Method of evaluating effect of pond aquaculture on state of aquatic ecosystem
SUBSTANCE: method involves collecting samples directly in the region of functioning of the pond and in the control zone, and then determining content of chemical compounds in the samples and determining main quantitative indicators of components of the aquatic ecosystem based on said content. Quantitative indicators of the biota - number and biomass of phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos - are also determined in the samples from the control zone and the region of functioning of the pond. The ratio of the quantitative indicators of the biota in the pond region to those in the control zone is then calculated. A reference table of ranges of the calculated chemical indicators of the ratios of components of the aquatic ecosystem is then created while adding rows with ratios of quantitative indicators of the biota into the table. By comparing the calculated ratios with ranges of identical ratios in the reference table, the effect of the pond on the state of the aquatic ecosystem is then determined.
EFFECT: high reliability of results.
1 ex, 4 tbl
The invention relates to fisheries, and specifically to methods of estimating nutrient loading from sadkovich aquaculture on aquatic ecosystems. Known biological method of biotesting, allowing to judge about the presence of contamination and the quality of the aquatic environment to test the reactions of organisms. Cm. Flerov B.A. biological testing: terminology, problems, prospects. // Theoretical questions biotesting. Volgograd, 1983. However, the known method is complicated, time-consuming and requires considerable time to implement reliable monitoring of aquatic ecosystems.
Known methods of assessment of the environmental capacity of reservoirs on limiting nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen)that form a basis of organic components received in the reservoir when working sadkovich farms. Cm. Kitaev S. p. and other Methods of estimating nutrient loading from trout farms on aquatic ecosystems. Petrozavodsk, Institute of biology, Karelian research centre of RAS. 2006.
These methods are based on determining the state of the hydrochemical regime only in the area sadkovich farms and do not take into account the state of the biological components of the entire aquatic ecosystems. Despite numerous reports on the status of aquatic ecosystems in the placement sadkovich farms to assess the degree (level) of the impact of the pollutant on the environment is virtually nevoso the but. These materials can only determine the actual status of the water environment and its biota at a particular time. The problem of evaluation is further complicated if the water salkovym agriculture there are other sources of water pollution. Therefore, the evaluation of the state of aquatic ecosystems is not valid.
Technical result achieved in the proposed method of assessing the impact of cage aquaculture on the marine ecosystem, is to increase the accuracy of results and speed of decision making in a timely manner to changing anthropogenic impacts on the aquatic ecosystem.
Provided technical result of the fact that in samples from the control area and from the area of operation of cage farms further define quantitative measures biota - abundance and biomass of phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos, calculate the correlation between the quantitative indicators of the biota in the area of the hatchery and in the control zone, create a reference table of the ranges of the calculated chemical properties of the components of the aquatic ecosystem, adding line with the proportions of the quantitative indicators of the biota, and comparing the calculated ratio with identical ranges of ratios in the reference table, determine the impact of cage farming in the state in the ne of the ecosystem.
The way to assess the impact of cage aquaculture on the marine ecosystem based on the determination of the degree of pollution of the aquatic ecosystem and includes the following sequence of operations:
- Establish a control zone, as close to cage farming (source of pollution), but in which its influence is absent. So for trout farms average power removal of the control area from cage farms - 500 m
- Determine the area for sampling in the area of operation of cage farms (source of contamination). Usually in the center of the cage farms.
- Take samples for research components of aquatic ecosystems in the area of farm management and in the control area.
- Define specific indicators analyzed chemical components, among them the content of oxidizable organic matter (ON), labile organic matter (BOD5), total and mineral phosphorus (Ptotaland Rmin), nitrogen compounds (NH4, NO2, NO3).
Additionally, all samples determine the abundance and biomass of phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos.
- Calculate the correlation between the quantitative indicators of the investigated chemical components in the farm sector and in the control area.
- Calculate the correlation between the quantitative indicators of the biota in the garden of the new economy and in the control area.
- Create a reference table of the ranges of the calculated chemical parameters of components of aquatic ecosystems, which reflects the limits of variation of the content of oxidizable organic matter (ON), labile organic matter (BOD5), total and mineral phosphorus (Ptotaland Rmin), nitrogen compounds (NH4, NO2, NO3for each of the States of multicomponent anthropogenic impacts on the aquatic ecosystem: "dangerous", "impacts", "normal", "low impact", "medium impact".
