Composition for producing cation-exchange fibre material
SUBSTANCE: composition is meant for producing cation-exchange fibre material used in water treatment processes and treatment of industrial sewage. The composition is also used to soften and desalinate water, in production of synthetic detergents, in the paint industry and industry of polymer materials. The composition consists of paraphenol sulphonic acid and formalin. The composition additionally contains filler - basalt wool. The basalt wool is first heat treated for 1 hour at temperature 350-450°C, followed by microwave treatment at 180 or 750 W for 30 s. Content of components is as follows, wt %: paraphenol sulphonic acid 50-55.8, formalin 40.9-35.1; basalt wool 9.1. The composition enables synthesis of cation-exchange fibre material with improved properties, particularly lower oxidation number of the filtrate, higher specific volume of the cationite, as well as high dynamic exchange capacity and high osmotic stability of the cationite.
EFFECT: composition enables synthesis of cation-exchange fibre material with improved properties.
1 tbl, 4 ex
Developed composition is used to obtain the cation exchange fibrous material, used for the treatment of industrial wastewater from monomers in the production of chemical fibers; from dyes and their components - in paint manufacture; synthetic surface-active substances in the manufacture of synthetic detergents, petroleum products - petrol stations; for softening and demineralization of water in the systems of technical water; suspended sediment and solids, dispersed zeleznicnych connections.
Known composition to obtain a cation-exchange resin Katex FN, having in its composition phenolsulfonate, naphthalenesulfonate, formaldehyde.
The disadvantage of the cation Katex FN is the low value of the static exchange capacity (SOY=0,54 mg-EQ/g) .
Known composition designed to produce polymer press-composition with a cation exchange properties. Cation exchange matrix are synthesized on the surface and in the structure of the fibrous filler after impregnation his impregnating solution. The composition contains formalin, paraphenylenevinylene and fibrous filler in the following ratio of initial components, wt.%:
- paraphenylenevinylene - 30,12;
- formaldehyde - 63,63;
- fiber is - 6,25.
The material is characterized by a static exchange capacity of 2.1 to 2.3 mEq/g
The disadvantage is the low value of the static exchange capacity .
Most are similar in composition and function to the invention is a composition to obtain a cation - exchange resin KU-1 . Original composition contains formalin, paraphenylenevinylene, in the following ratio of components of the ion-exchange matrix, wt.%:
- paraphenylenevinylene - 61,4;
- formalin - 38,6.
Cation exchange resin obtained from this composition, refers to the type of bifunctional strongly acidic sulfonic cation polycondensation-type phenol-formaldehyde cation exchange matrix. Has two types of ionic groups: alphagroup SO3H and a hydroxyl group HE.
The main disadvantage of the composition to obtain a prototype is a low value such parameters as the specific volume of the resin, dynamic exchange capacity, osmotic stability and high value of the indicator of the oxidation filtrate
The technical task of the invention is the decrease in oxidation filtrate, the increase in the specific volume of the cation exchanger, increasing its dynamic exchange capacity and increase the osmotic stability of the cation exchange fibrous material.
P the set task is solved by that composition to obtain a cation exchange fibrous material containing paraphenylenevinylene and formalin, further comprises a filler - basalt wool, pre-heat treated for 1 hour at a temperature of 350-450°C and subsequent microwave treatment with radiation power 180 W or 750 W for 30 seconds, in the following ratio, wt.%:
paraphenylenevinylene - 50÷55,8;
formalin - 40,9÷35,1;
Rockwool is 9.1.
The proposed composition and the final cation exchange fibrous material was obtained as follows (the properties of the cation exchange fibrous material is presented in table 1).
Paraphenylenevinylene under vigorous stirring and cooled constantly injected into the formalin. Then the impregnating solution is impregnated with basalt wool, pre-heat treated at 400°C for 1 hour and subsequent microwave treatment for 30 seconds at a power of 750 watts. Impregnation impregnation solution should be performed within 2 minutes. Then gradually carry out the synthesis of oligomers in the structure and on the surface of basalt wool, then the material is subjected to rough grinding, are drying, carry out the curing of the material with the formation of three-dimensional mesh structure. The resulting cation is the exchange fibrous material is crushed. This was followed by washing of the obtained material and subsequent centrifugation to remove any remaining moisture.
The composition, wt.%:
phenolsulfonate - 50÷55,8;
formalin - 40,9÷35,1;
Rockwool is 9.1.
The composition and mode of microwave processing of basalt wool in example 1, characterized in that the heat treatment basalt wool is carried out at a temperature of 450°C.
