Irrigation network with pulse water supply
SUBSTANCE: irrigation system includes a water source, the device of pulsed water supply, distribution pipeline and irrigation pipeline with drainage outlets. The drainage outlets are made in the form of birecurvate tubules. One end of the birecurvate tubes is connected to the irrigation pipeline across its upper surface. The other end of birecurvate tubes is fixed vertically at a height exceeding the height of the upper surface of the irrigation pipeline. The second end of the birecurvate tubes is provided with branch pipe mounted to be movable in the vertical plane.
EFFECT: design enables to ensure an even distribution of water between the irrigated pipelines along their length and uniform wetting of irrigated area.
The present invention relates to agriculture and can be used for irrigation of agricultural crops in small greenhouses with the area up to 100 m2.
Lately wide application in greenhouses found drip irrigation. Drip irrigation system typically includes water intake site, naturaopathic node, filter, distribution and irrigation pipelines with droppers (Handbook, volume Irrigation", Moscow, VO "Agropromizdat", 1990, s-161).
However, in a small greenhouse in suburban areas do not always have the necessary conditions for drip irrigation systems, namely, running water and electricity.
Known irrigation network with a pulsed supply of water, including the water source (a barrel), the unit impulse water supply distribution pipeline and irrigation piping with outlets (Set of locally-pulse irrigation CLIP-36, Federal research Institute "rainbow", , Kolomna, 2009). This network can operate in the absence of water and electricity. The water from this irrigation network carry out short pulses, alternating it with breaks for absorption. This method of water supply allows to avoid the formation of surface runoff. The orifices culverts can have dimensions that eliminates fine cleaning in the s. The pressure required for culverts, create placement of the water source and the device pulsed water flow over the ground at a predetermined height.
The disadvantage of this irrigation network is the uneven distribution of water along the length of the irrigation pipes and area irrigated plot. This irregularity is formed due to the fact that when a small amount of pressure and small diameter tubes filling the drip line is relatively slow. The filling process is slowed down because of the involvement of culverts as their water flow. After inclusion in the work of all culverts momentum of the water in the pipeline stops or continues a very short time. Thus, the water discharged at the beginning of the irrigation pipes are longer than the end of the culverts. In addition, the uniformity of moisture the area affected his skin. Irrigation pipelines that are located in the depressions will be filled with water faster than on higher ground. When continuous watering this phenomenon has a significant effect on the uniformity of soil moisture has not. However, when the pulse method of water supply number of pulses during irrigation may be 30 or more. In this case, the uneven distribution of water is between outlets along the length of the pipelines is accumulated during the irrigation season, and the entire irrigation season and may be 20-30%, that leads to a natural uneven soil moisture site area and lower yields of irrigated crops.
To eliminate the above drawback allows the proposed irrigation network with a pulsed supply of water, including the water source, the device is pulsed water supply distribution pipeline and irrigation piping with outlets, in which the outlets are made in the form dvoyakosti tubes, one end of which is connected to the irrigation pipeline through its upper surface, and the second fixed upright at a height exceeding the height of the upper surface of the irrigation pipe, and provided with a nozzle mounted for movement in a vertical plane.
The essence of the invention lies in the fact that the proposed construction of culverts in conjunction with oral irrigation pipes forms a group nerazreshimaya siphons, ensuring the conservation of the fullness of pipelines and culverts water after completion of the pulse of its filing, and because of this allows for simultaneous inclusion of all culverts along the length of the drip line after the break for the absorption of water.
The essence of the proposed is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 presents a General view of the irrigation network; figure 2 - cross section poliblog the pipe and water outlet; figure 3 - view of the outlet at the top.
Irrigation network with a pulsed supply of water includes the water source 1 connected to device 2 pulse water supply, connected to the distribution pipe 3, paired with irrigation pipes 4, which set intervals, installed culverts 5. The ends irrigation pipes 4 are equipped with plugs 6. The outlets 5 are made in the form dvoyakosti tubes 7, one end of which is connected to the irrigation pipe 4 through the holes 8 in its upper surface, and the other using a clamp 9 is fixed in a vertical position on the rack 10 at a height above the upper surface of the drip line 4. To this end tubes 7 culverts 5 equipped with the possibility of vertical movement of the nozzle 11 with the inner sealing ring 12. On the pipe 11 and the rack 10 is wearing a connecting bracket 13 with an opening 14 corresponding to the cross section of the rack 10. This bracket 13 on the edge of its upper surface has a shoulder 15 of a height of 2-3 mm and provided with a locking screw 16, and the rack 10 is made vertical groove 17, commensurate with the inner diameter of the tubes 7 of the outlet 5.
