grounded conductive mesh a layer of soil is placed, rising above the grounded conductive mesh over the entire surface of the soil, except for nearwellbore part of plants, to a height which is 5-20 times less than the distance in height from the electrode-cathode to the grounded conductive mesh. A conductive mesh electrode-anode is applied on the layer of soil rising above a grounded conductive mesh. At the cathode and the anode direct current voltage is applied sufficient to create in the interelectrode space of the electric field of magnitude of 50-500 V / m. Moreover, at the anode the electric potential is applied 5-20 times smaller than at the cathode.
EFFECT: method enables to increase crop yields.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and may be used for pest control. The mobile device for pest control comprises a power supply unit, a voltage multiplier, a unit of working signal generation, a memorising device, a reading controller and a high voltage generator. The power supply unit serves to receive capacity from the battery and provides for drive capacity. The generation unit generates a working signal in compliance with the switch operation. The memorising device stores a programme of high-voltage control. The high-voltage generator converts the voltage increased by a multiplier into the high voltage. During pest control the programme of high voltage control is read with the controller. The generation period is confirmed. The high-voltage generator is activated. The generation period is controlled after generation of the initial high voltage. The current level is detected with the help of the output current sensor. The high-voltage generator is controlled in compliance with the detected current level.
EFFECT: invention provides the possibility of efficient pest control with minimisation of treated plant tissue damage.
8 cl, 2 dwg