The composition and mode of microwave processing of basalt wool in example 1, characterized in that the heat treatment basalt wool is carried out at a temperature of 350°C.
The composition and heat treatment basalt wool in example 1, characterized in microwave processing is carried out with the radiation power of 180 watts.
The use of heat treatment basalt wool at a temperature of less than 350°C. is not effective, since the surface basalt wool in this case is not enough cleared inflicted on him apreta, and applying a heat treatment basalt wool at a temperature of temperature above 450°C will lead to embrittlement and subsequent destruction of the fibrous filler. Beyond these temperatures will lead to the deterioration of the basic properties of ion-exchange material
Processing basalt wool microwave radiation is carried out at a power of 750 W and 180 W in accordance with the s 30 seconds. The use of other values of the capacity of processing wool microwave irradiation leads to the reduction of the main indicators, which is confirmed experimentally.
The composition contains 9,1% by weight basalt wool. The increase in the percentage of the amount of impregnating solution in the composition will result in that part of the impregnating solution will remain absorbed basalt wool, resulting on the surface of the obtained cation exchange fibrous material is formed can be easily removed by the ion exchange layer, which results in excessive components of the impregnating solution.
The reduction percentage of the amount of impregnating solution in the composition will lead to insufficient impregnation basalt wool, to reduce the share of ion-exchange matrix in the cation exchange fibrous material. Thus, the deviation of the ratios of the components (basalt wool - impregnating solution) in the composition leads to a decrease of the complex properties of the resulting cation exchange fibrous material, which is confirmed experimentally.
This composition allows to synthesize the cation exchange fibrous material with enhanced properties.
In particular, with a lower value of the indicator of the oxidation filtrate, the reduction of this indicator speaks at the jensenii unreacted low molecular weight compounds, which then fall into purified water; a higher specific volume of the ion exchange polymer material, which indicates the increasing porosity, the surface of contact of the cation exchange fibrous material, increasing the availability of functional groups that, in turn, leads to increasing values of dynamic exchange capacity is a measure that is directly associated with the ability of a material to clean up polluted water under dynamic conditions; increased value osmoticheskoi stability, which indicates the increasing ability of the grains of the resin not to be destroyed during repeated volume changes in the process.
Sources of information
1. Chemist's Handbook. - Ed. 2nd, trans. and supplementary vol 4. Ed. Bpiolar. - M.: Chemistry. - 1966.
2. Technology of plastics / edited CEO. - M.: Chemistry, 1972. - 616 S.
|No.||Description||the placeholder||example 1||example 2||example 3||example 4|
|2||The static exchange capacity, mEq/g||3,6||2,7||2,3||2,0||2,4|
|3||The oxidation filtrate||1,83||1,7||1,7||1,75||1,8|
|4||The specific volume of the ion exchanger in the H form, cm3/g||3,2||4,4||a 3.9||3,7||4|
|5||Dynamic exchange capacity, mg·mol/DM3||565||920||716||650||765|
|6||Osmotic stability, %||92||99||97||98||99|
Composition to obtain a cation exchange fibrous material, consisting of paraphenylenevinylene and formalin, characterized in that it further contains a filler - basalt wool, pre-heat treated for 1 h at a temperature of 350-450°C and subsequent microwave treatment with radiation power 180 W or 750 W for 30 s at the following ratio of the initial components of the composition, wt.%:
SUBSTANCE: polymer composition is based on phenol-formaldehyde novalac resin and urotropin and contains wood dust, carbonaceous filler and lubricant. The carbonaceous filler is schungite and the phenol-formaldehyde novalac resin and urotropin are in form of powdered phenol binder with content of free phenol of not more than 1.0 wt % with the following ratio of components in wt %: binder 38.4-43.7; wood dust 3.0-10.2; schungite 45.2-56.6; lubricant 1.0-2.0.
EFFECT: low volume resistivity of the polymer composition and improved strength characteristics.
1 cl, 5 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: polymer composition contains ground wastes of materials, produced from a material impregnated with a duroplast, preferably with an aminoplast or phenoplast, impregnated with an amino resin, for instance, melamine or carbamide resin.
EFFECT: method ensures regeneration of wastes of materials impregnated with polymer resin, in particular, impregnated duroplasts.
13 cl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: frictional material is meant for use in frictional articles, particularly for making brake shoes of rail transport and is in form of a composition which contains phenol formaldehyde resin, fibre mineral filler, synthetic rubber, a vulcanising group, barite, compacting agent, titanium oxide and a friction modifier in form of mixture of technical carbon and zirconium boride.
