Coverage for greenhouse

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to coverage for a greenhouse or similar fabrics, designed essentially for horizontal application and for the temperature stratification of the air space under the roof of the greenhouse. The invention also relates to the method for manufacturing of this coating. The coverage contains meshes of sheet material that are joined together back to back, or overlay with sewn threads in the longitudinal and transverse directions, which form a network, at least on one side of the sheet material.

EFFECT: implementation prevents execution of drops of condensation, provides energy saving.

8 cl, 2 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a covering for greenhouses or similar materials, which are designed for horizontal on the merits of the application and for the temperature stratification of the air space under the roof of the greenhouse, and which prevent the formation of droplets due to condensation. The invention also relates to a method for production of the coating.

Coverings for greenhouses, known as "tissue" and designed to save energy and provide shade from strong solar radiation, known for many years. They mainly include the following types:

- woven or knitted items, consisting of strips of film, sheet material or sheet laminate;

- textile products in the form of woven, knitted or non-woven products, and

- plastic sheet material, plastic sheet laminate or aluminium laminate.

Most coatings available on the market over the last 10-20 years for the construction of large commercial greenhouses were made from strips of sheet material. Although these products are relatively well developed and currently meet most of the requirements of their intended functions, there is room for improvement.

In recent years, the market and the needs have changed due to the rapidly increasing energy prices, which led to the creation of greenhouses, among other things, the vegetable is th, the need to invest in the fabric of the greenhouses, to the situation, which means that coverage for greenhouses is now subject to other requirements that differ from those of, for example, to pot crops or flowers here were the main consumers of this technology.

Vegetable crops occupy a very large area, for example, several hundred thousand square meters. They require the greatest possible access of light in the daytime (loss of 1% of the light means the loss of 1% productivity and, thus, a loss of 1% of net profit), which entails the need for fabric greenhouses do not become dirty, which is impossible to avoid, therefore, they must be frequently replaced, which is a problem of price. Therefore, there is a need in the tissue of the greenhouse, which is less expensive and does not allow deterioration of characteristics such as energy saving, prevention of condensation droplets and the drape of the fabric.

Component of the fabric should be performed with the highest possible permeability for light, except when we need a certain shading effect, such as in areas with excessive solar radiation. What, therefore, preferably is a flexible but simple product and its manufacturing process.

Vegetable crops generate large ve is icine humidity, which should be properly addressed. In most cases, there is a constant risk of condensation on the tissues of the greenhouses. Even a small formation of droplets of the coating is unacceptable as water vapor must be able to pass through the fabric without moving large quantities of air from the bottom side of the fabric on the top side of the fabric and in the opposite direction (convection). Therefore, the desired stratification of the air in the greenhouse, with cloth or floor separating the layers.

The wet environment and the poor insulation of greenhouses, however, make it impossible to fully prevent condensation on the fabric. Thus, it is important that the fabric had a function that can resolve the situation with temporary condensation using capillary binding and transfer from the lower side to the upper side or by using the dispersion of local condensation, preventing, thus, the appearance of drops.

Another common problem is the formation of algae, which appear when the fabric shrinks, being wet, and there is no possibility to dry. Thus, it is important that the moisture gathered on the surfaces until the last possible moment and are unable to penetrate tissue.

A large amount of vegetable greenhouses imposes certain requirements in order to be able to manipulate the cloth, not the damage of the Daya her, not least when it is installed. The fabric should be durable and absolutely not susceptible to shrinkage. At a length of 300 m, the normal and maximum tolerance for shrinkage is 1-2 dm.

An important factor is the ability to drape and to compress the fabric into a small narrow "bunch"when not in use. This applied force, and any rough handling of cloth can easily lead to damage to the strips of sheet material. If the fabric shrinks even with only minor excessive force, the result may be bending and twisting lanes. Even if this occurs only one time, the fabric can no longer be repaired and must be replaced.

Coverage for greenhouses, known from the patent application DD 254964, intended for hanging parallel to the roof of the greenhouse, but absolutely unsuitable for horizontal suspension that could cause pockets for water. Mentioned greenhouses typically have wider spans the distance between the eaves between 16 and 20 m the resulting large values of the height to the roof ridge are most often found, for example, in the Nordic countries, Germany and Italy.

The coating consists of a reflective sheet material, which is hardcoded in the system of elastic threads of the longitudinal fibers with perekryvaya the UIS with them transverse threads which so strongly tightened during production, when the thread returns to its unstretched position, the protective coating between the threads forming longitudinal channels, the aim of which is moisture which accumulates on the upper side of the sheet material. Perforation created using a sewing needle, located on the upper edges of the channels, which means that the protective coating can form a bag-like sagging, which can accumulate moisture. This is absolutely unacceptable, as it could lead to excessive deformation and damage to structures during putting on and taking off with his sheet material.