- Contribute to the created reference table of the ranges of ratios of chemical components of aquatic ecosystems line with the proportions of the abundance and biomass of phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos.
- Comparing the calculated ratio with identical ranges of ratios of chemical components, and quantitative indicators of the biota in the reference table, determine the impact of cage aquaculture (source pollution on the marine ecosystem.
The ranges of estimates the degree of influence sadkovich farms in the reference table mounted on the results of numerous experiments performed with different ages fish and Daphnia, as well as on the research status of the water environment and its biota in different lakes multicomponent anthropogenic factors is ora.
In the range of "normal" (0.8-1.3) the quality of the aquatic environment do not adversely affect the activity of hydrobionts. Aquatic ecosystem functioning in normal mode.
When a deviation of the index from the norm up to 30% (0.5-0.8 and 1.3-1.8) occur unstable quantitative changes in the implementation of the physiological functions of organisms (rhythm and intensity of breathing, heart rate, behavioral reactions, and so on). The aquatic ecosystem is functioning within normal limits. There may be minor variations in individual components of the system (low impact).
When increasing amounts of metabolic products of farmed fish and feed leftovers increasing anthropogenic impact (1.8-2.3) and there were significant changes in the status of aquatic ecosystems, which are manifested in the change of some hydrochemical parameters (compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and other elements), in strengthening impact on the enjoyment of the life processes of aquatic organisms (abnormalities in the reproductive system, size-weight indices and so on) and even in the change of the quantitative and qualitative indicators of the specific structure. However, these changes are reversible upon reduction of anthropogenic load restores the normal functioning of the whole system.
When a strong impact of the pollution source (&l; 0.5 >2.3), most often occurring in violation of the technology of fish production in individual organisms and the ecosystem in General there are significant, often irreversible changes. Ecosystem moves to another level of functioning, and may even change trapnest pond.
Comparing the calculated ratio of the hydrochemical regime and biota in the area of the concrete cage farms deptname indicators of the main components in the reference table is determined by the degree of influence of a source of pollution in the aquatic environment and its biological characteristics, i.e. on the functioning of aquatic ecosystems in General.
If the comparison of the ratios in the reference table indicates the absence of exposure, it is possible to increase fish production (aquatic ecosystem functioning normally). If the comparison reveals the presence of impact, depending on its level shall promptly take appropriate measures (change in the technology of production, the replacement of the feed used, the decrease in fish production) until the close of the economy "dangerous").
Thus, the use of the results of the present invention provides increased reliability of the results and efficiency of decision making on HR is vremennogo change exposure cage farms on the functioning of aquatic ecosystems.
Example. Assessed the impact of cage farming in Kondopoga Bay of lake Onega. The analyzed components of the water samples at the surface and bottom layers, as well as phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos were taken directly in the area of cage farms (center, between shikami). Water depth in the area of sampling 14 PM Control sample of water and its biota of similar composition were selected in the region of a depth of 13 m, located at a distance of 500 m from cage farms. Samples were taken on the proposed method of assessing the level of exposure by standard techniques were processed in the laboratory of ecological problems of the North of Petrozavodsk state University. The results of the research (in absolute terms) in 2004 and 2010 are shown in table 1.
|The absolute dynamics of the investigated indicators of the aquatic environment and its biota in summer 2004 and 2010|
|Control||Area ponds||Control||Area ponds|
|population, thousand cells/l||158||86||2540||4290|
|- biomass, g/m3,||0.326||0.120||3.01||5.53|
|- biomass, g/m3||1.47||1.65||0.32||0.24|
|- number of specimens/m2||280||160||385||0.89|
|- biomass, g/m2||1.12||0.60||264||0.49|
|Note: for chemical indicators: numerator - surface, the denominator is the bottom|
In the presence of absolute figures by dividing the control on the same indicator in the area of cage farms get the value of the ratio (index), which we will indicate in the appropriate section of the reference table. The results are shown in tables 2 and 3.
