Probe for collecting water samples from bottom sediments

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: probe is a sealed container which is connected by a conducting rope to a control unit and has a system of containers connected in parallel by hoses for gathering water samples and a sampling tube, one end of which is connected through an electromagnetic valve to a system of containers, and the second end of which has holes for inlet of void water and is fitted with a filter. The void water container is in form of syringes whose piston rods are locked by spring-loaded locks so as allow their unlocking and filling the syringes with water depending on the immersion horizon of the sampling tube in the sediments. The probe is fitted with a mechanism for immersion of the sampling tube and a system for monitoring its immersion depth in the sediments.

EFFECT: design of the sampling tube enables to increase the depth of water bodies from which samples can be collected in situ, increases efficiency and quality of the collected samples and cuts the time spent on collecting samples.

7 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of Oceanology, hydrochemistry, Geochemistry and ecology of water bodies, namely, devices for sampling of water contained in the bottom sediments of water (pore water), and can be used to obtain the primary material for analysis of chemical and microbiological composition of water, as well as to study the interaction of water masses with bottom sediments and the study of chemical reactions occurring in the sediments.

Unlike a large number of various devices for taking samples of bottom sediments or water with different horizons and depths, the number of devices for taking in situ water samples from the sediment is limited.

Know the use for collecting water samples from different horizons of sediments devices, which are tubes with devices to hold the penetrating vertical immersion of the tube in sediment soil (A.S. USSR №582473, IPC G01N 11/10). As such fixtures at the base of the tube set special valve, for example, made of a thin elastic metal plate, fixed fan-shaped around the circumference of the inside of the tube. Vertical immersion tube are carried out either by free fall or by using pneumothoraces. After lifting the receiver on the surface of the pond from it and vlekayut samples of bottom soil, and the subsequent selection of the pore water from the samples is carried out in laboratory conditions, for example, using vacuum tubes or syringes, each of which draws liquid from a certain area of the sample bottom (http://www.eijkelkamp.com/Products/Cataloguesection/tabid/76/CategoryID/20/List/1/Level/a/ProductID/102/Default.aspx).

A device for pumping water directly (in situ) from the sediment with one or more horizons (of the old Testament. U.S. No. 2006090894, IPC EV 49/08). The device consists of a camera with lots of tiny cylindrical samplers, vertically distributed with the possibility of horizontal movement relative to precipitation. The samplers provided with a hydrophilic microporous polymeric inserts with internal support wire-based stainless steel or plastic and are connected using PVC tubes with suction device, made in the form of a syringe or peristaltic pump. However, this device due to miniaturization allows you to explore high-resolution only a very small depth of the layer of bottom sediments.

Known PushPoint sampler (http://cluin.org/programs/21m2/sediment/#refs#refs), consisting of a cylindrical tube provided with a shielding plate, which is superimposed on the surface of the precipitation in the sampling point for prevented the I leakage in water sampler from covering the aqueous layer in the process of sampling. The sampler is equipped with a protective rod, which is placed in the tube during the dive it in precipitation to provide rigidity and prevent deformation of the tube, and a shielding plate. Cylindrical sampling tube is immersed in precipitation from the water surface so that the opposite submerged end of the tube above the water surface. After immersion of the sample tube to sediment to the desired depth of the protective rod from the tube is removed and the open end of the tube is connected with a hose with a peristaltic pump or syringe, by the selection of the pore water in the blood vessels, for example, in the boat.

A known system for sampling pore water Wat™ sampler (http://cluin.org/programs/21m2/sediment/#refs#refs), consisting of a device for collecting pore water and special tools for delivery of the collected water to the surface for subsequent analysis. Device for collecting pore water consists of a tip and casing, the top of which is closed with a disk containing the flexible valve. Pore water penetrates into the casing through the tip, if running it from a porous high-density polyethylene, if within the enclosure creates a vacuum. Or the lower part of the casing is equipped with a special insert in the form of a filter of porous polyethylene is esidency cylindrical metal shell, and a metal tip. When penetration of the tip into the sediments to the desired depth of the protective sheath is shifted, opening the filter through which pore water fills the casing. The tip in this case is to penetrate the dense precipitation. The delivery of selected pore water to the surface for subsequent analysis is performed with a special instrument containing vakuumirovaniya the vial, equipped with a tube with a valve and a two-edged needle, which is lowered to the set on the casing of the valve and simultaneously penetrates through the valve casing and the valve bubble, allowing the water to flow in vakuumirovaniya a vial for further analysis.