The protective coating could also quickly become "loose" and not to be smooth, resulting in a smaller energy saving and the larger sizes "link in draped condition.

On the lower side sheet material has only a small number of threads, which do not fully meet the requirements for interaction with the condensate, which can be produced there. The humidity in most cases is in the range between 75 and 90 percent, and the protective coating will usually have a temperature in the range between the respective temperatures of the air above it and below it, which entails a constant risk that the temperature is below the condensation temperature. The transverse filament, mounted in the longitudinal threads, located on the upper side of the sheet material at a sufficient distance between them (30 mm), do not contribute to the transfer of moisture. The same applies also to the longitudinal strands that are on the lower side of the sheet material does not have a reciprocal link and have up to 25 mm distance between them. Because the protective coating forms a channel, the condensate will be moved to the lowest point, where it quickly forms a falling drop. Greenhouses, where the floor repeats the roof, they can hardly be considered successful and no longer used to any appreciable extent as for vegetable crops.

The so-called greenhouse "Venlo", developed in the Netherlands in the 1960's to the 1980's, was the distance between the eaves from 3.0 to 3.6 meters They were relatively low, with the side walls to a height of approximately 2.5 to 3.0 m, and was used mainly in countries without extreme temperatures, mainly for vegetable crops. Advantages of the design Venlo are the low cost of production, in that it consists of a small number of metal parts, uses glass as the supporting member, and the low cost of their erection. Sections are included and can thus be a large area, for example, 10000 square meters or more under the roof.

Since the late 1980's further development of Venlo greenhouses continued. It was found that their height can be increased from 3.6 to 5.5 m, and they can be equipped with a more narrow and transparent barriers that let in more light, but with the disadvantage that you may have to deal with condensation.

High energy prices require the greatest possible energy savings, it means that the installation with floor must have the smallest possible surface area and be placed horizontally. It should also be as flat as possible to minimize energy loss, and to form a shifted position of the smallest possible "bunch"to minimize loss of light.

The objective of the invention is to provide a cover for the greenhouse, which is quite dense, but allows water vapor and small quantities of moisture to pass through it, thus, evaporation can occur freely, and pockets for water will not be formed at the same time, it is dense enough to prevent convection currents in the greenhouse.

This is achieved by using:

a) many essentially dimensionally stable cell of sheet material arranged with abutting one another and made of thin, flexible, waterproof plastic, plastic laminate or metal laminate fabric with high resistivity what tulemast tensile strain and high tensile strength;

b) textile yarn, sewn with close set of the needles through the holes created by the needles in the grid sheet material, forming a grid on both sides of the sheet material;

c) wreaths on the lower side of the sheet material, existing in the form of a network of filaments bonded together in both longitudinal and transverse directions;

d) filaments having good properties of capillary moisture transfer;

e) perforations created using needles protective coating, adapted for insertion in these threads;

f) mutually adjacent cells of sheet material connected with one another via this network of filaments, cells, overlapping or placed back to back, or joints, sealed with overlapping strips of sheet material.

A new coating in accordance with the present invention makes it possible to use, as a base material, a protective coating that is waterproof, but which after the application of the network of filaments is vapour permeable, and which to a limited degree also allows small amounts of moisture to pass through it. The use of needles of different thickness at different distances between them gives the possibility to control the migration of moisture through the protective coating. The production is not Tr is required to rigid specifications for sheet material provided he is quite busy and moldable, and highly stable to UV radiation. This makes it possible to use raw materials, which has a high degree of resistance to deformation stretching and tearing and better against radiation and for the price, than the fabric used in the bands of tissue protective coating. The result is more energy saving and more favorable price situation.

New technology makes it possible to use very transparent (translucent) plastic and create an effective network of fibers with capillary effect, which at the same time allows for maximum light penetration. If in some cases require a certain shading effect, it can be achieved through the use of scattering, white or other reflective sheet material. Special requirements specific gardeners can be satisfied by applying the protective coating of additional coverage, for example, aluminum. In the protective coating of the fabric in the form of strips necessary to ensure that the band stayed together and were quite durable, which generally provides the best translucent.

As mentioned above, the new coating makes it easy to change punch and density of holes. It is also possible to further increase the permeability DL the vapors without any perceptible increase in convection, leaving narrow gaps between the cells in the sheet material. Unlike sheet material from a fabric in the form of strips, the permeability remains constant, since this is achieved through small holes. In the protective coating of the fabric in the form of strips strip easily dislodged or bent, causing unwanted gaps, and thus, decreases the energy saving and the possibility of uneven climatic conditions.