Research 2004 to assess the level of impact of cage farming showed the presence of a weak influence on the content of nitrite and mineral phosphorus, which reduced their concentrations in the water. At the same time weak impact on quantitative indicators of phytoplankton and benthos, which provided the increase in their numbers and biomass. Multidirectional weak impact of agriculture on chemical and biological characteristics of ecosystems, with the exception of the lips characterized by its high stability in the functioning of a cage farm.
Comprehensive 2010 study showed some improvement in the impact of cage use the and on the aquatic ecosystem, with the exception of lip in the area of their operation. Along with low phosphorus content decreased the amount of labile organic matter (BOD5). This significantly increased the amount of nitrite, which is an indicator of slowing down the process of nitrification. At the same time decreased the number and decreased phytoplankton biomass. At the same time increased the abundance and biomass of zooplankton and benthic organisms (benthos). Particularly increased biomass of benthos in the area of cage farms.
Table 4 shows an example of a reference table of the ranges of the indices of the basic components of aquatic ecosystems and quantitative indicators biota aquatic environment, characterizing the degree of multicomponent anthropogenic effects on the aquatic environment and aquatic ecosystem as a whole, which included the results obtained when studying the impact of trout farms in Lakhtinsky Bay of lake Onega.
The ranges of estimates of the extent of multicomponent anthropogenic influence is installed on the results of numerous experiments made with fish and Daphnia, as well as on the research status of the water environment and its biota in small lakes.
In the range of "normal" (0.8-1.3) the quality of the aquatic environment do not adversely affect the life processes of organisms. Aquatic ecosystem functions in generally the ohms mode.
When a deviation of the index from the norm up to 30% (0.5-0.8 and 1.3-1.8) occur unstable quantitative changes in the implementation of the physiological functions of organisms (rhythm and intensity of breathing, heart rate, behavioral reactions, and so on). Water as the ecosystem continues to function within the normal range.
|Indexes are ratios of the main components of aquatic ecosystems "charge - control zone" (summer, surface/bottom, 2004 - 2007)|
|Components of aquatic ecosystems||<Dangerous 0.5||0.5-0.8 impacts||0.8-1.3 Norma||1.3-1.8 low impact||1.8-2.3 Medium impact||>2.3 Dangerous|
|- biome the SSA||-||0.68||-||-||-||-|
With further increase of anthropogenic influence (1.8-2.3) occur more significant changes in the aquatic environment, which are shown in more significant impacts on the implementation of the life processes of organisms (abnormalities in the reproductive system, size-weight indices and so on) and the ecosystem as a whole (quantitative and qualitative changes in species composition). However, these changes are reversible upon reduction of anthropogenic load is restored to the normal state of the entire system.
When a strong impact of the pollution source (<0.5 >2.3) as in individual organisms and the ecosystem in General there is a significant and often irreversible changes. Ecosystem moves to another level of functionality.
When comparing the calculated indexes specific cage farms with ranges of indices of the main components in the reference table to determine the degree of influence of a source of pollution in the aquatic environment and its biota, i.e. on the functioning of aquatic ecosystems and its individual components.
If the comparison indicates no impact, there is the opportunity to increase fish production. If the comparison reveals the presence of impact, depending on its level shall promptly take appropriate measures for its elimination (change production technology, the replacement of the feed used, the decrease in fish production, and so on). Thus, improved the accuracy of results and speed of decision making in a timely manner to changing anthropogenic impacts on the aquatic ecosystem.
The way to assess the impact of cage aquaculture on the marine ecosystem, including sampling directly in the area of operation of cage farms and in the control zone, identifying the content of chemical compounds in the samples and determination by him of the main quantitative indicators of the components of aquatic ecosystems, characterized in that in the samples from the control area and from the area of operation of cage farms further define quantitative measures biota - abundance and biomass of phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos, calculate the correlation between the quantitative indicators of the biota in the area of the hatchery and in the control zone, create a reference table of the ranges of the calculated chemical properties of the components of the aquatic ecosystem, adding line with the proportions of the quantitative indicators of the biota is comparing the calculated ratio with identical ranges of ratios in the reference table to determine the impact of cage farming on the marine ecosystem.