The work of the proposed irrigation network is as follows.
At the beginning of the irrigation season perform installation network, connecting polyun the e pipes 4 through the distribution pipeline 3 and the device 2 pulse supplying water to the water source 1. For the irrigation pipeline 4 through the holes 8 in the upper surface connect one end of the tubes 7 culverts 5 at a distance from each other, given the scheme of planting. The length of the tubes 7 connected to one irrigation pipeline may vary depending on the layout of the network and planting. Connected with the tube 7 is lowered to the surface of the bed and making the second bend, the other end is fixed in a vertical position on the rack 10 installed at a given point of water release, fixing his collar 9 at a height above the upper surface of the drip line 4 is not less than the value of the outer diameter of the tube 7. Above the fixed ends of the tubes 7 along the pipeline 4 in the same horizontal plane pull cords, the ends of the tubes 7 put the pipe 11 with the possibility of vertical movement. Missing nozzles 11 and the rack 10 through the openings 14 in the brackets 13, install the upper ends of the pipes 11 to line the tense cords and fix them in this position by means of screws 16. Upon completion of the installation of cords clean and spend the first watering, feeding water from the water source 1 in the device pulsed water flow 2, which produces the first pulse of water supply to irrigated land. During this pulse sequentially fill the of water distribution 3, and irrigation pipes 4, and then the floodgates 5 after water on the surface of the brackets 13. When this sealing ring 12 to prevent the runoff of water tubes 7, and the flange 15 to prevent the formation of scour soil jets of water from the surface of the brackets flows down the grooves 17 in the racks 10 in defined locations in the water supply. After completion of the first pulse of water supply to the area formed by the system filled with water distribution pipes 3, irrigation pipes 4 and nerazreshimaya siphons culverts 5. The crest of the siphon is the upper bend of the tube 7, one branch forms a cavity irrigation pipe 4, and the second branch of the second bend of the tube 7 with the pipe 11 on it. The location of the outlet nozzles 11 in the same horizontal plane above the surface of the site compensates for the influence of micro-topography on the distribution of water on the plot. After a break in the irrigation water on the absorption of water applied to the device 2 produces the activation of the next pulse in the water supply. Because the whole system is filled with water, the work includes all culverts 5 simultaneously on the whole site that provides uniform distribution of water between irrigation pipelines 4 and throughout their length and, accordingly, the uniformity of soil moisture. Subsequent alternating pulses of water with breaks for absorption Ave is performed when filled with water irrigation network. The release of pipelines and culverts network of water produced at the end of the watering or irrigation of the season, opening the stub 6 on the irrigation pipeline 4.
Thus, the application of the proposed irrigation network with a pulsed supply of water helps to ensure uniform distribution of water between irrigation pipelines on their length and uniform moistening of the irrigated area, regardless of the surface microrelief and layout of the network and planting.
Irrigation network with a pulsed supply of water, including the water source, the device is pulsed water supply distribution pipeline and irrigation piping with outlets, characterized in that the floodgates are made in the form dvoyakosti tubes, one end of which is connected to the irrigation pipeline through its upper surface, and the second fixed upright at a height exceeding the height of the upper surface of the irrigation pipe, and provided with a nozzle mounted for movement in a vertical plane.
SUBSTANCE: sprinkler includes a cylindrical body and a lid. The cylindrical body comprises slotted turnouts in the middle part. In the lid opening a finely divided spray is set. Annular grooves are made on the inner surface of the body, above and below the slotted turnouts. In the annular grooves O-rings are placed. The lid of the sprinkler has a ring bearing collar. The annular bearing shoulder comes up inside the body to the upper ring groove. In the lower part of the body a mechanism of switching modes of operation of the sprinkler is placed. The mechanism of switching modes of operation of a sprinkler consists of locking drum commensurate with the inner diameter of the body with O-rings coming into the grooves. At the bottom of the locking drum holes are made. In the center of the locking drum a lead-trough tube is mounted with a spring mounted on it. The spring passes through the hole in the lid to its outer surface. The finely divided spray consists of a deflector with a calibrated channel and the sparger of the stream with a spiral groove on the surface. The deflector with a calibrated groove is fixed by screwed connection in the upper part of the tube of the locking drum at the exit of the body. The sparger of the stream with a spiral groove on the surface has a diameter of the deflector channel, and installed with a bracket on the body lid at the exit of the deflector coaxially with it.