Also known multilevel sampler pore water permeable sediments (Jonathan C. Martin L, Kevin M. Hartl, D. Reide Corbett, Peter W. Swarzenski and Jaye E. Cable, "A multi-level pore-water sampler for permeable sediments", Journal of sedimentary research, vol.73, no.1, January, 2003, p.128-132), consisting of a PVC pipe with multiple inlet holes for sampling pore water, arranged in a spiral line around the pipe at certain distances from each other. To increase the area of selection of the pore water from the external side of the pipe is provided with grooves connected with the holes. Holes and grooves are covered with polypropylene mesh, which is pressed against the tube plate with Windows. Sampling holes is nabity thin PVC tubes, the upper ends of which are derived through the top hole of the main pipe and connected to the fittings of the hydraulic connector, and the lower ends attached to the outer surface of the carrier pipe around holes. Multilevel sampler is immersed in precipitation using pneumothoraces. Samples of pore water from different horizons of the sediment is pumped to the surface water body at the same time using peristaltic pumps, each of which is connected to the corresponding tube. Further preparation of samples for analyses performed by standard methods.

However, all these designs of devices for sampling pore water are operable only in the shallow water areas for two reasons:

for immersion of these devices in precipitation should force from the water surface or the work of the diver;

- receipt of pore water samples for subsequent analysis is performed on the thin hoses, placed on the surface of the reservoir using a peristaltic pump or by using a device for vacuum suction installed on the boats.

The closest analogue of the claimed device is a probe - Trident probe (p. U.S. No. 7711489, IPC G01N 15/08). The probe is a platform equipped with tubes, the upper ends of which are mounted on the platform. In the lower is their end openings of the tubes are mounted the required sensors, for example, temperature, conductivity, oxygen content, and others. End hole of one of the tubes is provided with a filter through which the pore water is diverted and flows through tubes in the tank, located in located on the surface of the reservoir container. The top platform has a pneumatic pusher, which allows you to implement all of the tubes in the studied sediments. For pneumatic pusher from the surface of the reservoir is supplied compressed air. The operation of the probe is carried out using a processor.

The depth of water that can be used to probe the Trident probe, increase compared with working depths above devices due to the ability to remote control the process of immersion of the probe in precipitation, but the depth is still limited to a few tens of meters, as the accumulation of the sample pore water for analysis occurs on the surface of a pond, and with increasing depth of the reservoir, the time of receipt of the pore water at the surface increases so that it exceeds the time intervals of the studied phenomena.

Object of the invention is the design of the sampler, which allows to increase the depth of water where possible the sampling of the pore water in the "in situ", i.e. directly from d is the R precipitation, improving the efficiency and quality of sampling by reducing losses during sampling and pore water ingress from adjacent horizons, as well as reducing the time taken to obtain the sample.

The problem is solved by the probe for sampling water from the sediment, consisting of a control unit, connected via a cable with a sealed container containing a system of at least two parallel-connected hoses containers for collecting water samples and the sample tube, one end of which is connected through a solenoid valve with a set of tanks, and the other end is made with holes for receipt of the pore water and are equipped with a filter, with capacity for pore water in the form of syringes, piston rods are locked spring-loaded clamps in such a way as to ensure their unlocking and filling syringes depending on horizon immersion of the sample tube in precipitation, and the probe is equipped with a mechanism immersion of the sample tube and tracking the depth of its immersion in precipitation.

The number of pairs of containers for collection of pore water samples is arbitrary and is determined by the objective of the study, the number of horizons, which must be sampled, and the required sample volume.

The tracking system depth of the immersion of the sample tube in precipitation can be performed, for example, in the form of a television or video camera with illuminator attached to the container of the probe so that the field of view of the camera were the markings pre-applied on the lateral surface of the tube. Luggage if necessary, can be used for selection of sampling pore water. The tracking system can be performed also in the form of the corresponding pressure sensor.