SUBSTANCE: during realisation of the method the test objects are soaked in tested solutions, parameters of test objects survivability are registered, and using them, threshold concentrations of tested pesticide toxicity are calculated, besides, pathomorphological modifications are registered in test objects, the average percentage of malformations is calculated, and the threshold concentration of teratogenic impact is established as the pesticide concentration with minimum teratogenic impact at test objects, and extent of pesticides toxicity is estimated on the basis of the threshold concentration coefficient, which is calculated using the formula Kn emb - coefficient of threshold concentrations of pesticides toxicity taking into account their teratogenicity, LC16 - limit concentration of pesticides toxicity causing death of 16% embryos, EterC16 - threshold concentration of teratogenic effect of pesticides. At the same time if values of the coefficient Kn emb >10, the class of pesticides hazard is established as I, i.e. extremely hazardous, 5-10 - the class of pesticides hazard is set as II, i.e. highly hazardous, 1-5 - the class of pesticides hazard is established as III, i.e. hazardous, <1 - the class of pesticides hazard is IV, i.e. moderately hazardous. Test objects are embryos of sturgeons.
EFFECT: increased accuracy and validity of assessment.
2 cl, 1 ex, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: enteroviruses are concentrated by introduction into an analysed water sample of a magnetic sorbent microparticles coated with polymeric silicon dioxide with amino poropyl groups in proportions 1:1000-3000 of water sample volume. It is incubated at constant stirring for 1-2 hours. The sorbent is collected with a magnet, a supernatant is removed, and a sorbent-enterovirus complex is produced. Enteroviruses are eluted by 0.5M NaCl and 0.05M Tris (pH-10.5) solution. Enteroviruses are identified by immunochemical, cultural and molecular methods.
EFFECT: high degree of virus concentration in the eluate, decreased amount of the eluating solution.
SUBSTANCE: fixed and mobile monitoring sites equipped with measuring instrumentations are located. Various environmental parameters are registered and subjected to analysis. More specifically, hydrophysical field signals are being registered, chemiluminescence, chromatographic, ion-selective, spectral and radiometric analysis is performed. Besides, bed acoustic impendance is registered, molecular spin interactions of seawater protons are detected, artifacts resulting from the magnetohydrodynamic, bioelectric and concentration effect are detected, synthetic surfactant content in the aquatic environment, chlorophyll concentrations, microorgasnisms, phytoplankton, zooplankton is determined. The collected data is further transferred to the archivers and modeling is performed. In the course of modeling the industrial facility environment and infrastructure is divided into a number of areas and a material balance model and a forecast model are created for each of them. For the purposes of the method implementation a system comprising a water withdrawal line equipped with hydrophysical field sensors, a filtering plant for chlorophyll concentration, a filtering plant with a Seitz funnel for microorganisms sampling, a Nageotte chamber for counting the phytoplankton content, a Bogorov Counting Chamber for enumerating zooplankton, a centrifugal apparatus to determine chlorophyll content, a geophone, spectral sensor of proton spin echo is proposed. Besides, the proposed system comprises devices for chemiluminescence, chromatographic, ion-selective, spectral and radiometric analysis, a radiation spectrometer, an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, an X-ray fluorometric analyser, TV sensors, infrared sensors, heat sensors, a metrological module, a sidescan sonar, multiple-beam echo sounder, water quality evaluator by TropoSample parameters and bed deposits characteristics, a lidar (a light radar), a penetrometer, methane and hydrogen detection sensors.
EFFECT: enhanced functional capabilities.
2 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of concentrating salicylic acid from aqueous solution, involving extraction with trioctylamine oxide solution in hexane, deposited on foamed polyurethane tablets in amount of 75-80% of the weight of foamed polyurethane.
EFFECT: invention increases concentration coefficient of salicylic acid.
2 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: system for rapid biological monitoring and indication consists of measurement-detection, analytical and signal units. The measurement-detection unit is n apparatus for measuring reactions of aquatic indicator organisms, where n=2, 3, 4, for two or more aquarium in which there are indicator organisms, into which water enters from a distributing aquarium, said water being pumped by a pump from the tested underwater horizon of the water body or from water pipe. Parameters of functional characteristics of the indicator organisms are calculated from signals of measuring apparatus coming into the analytical unit which comprises a computer with software, containing a data base of parameters of the state of functional characteristics of different indicator organisms under normal conditions, configured for constant population and editing. Values of the measured parameters are continuously processed by the computer in real time, separately for each individual indicator organism. Upon deviation of average values from standard values, the signal unit is automatically switched off and a three-step alarm signal is generated - upon deviation from the standard on one parameter, on three parameters and on all parameters for all indicator organisms.