EFFECT: design enables to mechanise switching of working modes of sprinkler and flushing of the finely divided sprinkler.
SUBSTANCE: sprinkling apparatus contains a union nut on the inlet pipe, pivotally mounted on the rotatable housing with water-supply and flow-generating channel, and a jet drive. The flow-generating channel is made in the form of a vertical rod. The jet drive is designed as a blade pivotally freely mounted with two stages on the rod, and supplied with blades from the side of the flow-generating channel. Jet blade on the top along the entire length is made with two protrusions. On the rod a flange is rigidly fixed with the stops made to diameter with the ability to move the stops along the holes made to the radius. Above the flange at the top of the stem additional flow-generating channels are made. Above the stem in the water-supply channel a fitting and a threadably connected plug are installed. The fitting is designed as a finger with axial and transverse channels, and an annular groove. Between the fitting, the stem and the plug springs are installed.
EFFECT: design will improve the quality of irrigation of irrigated area, increase reliability of sprinkler apparatus operation.
SUBSTANCE: system comprises a water-intake structure, the first pump, the first lock, controlled microhydrants, the second pump, the second lock, the third lock, an activator and a water accumulator. The first pump is connected via the first lock to the input of a transporting pipeline. Two groups of controlled microhydrants are connected to the transporting pipeline for supply of water into irrigated furrows. Film screens are installed under irrigated furrows. Film screens are laid along edges of wide stationary ridges with narrow trenches. Trenches are dug along the middle of the stationary ridges and are filled with vegetable remains and manure. Parallel to the first lock the following components are connected in series - the second lock, the activator and the water accumulator, the third lock and the second pump. Slopes of ridges used to grow plants are aligned towards the south. Slopes of ridges are covered with a layer of sand. The lower part of narrow trenches is filled with trunks of trees and wooden remains. In the irrigated furrows there are partitions installed in autumn and winder period. There are slots made at the southern slopes. Slots are perpendicular to the irrigated furrows and are filled with sand. The distance between slots reduces when approaching end of irrigated furrows, providing for even moistening of ridges along the furrows length during irrigation.
EFFECT: design will make it possible to improve quality of irrigated areas melioration.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: irrigating pipeline includes holes. The pipeline wall, at least in area of each hole, is arranged as multilayer. At least, one of the upper layer and the lower layer of the pipeline wall is made of a water-repellent material. The inner layer of the pipeline wall is made of the transparent material. The hole is defined by the cut surface in the pipeline wall. The specified surface of cut in the pipeline wall includes a tight coating, which coats at least the inner layer. The method to form a hole in the irrigating pipeline wall includes formation of a hole in the pipeline wall and a tight coating of the specified cut surface, at least, in the field of the inner layer.
EFFECT: design and technology make it possible to increase reliability of the pipeline operation by prevention of possible leaks.
20 cl, 25 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes tillage of middle and compaction of side parts of strips in surface of watered site with their simultaneous coverage by synthetic film, supply of irrigation water under film. Prior to compaction of side parts in strips on surface of watered site, magnetoactive material is applied in them. Magnetoactive material is represented by magnetised particles of crushed slag from ferrous metallurgy.
EFFECT: technology will make it possible to reduce hardness of irrigation water.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes tillage of middle and compaction of side parts of strips in surface of watered site with their simultaneous coverage by synthetic film, supply of irrigation water under film. Prior to compaction of side parts in strips on surface of watered site, ameliorant is applied in them. Ameliorant is represented by particles of lignin.
EFFECT: technology makes it possible to expand functional capabilities of method by combination of watering operation with melioration.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes tillage of middle and compaction of side parts of strips in surface of watered site with their simultaneous coverage by synthetic film, supply of irrigation water under film. Prior to compaction of side parts in strips on surface of watered site, herbicide is applied in them. Herbicide is applied in the form of emulsion concentrate.
EFFECT: technology makes it possible to expand functional capabilities of method by combination of watering operation with suppression of weeds in rows of cultivated plants.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: dropper includes vessel with inlet and outlet nozzles. Vessel comprises locker element, entering outlet nozzle. In outlet channel of lower vessel part there is a drop feed controller. Drop feed controller consists of three composite parts. Upper conical part is a locker element. Average threaded part with thread pitch T is the channel for water passage. Lower part has a conical element with concave surface. Concave surface generatrix is arranged with gradual increase of angle and is described by the following equation: where R - radius of conical element base; α - final angle of tangent turn to generatrix curve, α<90°.