EFFECT: material has high thermomechanical strength and reduces wear of the metal counterface of a friction pair.
2 tbl, 13 ex
SUBSTANCE: material is in form of a composition which contains binder (A) in form of rubber which is pre-treated on rollers with a product of reaction of epoxy diane resin with M.M 400-1200 with methacrylic acid on epoxy groups while using methacrylic acid in stoichiometric amount of 0.3-0.8 in the presence of a catalyst - methylimidazole 0.05-1.0 pts. wt per 100 pts. wt of reacting components (B) in weight ratio A:B between 96:4 and 60:40, and the vulcanising agent used is alkylphenol-formaldehyde resin and a mixture of metal oxides in ratio TiO2:V2O5:WO3 between 1:2:2 and 2:1:1 in the following ratio of components, pts. wt: said binder 100, alkylphenol-formaldehyde resin 5-20, powder filler 100-400, fibre filler 50-200, mixture of metal oxides 3-20.
EFFECT: higher heat resistance, strength and service life of frictional material and longevity of metal article in contact with said material.
2 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of making large objects for antifriction purposes, particularly to antifriction filled compositions and can be used when making end seals of hydraulic turbines, spring bearings for ships etc. The composition contains the following in wt %: 43.5-50 carbon fabric with fibre with average crystal size on the basal plane equal to 3.0-6.0 nm and stacking distance of basal planes equal to 1.0-4.0 nm, 35.0-50.0 polymer thermoreactive binder and 1.0-15.0 of a product of reacting metal powder with fine-dispersed carbon particles with specific surface area of 110-150 m2/g, taken in volume ratio metal: carbon equal to 1:(0.01-0.15). The composition is obtained by mixing polymer thermoreactive binder with a product of reacting metal powder with fine-dispersed carbon particles with specific surface area of 110-150 m2/g, impregnation with binder which contains a suspension of the said product, carbon fabric and moulding.
EFFECT: invention increases crack resistance of the antifriction composition and simplifies the technology of preparing the composition.
5 cl, 2 tbl, 17 ex
SUBSTANCE: rubber composition consists of, wt %: polypropylene - 3-21, butadiene-nitrile rubber - 22-55, olefin rubber - 2.5 -9.5, modificator, cross-linking agent for rubbers - 1.5-3.5, activator - 0.18-0.3, plasticiser - 3.0-7.5, mineral oil - 8-40. The composition contains polyisocyanate containing not less than two isocyanate groups (0.05-2.3 wt %) as a modificator and polypropylene with 1-6% of grafted maleic anhydride or maleic acid - 6-20 wt %. Plasticiser solubility parametre of is not less than 18 (kJ/m3)1/2.
EFFECT: oil resistance enhancing, decrease of relative residual elongation and melt flow index.
1 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to rubber industry and deals with production of rubber products such as tyres, etc. Rubber mixture contains mixture of caoutchoucs, wt.p - butylcaoutchouc - 75-90, chloroprene caoutchouc - 0-10 and chloride-containing ethylene-propylene-diene filled caoutchouc 7-20. Chloride-containing ethylene-propylene-diene caoutchouc is obtained by mixing ethylene-propylene-diene and chloride-containing caoutchouc in presence of silicon colloidal dioxide. Rubber mixture contains also per 100 wt.p of mixture of caoutchoucs: stearic acid -1-3, zinc oxide - 4-10, technical carbon-30-60, mineral oil "stabiloil" -3-8 and phenol-formaldehyde resin "amberol137" -5-10.
EFFECT: obtaining rubber which has reduced creep and pitching, as well as increased dynamic durability.
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to phenol formaldehyde binders and composition materials based thereon, intended for manufacturing of fire-safe parts of interior of passenger airplanes, in ship and automobile building and railway transport. Claimed are phenol formaldehyde binder, including, weight fraction: resole phenol formaldehyde resin, i.e. a highly concentrated product of condesation of phenol and paraformaldehyde 100, phenol-formaldehyde novolac 33-100, organic solvent acetone 33-130; prepreg, including, weight fraction: the said binder 20-80, glass fabric 28-48, and a product obtained by formation of the aforesaid prepreg. When using claimed phenol formaldehyde binder in combination with glass re-enforcing filler, complex of materials can be obtained i.e. prepreg with viability increased to 3 months, glass textolite and three-layer cell panel on their basis with ca. fourfold reduced heat-generation when burning.
EFFECT: invention allows creating prepreg with viability increased to 3 months, glass textolite with ca. fourfold reduced heat-generation when burning, using phenol formaldehyde binder.