EFFECT: high accuracy and reliability of continuous indication of the quality of water.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: processing procedures.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in analytic chemistry for sorption concentration and successive determination of heavy metals in water solutions. The procedure for production of sorption material consists in impregnation of surface of a cellulose filter with an analytic reagent wherein thio-semi-carbazone of picoline aldehyde is used as such. Impregnation is carried out with conditioning cellulose material in solution of the reagent in ethanol containing 2.5 % of cetyl alcohol with successive extraction and drying in air. Produced cellulose material is applied for sorption-roentgen-fluorescent analytic determination of heavy metals in water solutions. Metals are extracted with cellulose material for roentgen-fluorescent determination at pH 7.5-10.5, preferably, at pH 10.0.
EFFECT: simple and safe procedure for production of sorption cellulose material used for efficient concentration of heavy metals with successive determination of each of them separately and in whole.
4 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: in order to realise the method, aromatic amines are extracted from waste water with an emulsion of aqueous solution of an inorganic acid with ionisation constant higher than 10 in an organic solvent.
EFFECT: high degree of extraction of aromatic amines from waste water with minimum consumption of reagents and combining extraction and re-extraction processes at one step.
SUBSTANCE: method of determining crystallisation of heavy isotope types of water during volumetric, uniform cooling of natural water and formation of ice of heavy water involves determining and recording changes in optical properties of water using a laser beam and two photocells. The photocells are placed at different heights and the laser beam and its scattered radiation are picked up. The laser beam is pulsed with pulse duration of up to 1 second and period between pulses of 30-200 seconds. Measurements are taken after lowering temperature of the processed water to +4°C. Before each measurement, the water aeration process is stopped completely or only on the area under the beam for the period of time when bubbles surface.
EFFECT: invention increases quality of water and preserves its salt composition.
SUBSTANCE: nanobacteria are counted in a human nephrolith. A fixed mass is separated from the latter, mechanically powdered and divided into j=5 weight fractions pj. The powder is poured into j=5 sterile cells, water infiltrate at pore size not exceeding 0.05 mcm is added. The concentrations of nanobacteria is set between 102 to 106 cells in 1 ml by varying the water volume Vj or weight fractions pj of a powder mineral mass in each cell with using the formula. It is followed with mixing poured into j measuring cells. A nutrient medium - calves' fetal serum is added in the ratio 1:9. Two electrodes are inserted in each cell, then the measuring cells with the mixture is placed in an autoclave wherein constant temperature within 30°C≤T≤40°C is maintained. A mixture impedance (R) is periodically measured, and a point of measurement time (t) is determined until a mixture impedance slump is observed. A calibration diagram of an impedance variation time (timpj) to the concentration of nanobacteria in an initial sample (timpj) is presented. Thereafter, the above-stated stages of the method are conducted for analysed water as well. The derived impedance time (timpj) values are projected on the calibration diagram on the axis (timpj), then on the axis (lgnj).
EFFECT: invention allows evaluating the water concentration of nanobacteria.
3 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves predicting composition of a nonvariant solution, experimental determination of compositions of mixtures on boundaries of the nonvariant region and nonvariant liquid phases with optimum initial mixtures of components, lying in a strictly defined order, from measurements of the physical property of the liquid phase after establishing equilibrium using the "composition-property" functional relationship. Further, for all experimental points lying arbitrarily on all boundaries of the nonvariant region, based on the average ratios of content of the component which is absent in compositions of equilibrium solid phases on corresponding planes or extreme nodes of the nonvariant region of the system to content of water, the composition of the nonvariant liquid phase is calculated and equilibrium solid phases are determined using true coordinates.
EFFECT: obtaining accurate data on phase equilibria in a system without using chemical analysis methods, considerable increase in accuracy mathematical prediction of the composition of the nonvariant solution, avoiding loss of accuracy and reliability of determining composition of the nonvariant solution with increase in the number of components in systems of any type.