The transfer of moisture between the bottom side and the top side is a capillary way along the thread, which passes through openings in a protective plastic coating. This configuration also does not allow the holes to block the drops of moisture that could reduce the migration of moisture. More or less extensive network of threads will affect the capillary transfer or binding moisture. As a network of elastic fibres is relatively free, from the point of view of strength, it can also be optimized.

A new "floor" consists of two sides, top and bottom, which means that moisture is sent (transferred) to one side or the other side with the help of a thread and, thus, there's nothing that would prevent its evaporation. In contrast, the protective covering of fabric in stripes usually consists of leaves, kotorayaraspolagaetsya one on top of another and bind moisture between them, that usually leads to the appearance of algae.

For reasons of production technology, the protective coating may be made of a width of 2 m, but the final product should have a width of from 5 to 6 M. the cells of sheet material, therefore, must be connected together, which is predominantly implemented using a technique known as "welding binding, while the protective coating provides most of the strength and thread limits of its elasticity. This is important when the cell length up to 300 m should be stretched without damage to the supporting wire in greenhouses.

In contrast, the protective coating of fabrics in stripes, even when it is moved with the utmost care, often receives damage in the form of bending of the bands and small wear, defective welds, and so forth. In this respect, a new technology has much to offer, especially where the protective coating has to be frequently changed. The labor cost is also high, when the work is to be performed in the greenhouse.

Shrinkage of a wide network of sheet material is easier to control than for the narrow strips of the coating in the production stage. The stitched strip of sheet material is always returned to its original state. In this case, even a small shrinkage of 1% is totally unacceptable, giving in the amount of d is 3 m to 300 m

A new cover, in principle, is made of thin flexible plastic sheet material, which may be drape, fold several times and very much compressed, never breaking with this motion. The layer of filaments is on the upper side and are completely immune to damage.

When the fabric has served its time and needs to be replaced, a composite protective coating should be preferred with respect to the strips of sheet material, which is often so weakened that she was falling apart.

As mentioned earlier, the new coating consists of multiple cells of sheet material, each of a width up to 2.5 m, which are mainly bonded together using one type of network of filaments, which provides capillary moisture transfer through the protective coating. Cells mostly overlap one another or are arranged end-to-end, with threads as a connecting link of honey in them, so the finished product was required width. Production can also be carried out using the so-called "welding binding depending on the task. In addition, the leaves and the network of filaments attached to them, ensure the stability of the shape using heat-setting.

The invention is illustrated in the drawings.

Figure 1 shows several at elicina form part of a covering for a greenhouse according to the invention.

Figure 2 shows schematically the cut parts of sewing and knitting machines, which are mentioned in the context.

Machine used to apply technology, in principle, known as the modified sewing and knitting machine, the same as is used, for example, to stitch together the fibrous tissue, such as fibrous fleece.

The labels used on the drawings, as follows:

1 - one of a long series of adjacent working grooved needles stitch-bonding type with sharp end, which moves forward and back in its longitudinal direction and thus extend through the protective coating 2.

2 - protective coating is fed into the machine.

3 is the first thread guide (there is one for each needle 1), which moves the thread 5 in the transverse direction, left and right alternately.

4 - the second thread guide, which makes only the transverse connection between the stitch loops on one side of the sheet material.

5 - thread in the first thread guide 3, which is constantly forming stitches.

6 - hook, located on the front end of the working needle 1.

7 - foot, which closes the hook 6 on the front side of the needle 1.

8 - the last stitch completed.

9 - thread in the second thread guide 4.

10 is a retaining pin that provides resistance when the and the working needle 1 is going to flash protective coating 2, and that ensures that the working needle is not picked up the previous stitch together with the execution of the next stitch.

11 is a block dropping platinum, which provides resistance when the next stitch is going to go through the previous stitch.

12 - ready protective coating (Coating) leaves the machine.

During reciprocating movement of the working needle 1 penetrate the protective coating 2, when they move from right to left (as shown in the drawing), and a short stop at the far left, at this stage all nataprawira 3 and 4 are located above the respective working needles 1. Each thread guide 3 produces rotary motion in the direction, which corresponds to the separation distance, and then turns downwards and has a thread 5 in the hook 6 of the respective working needle 1.

Working needle 1 is served back (to the right in the drawing), and the 7 foot for each needle closes the corresponding hook 6 so that the thread 5 remained closed in the hook 6, but so that the previous stitch 8 can slide on the end of the working needle 1, thereby creating a new stitch yarn 5, when the needle 1 reaches its extreme right position.