3 cl, 4 ex, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder metallurgy, namely to metal-polymeric compositions for obtaining cast iron bars. Metal-polymeric composition is obtained by mechanical mixing of two mixtures - as component of the first high-dispersion powders of iron and, probably, at least, one alloying element is used, as components of the second - thermo-reactive phenol-formaldehyde resin, plastificator and iron oxide powder are used, as plastificator salt of stearine acid is used, with the following ratio of components mass %: - thermoreactive phenolformaldehyde resin -15-20; -salt of stearine acid -0.4-1.5; -iron oxide (III) -0.2-32; -iron powder - the remaining part. As alloying element in the first mixture high-dispersion powder of nickel, chrome, copper, molybdenum, manganese, aliminium, titanium, vanadium, silicon is used.
EFFECT: reduction of technological cycle of manufacturing of cast iron products and expanding their range.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: composition is used for making hollow micro-spheres, which are used as a component of boring solutions when finding and producing oil, as low density filler in various composite materials, used in machine building, aviation and ship building, space technology, and when making heat insulation materials. The composition contains the following, in the given mass ratios: resol phenol-formaldehyde resin with relative viscosity of 5000-9000 cP - 100, porofor (5), polyether based on ethylene oxide copolymer and propylene oxide with molecular mass of 4000-6000 (2-3).
EFFECT: higher space factor of the boring solution micro-spheres, improved looseness of the micro-spheres, increased strength during hydrostatic compression.
1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for extracting metal ions, purifying waste and industrial solutions from toxic metal ions. The method of obtaining anion-exchange fibre material involves reacting activated polyacrylonitrile fibre nitron and 30-70 wt % modifying agent - mixture of diethanolamine with 10-30 wt % hexamethylenediamine in an aqueous 5% solution of dimethylformamide. Nitron is activated in a 3-6% aqueous alkaline solution for 3-5 minutes at 90-95°C.
EFFECT: invention makes it easier to obtain fibrous anionite and can be used for effective purification waste water from leather industry and electroplating plants from chromium (VI) ions, and for concentrating and separating chromates from industrial solutions.
1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology for preparing chemosorption materials possessing high protective properties with respect to ammonia vapors that can be used for using in filtering protective devices. Method involves impregnation of nonwoven activated fabric made of hydrocellulose fibers in an aqueous solution containing zinc chloride and nickel chloride. Also, this solution contains 1,2,3-propanetriol (glycerol) as a modifying agent taken in the amount 0.5-1.0% of the total amount of the prepared solution.
EFFECT: improved preparing method.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: ION-EXCHANGE MATERIALS.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a process of preparing gel-like cationites for use in treatment and purification processes. Gel-like cationites are prepared by inoculating-incoming process wherein (a) aqueous suspension of microcapsulated cross-linked styrene polymer in the form of granules and containing cross-linking agent is provided as inoculating polymer; (b) inoculating polymer is left to swell in monomer mixture composed of vinyl monomer, cross-linking agent, and radical initiator, namely peracid aliphatic ester; (c) monomer mixture is polymerized in inoculating polymer; and (d)resulting copolymer is functionalized via sulfatization. Process is characterized by that, in step (a), content of cross-linking agent in cross-linked styrene copolymer amounts to 3.5-7 wt % and inoculum-to-income ratio in step (b) amounts to 1:(0.25-1.5).
EFFECT: enabled preparation of gel-like cationites having high osmotic and mechanic stabilities as well as improved oxidation resistance.
7 cl, 9 tbl, 9 ex
FIELD: chemical technology, resins.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for preparing polyhalide strong-basic anion-exchange resins of gel and macroporous structure designated for disinfection of water in closed ecological objects, domestic drinking water and water from non-checked sources. Polyhalide anion-exchange resins is prepared from strong-basic quaternary ammonium anion-exchange resins in chloride form by their iodination with J2 solution in KJ at stirring, thermostatic control and washing out. Iodination is carried out with triiodide solution on conditioned strong-basic anion-exchange resins in chloride form in the content of strong-basic groups 80%, not less, in the mole ratio anion-exchange resin : triiodide = 1.0:(1.1-1.5). Ready product is kept at 20-55°C additionally. Invention provides preparing polyhalide anion-exchange resins characterizing by high resource in water disinfection and in simultaneous reducing iodine release in disinfecting water in retention of high disinfecting indices.
EFFECT: improved preparing method.