4 tbl, 3 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: analytical methods in environmental monitoring.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises: sampling, acidifying samples with HCl/H2SO4 mixture, adding Ce(SO4)2 as oxidant and removing its excess with reducing agent NH2OH·HCl, adding rhodamine C as organic reagent, extracting resulting complex, separating organic phase from aqueous phase, and measuring optical density. Extraction is performed with carbon tetrachloride/methyl isobutyl ketone mixture at 5:1 volume ratio and extractant-to-sample volume ratio 1:1 under dynamic conditions by way of washing away complex with extractant. Content of antimony is judged of from difference of optical densities of extractant and mixture.
EFFECT: lowered measurement threshold to values comparable with allowable limits, increased reliability, reduced analysis time, and automated analytical procedure.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: environmental monitoring.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hygiene and sanitary of freshwater reservoirs and is meant to be used for microbiological testing of condition of water source in an agricultural enterprise effluent zone, in particular in the effluent zone of poultry factories and pig-breeding farms. For this aim, water is sampled at least in two zones: in the effluent zone of agricultural enterprise and in the zone, where influence of agricultural enterprise effluent over different periods is excluded. Then, contents of ammonia compounds and enzymatic activities of urease-carbamidamidohydrolase in samples are measured. Obtained data are processed: contents of ammonia compounds and enzymatic activities in different samples are compared to each other and dynamic of changes in data in samples taken from different zones are compared.
EFFECT: enabled quick testing at high accuracy in estimations and minimized labor and means involved.
FIELD: toxicology, in particular determination of water flea sensibility to toxic effect of water-soluble chemicals.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes detection of water flea death time (min) caused by water-soluble chemicals, wherein concentration (C, mol/l) of chemical under consideration fluctuates according to logarithmic scale with interval of 0.1. Plot of Y versus X is made, wherein Y-axis represents average death time with scale of 1 point = 1 min; X-axis represents reverse concentration (1/C) of chemical under consideration; and scale is proportional to log increasing by 0.1. Water flea sensibility to toxic effect (tgα) is calculated according to equation: tgα = TL(min):1/KL = TL(min)xKl (I), wherein α is inclination of straight line to X-axis; TL(min) is death time (min) being determined according to point of hypothetical crosspoint of straight line with Y-axis; KL is lethality constant (mol/l) defined as chemical concentration wherein water flea death time is equal to 2TL(min).
EFFECT: Method allowing evaluation of toxic effect evolution dynamics and comparison of toxic effect of water-soluble chemicals in equal concentration ranges.
2 tbl, 1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: analytical methods in industrial sanitation.
SUBSTANCE: method envisages bringing solution to be analyzed into contact with potassium bichromate, sulfuric acid, and mercuric sulfate, ageing resulting mixture and allowing it to cool to ambient temperature, adding ferroin indicator, titration of excess of potassium bichromate with 0.125 n. Moor salt solution, and calculating chemical oxygen demand value from amount of Moor salt consumed in the titration. Method is characterized by that initial solution is preliminarily homogenized until diameter of suspended particles therein become as large as 0.03 mm, after which solution is allowed to stay for 4 min.
EFFECT: reduced determination inaccuracy.
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns estimation of environmental pollution using bioassay methods. In particular, method is accomplished through bioindication of controlled area using, as bioindicators, internals (muscles, kidneys, liver) of wild hoofed animals (elk, dear, wild boar). One determines content of heavy metals in these organs placed within an area, compares thus obtained data with maximum permissible concentrations of heavy metals in foods, and estimates heavy metal pollution level of the area from resulted difference. Existence of long-term pollution of a region is judged of from excess concentration of heavy metals in wild hoofed animal kidneys and existence of single release of mercury and lead from that in muscles and liver.
EFFECT: enabled multiple estimation of considerable areas at reduced effort.
2 cl, 3 tbl
FIELD: analytical methods in environmental protection and toxicology.