While the needles 1 are in the extreme right position, each thread guide 4 performs horizontal movement on a one-to-three separator is s distance, thus, forming by stitching with thread 9 horizontal connection on the bottom side of the sheet material 2. In this case, the corresponding thread guide 3 can also perform cross movement, preferably in a direction opposite to the thread guide 4 to form a stronger network of filaments that are better with capillary perspective. Fig. 1 represents the threads 5 and 9 on the bottom side of the sheet material 2 as continuous and discontinuous lines respectively, while the threads 5 represented by dash-dotted lines with double points and placed in position with the help of nataprawira 3, are arranged on the upper side sheet material.

The capacity of absorption of moisture can be adapted to the prevailing conditions, such as climate, crops, and so forth, through the use of working needles 1 and twine of different thickness. Holes created with needles 1, each forms a slit that opens when the needle passes through the opening, and closes around the stretched filament. Protective coating, therefore, must have sufficient flexibility and elasticity.

Was not absolutely clear, as detail is the transfer of moisture through the protective coating.

Condensation occurs on the inner side of the sheet material is intercepted ka is yearnin way through a network of threads and moves across as, and vertically upward through the holes.

Vapor pressure less often on the upper side sheet material than on the bottom, due to the ventilation holes in the roof of the greenhouse. Ventilation above the protective coating does not cool significantly the internal space of the greenhouse, as the protective coating prevents convection currents.

The steam pressure may be less than on the upper side of the sheet material, since the temperature there is below, usually at 5-15C than in the greenhouse.

Both the above-mentioned example, encourage the moisture to evaporate from the sheet material and condense back inside the glass roof of the greenhouse, which leads to further migration and evaporation.

Water vapor may also be transferred directly in the form of steam through the holes in the fabric and to condense directly on the glass or be removed through ventilation.

All these principles are, of course, are more or less at the same time. Numerous variations from the point of view of weather, temperature and humidity in the greenhouse and their rapid changes lead to the emergence of many possible combinations.

1. Coverage for greenhouses or the like for horizontal applications, essentially, and for the temperature stratification of the air space under the roof of the greenhouse, and such, which prevents the formation of drops from condensation contains:
a. many essentially non-shrink mutually adjacent cells of sheet material (2)made of thin, flexible, waterproof plastic, plastic laminate or similar fabric with a high coefficient of resistance tensile strain and tensile strength,
b. textile yarns (5, 9), which through a close set of needles (1) are stitched through the holes created by the needle in the form of a network on a sheet material, which leads to the formation frayed on the bottom side and the upper side of the sheet material,
C. a grid on the underside of sheet material, designed as a network of filaments that are connected together in both longitudinal and transverse directions, at least on the lower side of the sheet material,
d. threads that have good quality and composition for capillary moisture transfer,
e. perforation created with needles (1) protective coating, adapted for making threads on the inside of the protective coating, and
f. mutually adjacent cells of sheet material that are attached one to another by using the specified string network with cells of sheet material, overlapping, placed back to back, or joints, sealed with overlapping strips of sheet material.

2. Covering for a greenhouse according to claim 1, in which each sheet has the Irina not more than 2.5 m

3. Covering for a greenhouse according to claim 1 or 2, in which shading is achieved by using a scattering of white or any other reflective sheet material.

4. Covering for a greenhouse according to claim 1 or 2, in which at least one sheet provided with a coating, for example, aluminum.

5. Covering for a greenhouse according to claim 1 or 2, in which the cells of sheet material joined together by welding the stitching.

6. Covering for a greenhouse according to claim 1, in which the leaves and the network of filaments attached to them, ensure the stability of the shape using heat-setting.

7. The method of obtaining coverage for greenhouses or the like according to claim 1, comprising the following stages:
a. many essentially non-shrink mutually adjacent cells of sheet material (2)made of thin, flexible, waterproof plastic, plastic laminate or metal laminate fabric with high resistance to tensile strain and tensile strength, stitched with thread systems;
b. system threads consists of textile yarns (5, 9), which have the quality and composition required for capillary transfer of moisture, and which through close set of needles (1) stitch through the holes created by the needles in the network sheet material, which leads to the formation frayed on top the second side and the lower side of the sheet material;
c. the grid on the lower side of the sheet material to perform as a network of filaments that are connected together in the longitudinal and in the transverse direction, at least on this side of the sheet material;
d. threads enter into the perforations created by the needle in the protective coating, and
that is, the mutually adjacent cells of sheet material connected one to another using a specified network of filaments, cells of sheet material, overlapping, placed back to back, or joints, sealed with overlapping strips of sheet material.

8. The method according to claim 7, in which the leaves and the grid of threads attached to them, ensure the stability of the shape using heat-setting.



 

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