1 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: catalysts for waste water and emission gas treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of removing organic and inorganic components from waste waters and emission gases via liquid-phase oxidation, in particular, to preparing textile-supported polymer catalyst consisting of polyacrylonitrile monothreads and complex threads. Knitted cloth is treated with modifying solution at 106 to 150°C for 10 to 30 min when ratio of amounts of polyacrylonitrile units to amount of chlorine-containing hydrazine salt equal to 20-30 and the same to chlorine-containing hydroxylamine salt 10-15, pH of solution being 6-9. After that, cloth is treated with transition metal salts for 1.0-2.0 h until content of metal on catalyst achieves 0.81-1.2 mmol/g. Treatment is followed by washing with desalted water.
EFFECT: simplified catalyst preparation technology and intensified preparation process.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 30 ex
FIELD: waste water and gas emission treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for preparing catalytic materials to clean waste waters and gas emissions via removal of organic and inorganic components by liquid-phase oxidation process. Method comprises consecutive treatment of knitted cloth with hot alkali solution containing 14-42 g/L hydroxylamine chloride and an aqueous solution of variable-valence metal salts. In the first stage, treatment is carried out with modifying hydroxylamine chloride and ethylenediamine-containing solution wherein molar ratio of polyacrylonitrile unit number to ethylenediamine ranges from 2 to 10 and solution pH is 6-9. Treatment temperature is 95-105°C and treatment time 1-1.6 h. In the second stage, treatment with aqueous solution of variable-valence metal salts is carried out for 0.5 to 2 h.
EFFECT: simplified manufacture technology, reduced expenses on reagents, and reduced process time without loss in the firmness of fixation of variable-valence metal salts on cloth.
2 tbl, 21 ex
FIELD: polymer materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manufacture of ion-exchange fibers with special properties, which can be used as sorbent or as a sorbent constituent for cleaning liquid media, largely natural and waste waters. Method consists in performing alkali hydrolysis of polyacrylonitrile fiber in presence of hydrazine at elevated temperature completed by treatment of fiber with active agent causing degradation of chromophore groups of fiber. Alternatively, ion-exchange fiber is manufactured via alkali hydrolysis of polyacrylonitrile fiber in presence of hydrazine at elevated temperature, hydrolysis reaction being effected in concentrated solution of salt of alkali metal with weak acid followed by treatment of fiber with active agent as above.
EFFECT: improved characteristics of fiber at lower consumption of reagents and stabilized manufacturing process to provide ion-exchange fiber with desired number of chelating sorption groups due to appropriate balance of acid and basic groups resulting from hydrolysis.
18 cl, 5 tbl, 16 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology for preparing sorbents with fibrous structure by using waste of industrial manufacture. Method involves treatment of fibrous matrix from waste of tanning leather chips with polyelectolyte an aqueous solution obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of polyacrylonitrile or copolymer based on thereof. Prepared sorbent shows the improved capacity for extraction of different components from different aqueous media.
EFFECT: improved preparing method, improved and valuable properties of sorbent.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: sanitary and hygienic facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of manufacturing chemisorption materials for use in municipal hygiene sphere. Method consists in treatment of chemisorption carboxyl-containing material in Na form with 0.5-1.0% aqueous acid solution, e.g. hydrochloric acid solution, at modulus (ratio of weight of chemisorption material to acid solution volume) 1:30 and treatment time 0.5-1.0 h to transfer material into H-form. Chemisorbent is then washed with softened water to pH 5-6, after which material in H-form is treated for 0.5-1.0 h with 0.5-1.0% potassium hydroxide solution, modulus 1:30. At the expiration of treatment time, material is washed with softened water to pH 5.0-6.5. Presence of three-dimensional lattice, both during treatment time of chemisorption material in the form of fibers or nonwoven material and upon use of products from this material, prevents dissolution of polymer in water or in aqueous solution of acid or potassium hydroxide. Owing to filtration, chemisorbent entraps in water heavy metal ions contained therein and water is saturated with potassium ions so that chemisorption material acquires at least 4 mmol/g of carboxyl groups in K-form.
EFFECT: optimized manufacture conditions.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemistry and chemical engineering. Water undergoes photodecontamination using radiation in the visible range in the presence of oxygen and a sensitising agent. The sensitising agent used is a heterogeneous sensitising agent of general formula:
where R=Cl, NHCH2CH2SO3Na, NR3 +X-, N+(CH3)2CH2CH2OH X-, Py+X-; X is an anion, n=4-9; R1=H, SPh; M=Zn, Al(L), Ga(L), Si(L2); L=Cl, OH.
EFFECT: invention enables decontamination of water from bacteriological pollution.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 13 ex