SUBSTANCE: subject of invention is drinking, natural, and waste water quality monitoring. Toxicity of aqueous medium is determined from variation in activity of animal brain plasma membrane Mg2+-ATPase activated by chlorine and/or bicarbonate ions. In one embodiment of invention, toxicity of aqueous medium is determined by mixing above plasma membranes with test aqueous medium adjusted to physiologic pH with phosphorus-free buffer followed by addition of solution containing Tris-ATP and magnesium ion source as well as chloride and/or bicarbonate ion(s) source, incubation until inorganic phosphorus is formed, and determination of toxicity from concentration of inorganic phosphorus. Brain plasma membranes used as indicator contain Mg2+-ATPase capable of being activated by chlorine and/or bicarbonate ions.
EFFECT: extended functional possibilities of method and use of reagent, increased sensitivity, and enabled determination of toxicity at lower concentration of various-type toxicants.
20 cl, 6 tbl
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns evaluation of pollution of areas with pesticides involving bioassay techniques. To that end, area under control is subjected to bioindication using wild hoofed animals (mainly elks, deer, wild boars) as bioindicators. Within specified period of time, animal internals are sampled, pesticide content therein is determined, and thus obtained results are compared with maximum permissible pesticide levels for food products. Comparison data are used to estimate quality of media.
EFFECT: increased representativeness of monitoring results, enabled evaluation of a vast region or local area or local agrocenosis at lower effort.
2 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: chemistry, water quality control, method for quantitative estimation of organic substance properties in aqueous solutions.
SUBSTANCE: indicator plate is immersed in aqueous solution and according to alteration of aqueous solution composition chemical activity of organic substances in this solution is determined. In clamed method tree vessels are used. Two vessels contain aqueous solution to be tested and the third vessel contains control aqueous solution free from organic contamination. In aqueous solutions containing in the second and third vessels indicator plates are immersed, then aqueous solutions in all vessels are heated up to 95-105°C, held at this temperature for 55-65 min, cooled to 15-25°C, filtered though membrane filter with pore size of 0.46 mum, then iron content is measured in all vessels and chemical activity of organic substances in aqueous solutions is calculated according to equation ka=ΔFe/Fe1, wherein ΔFe = Fe2- Fe1- Fe3; Fe1 is iron content in the aqueous solution of the first vessel; Fe2 is iron content in the tested aqueous solution of the second vessel; and Fe3 is iron content in the aqueous solution of the third vessel.
EFFECT: simplified method with enhanced functionality.
3 ex, 4 tbl
FIELD: ecological engineering, particularly river monitoring with taking into consideration river pollution with sewage water within the limits of cities and other inhabited localities.
SUBSTANCE: method involves choosing river observation points relative single pollution source or pollution source array; aligning one observation point with single pollution cross-section or pollution cross-section array; taking water samples; conservation the samples and preparing thereof for following analysis; cultivating test-organism, namely one-celled green algae - Chlorella vulgaris, inside cultivator at temperature of 36±0.5°; measuring optical density thereof in red light; analyzing and estimating the measurement results. The observation points are transversal to river and set in front of single sewage pollution source or sewage pollution source array, in center of each source and behind them. All three observation points are located within the limits of a city or other inhabited locality. The optical density is measured before and after one-celled green algae cultivation in water samples. After measurement termination overall river water pollution index is determined.
EFFECT: possibility to compare overall river water pollution index obtained in particular observation point with that obtained from pollution source on river bank; extended functional capabilities and extended range of application.
5 cl, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with testing biological activity of water, preliminary treatment of water, division into control and tested portions, ionization of tested portion with silver ions, detection of the quantity of sprouted wheat grains per time unit pre-impregnated in both mentioned portions and calculation of relative alteration for the value of biological activity of water according to the following ratio: where d - relative alteration for the value of biological activity of water, %; Ntested - the quantity of sprouted grains per time unit in tested portion of water, pcs.; Ncontrol - the quantity of sprouted grains per time unit in control portion of water, pcs. Moreover, relative alteration for the value of biological activity of water being above 0 means increased biological activity of water, relative alteration for the value of biological activity of water being below 0 means its decrease, and equation of the mentioned relative alteration to 0 means intact nature of biological activity of water being different by the fact that pre-treatment of water should be carried out due to precipitation for 23-24 h at 23-26 C.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of investigation.