EFFECT: design makes it possible to improve efficiency of drop sprinkling and to improve reliability of dropper operation.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: dropper includes vessel with inlet and outlet nozzles and gasket. Foam rubber is placed inside dropper vessel. Foam rubber has a shape of cylinder with conical head. Top of conical head is oriented towards upper part of vessel to inlet nozzle. Output channel of lower part of vessel is arranged as telescopic with the possibility to mechanically measure length, so that internal output nozzle, deepening inside, presses foam rubber and changes flow of water dispensed by dropper.
EFFECT: design makes it possible to improve efficiency of drop sprinkling and to improve reliability of dropper operation.
3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes a pump, conducting and trunk hoses. Conducting hoses for plants with vertical architectonics are made in the form of interconnected hollow shields with tubes. The shields with tubes are mounted immediately adjacent to the south side of each row of plants strictly from west to east, perpendicular to the ground level or at an angle of 75-85° to the north. The height of the shield corresponds to the height of plants. The width of the shields is chosen arbitrarily. The surface of the shield is made of vertically corrugated, on the south side on the principle of a convex lens, on the north - on the principle of a concave lens. The surface of the shield is covered with a reflective material such as mirroring, and it is treated with antistatic. The reflective plates are attached to the lower edge of the shields to 1/5 of their height at an angle of not less than 45°. Reflective plates have a horizontal corrugation of the type of a convex lens. For plants with horizontal architectonics the reflecting and dissipating light structure is located above the plants and made in the form of rectangular cells. Rectangular cells are composed of longitudinally corrugated plates. Longitudinally corrugated plates are coated with a reflective material and treated with an antistatic. The longest sides of the cells are located from west to east.
EFFECT: design enables to improve crop yields, reduce the influence of hyper-and hypothermia in the process during the growing season, reduce the intensity of a solar flux at midday hours by better management of its distribution on the leaf surface.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for drop irrigation of farm crops.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has cylindrical casing with inlet and outlet openings. Cylindrical casing has threaded covers and body. Valve and elastic cuff are movably positioned inside cavity of cylindrical casing. Apparatus is further equipped with additional cuff. Main and additional cuffs are provided with orifices. Valve is made in the form of concavo-concave lens arranged in spherical belt. Valve is manufactured from material having density smaller than density of water, in particular, valve may be made from cork of 0.2-0.3 t/m3 density. Valve is arranged in casing between cuffs and is adapted for alternating contacting through cuffs with projections oppositely arranged inside casing cavity. Projections are made in the form of spherical segments, with radius of spheres of segments being smaller than radius of spheres of concavo-concave valve lens. Difference between radii of projection sphere and that of spheres of concavo-concave valve lens is equal to thickness of elastic cuffs. Channels on apexes of cover and casing projections are extending in radial direction toward inlet and outlet openings.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and enhanced reliability in operation.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: irrigation amelioration, in particular, drop irrigation equipment.
SUBSTANCE: injector has water outlet, porous casing with stopper at lower end and replaceable porous member positioned in casing and in stopper. Replaceable porous member is made in the form of parts of cylinder joined to one another with their diametrical surfaces. Channels are formed on cylindrical surface of each cylindrical part. Upon joining of cylindrical parts along cylinder, channels define vertical channels. Cylinder may have one, two or three detachment surfaces. Helical channels are formed on cylindrical parts of replaceable porous member. Helical channel pitches in parts of cylinder to be joined are not multiple one another. Water outlet is equipped with float valve arranged inside water outlet above pressure suppressing chamber. Stopper at lower end of porous casing is equipped with accumulating chamber.
EFFECT: increased efficiency owing to selective dispensing of water to plant roots.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: irrigated agriculture, in particular, equipment used for watering of perennial plants.
SUBSTANCE: dropper has casing and cover with inlet and outlet branch pipes, respectively, throttle and elastic balancing member with openings. Throttle is made in the form of hollow biconcave lens and positioned in casing cavity above elastic balancing member. Spherical segment-shaped slot is formed in cover body below inlet branch pipe. Radius of spherical part of said slot is equal to radius of throttle lens spherical part. Similar slot is formed in bottom part of casing above inlet branch pipe. Radius of said slot is greater than radius of spherical part of throttle biconcave lens part by value equal to thickness of balancing member. Channels are formed on casing bottom part surface and on slot surface to define spiral branches. Holes are made on peripheral part of elastic balancing member.