The mechanism of immersion of the sample tube can be performed, for example, in the form of any shock vibrator device and may be located outside of the container on the lid, and inside it on its base.

The container may optionally be provided with temperature sensors, and/or conductivity and/or oxygen content.

In Fig. presents one of the possible schemes of the proposed probe, where 1 is the sample tube; 2 - hole for the flow of the pore water; 3 - filter; 4 - solenoid valve; 5 - hose to connect the syringes; 6 - syringes; 7 - spring-loaded latches; 8 - pressure sensor; 9 - stoppers full stroke of the rod of the syringe with limit switches; 10 - connector connecting the electrical components of the pressurized container through the cable 11 to the control unit (Fig. not shown); 12 - case hermetic container; 13 - mechanism dive.

The probe operates as follows.

The container 12 is lowered in the ode to touch the bottom of the sampling tube 1. The moment of a contact record or a video camera (Fig. not shown), or in its absence is determined by a sharp decrease in the tension of the cable 11.

The sample tube 1 is buried in the sediments to the desired depth using an immersion mechanism 13 that is included with the remote control unit via a cable 11. When the tube 1 of the first horizon sampling with block control signal for opening the electromagnetic valve 4, and the water through the hose 5 is supplied in a hermetically sealed container to the syringe 6. The flow of pore water from sediments in syringes reduced pressure in an airtight container in relation to the sampling point in the thickness of sediment that occurs automatically due to the fact that the sealing of the container is carried out over the surface of the water before diving. Coming through the hose 5 pore water pressure on the pistons of the syringes 6, and through the rods this pressure is transmitted to the spring-loaded clamps 7. The force required to disrupt the latch 7, permitting movement of the syringe plunger and, consequently, its filling with water, pre-set experimentally so that for each successive squirt the value of the effort was more than the previous. This achieves a certain sequence of filling of syringes and compliance of each pair of syringes definition is by the depth of sampling. Sequential filling of at least two syringes on the same horizon allows you to remove residual water from the previous horizon in the first syringe and thereby increase the purity of the samples in the second on each horizon. The content of each syringe is limited by the stoppers 9, which rest against the rod during its movement in the filling process. The stoppers 9 are equipped with limit switches, which on the remote control unit receives signals about the filling of syringes. When receiving, for example, each of the second signal from the limit switches, the control unit generates a pulse for closing the electromagnetic valve 4 and the sample tube 1 is buried for the selection of the next sample to the next horizon turning on the immersion mechanism 13.

Thus, implementation of the proposed probe in one sealed container, equipped with both a mechanism dives and sampling tube, and original collection of water samples, and the absence of long routes for delivery of water samples in the vessel, allows to increase the depth of water where possible the sampling of the pore water in the "in situ", to improve the efficiency and quality of sampling by reducing losses during sampling and pore water ingress from adjacent horizons, as well as significantly reduce the time spent by the second to obtain samples from greater depths.

1. Probe for sampling water from the sediment, including a control unit connected by a cable with a sealed container containing a system of at least two parallel-connected hoses containers for collecting water samples and sampling tube, one end of which is connected through a solenoid valve with a set of tanks, and the other end is made with holes for receipt of the pore water and are equipped with a filter, with capacity for pore water in the form of syringes, piston rods are locked spring-loaded clamps in such a way as to ensure their unlocking and filling water syringes, depending on the horizon dip sampling tube in precipitation, and the probe is equipped with a mechanism immersion of the sample tube and tracking the depth of its immersion in precipitation.

2. The probe according to claim 1, characterized in that the immersion mechanism made in the form of shock-vibratory device.

3. The probe according to claim 1, characterized in that the immersion mechanism is located outside of the container on the cover or inside the container on its base.

4. The probe according to claim 1, wherein the sample tube provided on the outer side of the layout.

5. The probe according to claim 4, characterized in that the system is tracking the depth of immersion of the sample tube in precipitation is the Oh TV or video camera with illuminator attached to the container of the probe so that the field of view of the camera was the layout of the sampling tube.

6. The probe according to claim 1, characterized in that the system is tracking the depth of immersion of the sample tube in precipitation in the form of a pressure sensor.

7. The probe according to claim 1, characterized in that the container is further provided with temperature sensors, and/or conductivity and/or oxygen content.



 

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