EFFECT: simplified construction and improved watering quality.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has casing equipped with inlet and outlet openings, main float-type regulating members and additional regulating member, said members being located inside casing. Main float-type regulating member is made as biconcave lens formed in spherical layer of waterproof material having density below 1 t/m3. Additional regulating member is made in the form of elastic membrane with central opening. Protrusions made as parts of spherical segments are disposed in casing cavity below inlet opening and above outlet opening. Radius of upper protrusion spherical part is equal to radius of spherical part of biconcave lens. Radius of lower protrusion spherical part is less than radius of spherical part of biconcave lens by value equal to thickness of elastic membrane. Radial channels are formed in apex part of lower protrusion. Apparatus provides for normal operation in the process of drop irrigation with water without preliminary cleaning thereof.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, uniform and high-quality irrigation.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, drop irrigation equipment.
SUBSTANCE: dropper has casing with inlet and outlet branch pipes. Float and locking member are located in casing. Hollow float is made in the form of biconvex lens. Slot is made in casing cavity of inlet branch pipe. Slot is formed as spherical segment with radius of sphere equal to or smaller than radius of sphere of float biconvex lens. Spherical segment shaped slot is formed in casing cavity of outlet branch pipe. Radius of sphere of said slot exceeds that of float biconvex lens. Locking member is defined by elastic membrane located in casing between float and outlet branch pipe. Inlet branch pipe and slot joined with membrane surface are equipped with radial channels. Dropper of such construction operates in any spatial position and does not require strict vertical positioning.
EFFECT: simplified construction and uniform and high-quality irrigation.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agricultural amelioration, in particular, drop irrigation equipment.
SUBSTANCE: dozer-dropper has plastoelastic valve provided in irrigation pipeline. Plastoelastic valve adapted for supplying of water into injector has detachable casing with water supply channel formed as helical groove with conical openings at its surface, said openings being adapted for connecting helical channel with casing outer surface. Diameter of conical opening joined with said channel is smaller than that at casing outer surface.
EFFECT: increased yield of farm crops and reduced irrigation norms.
FIELD: agricultural amelioration, in particular, subsurface irrigation equipment.
SUBSTANCE: injector has detachable casing with water feeding channel. Casing cavity is equipped with helical groove having conical openings on casing surface. Openings are hydraulically communicated with helical groove. Diameter of each of said openings joined with helical groove is smaller than that of outer surface of casing.
EFFECT: improved uniformity in distributing of precipitation in root layer of soil during the entire irrigation season.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular drop irrigation equipment.
SUBSTANCE: dropper has cover, casing, regulating member, and water outlet. Cover with feeding connection line is mounted on irrigation pipeline. Water outlet with discharge pipeline is mounted in lower part of casing. Cover with feeding connection pipe and water outlet with discharge pipe are equipped with flares arranged in opposite relation with respect to one another. Regulating member has flexible elastic membranes equipped with dosing orifices and float positioned for loose displacement between flexible membranes. Membranes are fixed in casing by means of threaded cover and water outlet.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and enhanced reliability in operation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, utilization in irrigated agriculture for drop irrigation of soil, preferably for tree seedlings.
SUBSTANCE: injector has porous casing with inlet and outlet openings and water outlet. Float-type regulating member arranged in water outlet is equipped with water locking valve arranged in its upper part. Air discharge valves are provided in upper part of water outlet above float-type regulating member. Openings of different depth are formed in porous casing. Said openings are extending in parallel with outlet opening, in ribs of ground engaging devices. Number of ribs of ground engaging devices exceeds two. Ribs have saw-shaped form.
EFFECT: provision for differentiated distribution of precipitation in accordance with amount of sucking roots of wood plantations in soil horizons.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: irrigation equipment, in particular, fine-dispersion or drop sprinkling equipment used in mobile and stationary sprinkler units for producing of sprays with droplet sizes admissible for irrigation of wide range of farm crops.
SUBSTANCE: sprinkler unit has hollow cylindrical casing with partition wall, wherein guiding rod is rigidly fixed centrally of partition wall. Conical deflector with curved grooves is fixed on guiding rod for displacement along it. Location of conical deflector in predetermined position on guiding rod is provided by means of adjustment nut which may is fixed by lock nut. In order to form uniform liquid film around perimeter of conical deflector, grooves are provided in such a manner that they do not reach edge by distance equal to width of casing outlet opening ring, when conical deflector is lifted to maximal extent. Fluoroplastic layer is built in friction surface of conical deflector.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in producing of finely dispersed uniform spray, simplified construction and enhanced reliability in operation.