Method of producing ammonia

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry. Natural gas is compressed, heated and purified from sulphur compounds in a radial-spiral reactor. Two-step catalytic conversion of methane under pressure is carried out in a radial-spiral reactor which is divided into two sections. Steam conversion is carried out in the first section at temperature 800 - 1000C using heat from the gas which is converted at the second step, as well as portions of natural gas, blow-off and flash gases additionally burnt at a burner. The temperature of flue gases after the burner is kept in the range of 900-1100C by recycling a portion of cooled flue gases with mixture thereof with air fed into the burner. The mixture of gases fed into the burner is first heated using heat from flue gases from the first section. Air-steam conversion is carried out in the second section at 900-1400C. Heat of the converted gas is used to heat the initial natural gas and generate steam. Catalytic conversion of carbon oxide is carried out in a single step in the radial-spiral reactor at temperature 200-220C, which is maintained via water evaporation cooling. The nitrogen-hydrogen mixture is cleaned from carbon dioxide and oxygen-containing compounds in the radial-spiral reactor, compressed and fed for ammonia synthesis into the radial-spiral reactor.

EFFECT: cost effectiveness and ecological cleanness.

6 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to processes of chemical technology, and in particular to methods of production of ammonia from natural gas (GHG)emissions, and can be used in the chemical and petrochemical industries.

A method of obtaining ammonia from hydrocarbons, water vapor, air and oxygen, including cleaning of the raw material from sulfur compounds, processoriomodule catalytic conversion of methane in the mine Converter, the conversion of carbon monoxide, treatment received nitric mixture from oxygen-containing compounds, compression, synthesis of ammonia in a closed loop (Handbook of apothica. - M, Chemistry, 1967, vol. 1, p.95-98, 211, 366).

The main disadvantage of this method is the use of technical oxygen when carrying out the conversion of methane that result in high capital and energy costs on the oxygen installation.

There is also known a method of producing ammonia from GHG providing cleaning GHG emissions from sulfur compounds, two-stage steam (I stage) and vapor (stage II) conversion of PG, respectively, in the tubular furnace and in the shaft reactor, two-step conversion of carbon monoxide, cleaning converted gas from carbon dioxide, mahanirvana oxide and carbon dioxide, the compression ratio of nitric mixture, the synthesis of ammonia at pressures above 30 MPa Handbook of apothica. - M, Chemistry, 1986, vol. 1, s, 84, 113, 213, 222, 360-364).

The main disadvantages of this method are the following:

- steam GHG conversion is carried out in a tubular furnace, which is characterized by large size and intensity, as well as lack of reliability associated with frequent burning of the reaction tubes, in spite of the use for the manufacture of expensive heat-resistant Nickel alloys;

for air conversion GHG used mine the reactor, which is characterized by a large hydraulic resistance, the uneven distribution of the reagents in the granular layer of the catalyst, and the uneven temperature distribution along the height and the cross section of the apparatus;

for the placement of a tubular furnace and shaft reactor requires a large production area;

- carrying out catalytic conversion of PG as a series of two devices is accompanied by great losses of heat directly from the devices and connecting them "hot" pipe through which the partially converted gas from the furnace is served in the shaft of the Converter;

- synthesis of ammonia at high pressure (above 30 MPa) is associated with high capital costs and with a high consumption of energy to drive the compressors.

Known also most similar to that proposed is the procedure and adopted as a prototype method for producing ammonia from a hydrocarbon feedstock, water vapor and air, including compression and purification of raw materials from sulfur compounds, steam and air-steam catalytic conversion of methane, the conversion of carbon monoxide, treatment received nitric mixture from oxygen-containing compounds, compression, synthesis of ammonia in a closed loop, the use of untreated from the sulphur content of the feedstock as fuel, waste heat of flue gas (DG) and their secretion into the environment; the distinctive feature of this method is that a minor portion of hydrocarbons, last clearing of sulfur compounds, is burned in a mixture with compressed air, and the resulting DG serves on vapor catalytic conversion methane (patent RU No. 2196733, M CL SS 1/04, publ. 20.01.2003, bull. No. 2). As follows from the examples in the patent, provides for the synthesis of ammonia at a pressure of 33.5 MPa.

The disadvantages of the method are as follows:

as fuel use, raw materials, purified from sulfur compounds, which leads to the release into the environment together with DG sulfur dioxide;

- the burning of hydrocarbons, last clearing of sulfur compounds in a mixture with compressed air, and filing DG obtained by vapor catalytic conversion of methane leads to more complicated and expensive installation;

- synthesis of ammonia at high pressure (in excess of 33.5 MPa) associated with higher capital costs and with a high consumption of energy to drive the compressor;

- advantages of the method is quite insignificant as stated in the patent, compared to adopted in the prototype, the number of gas emissions are reduced only by 0.18%, and the consumption of hydrocarbons is reduced only by 0.12%.

The task of the invention is to increase the efficiency of obtaining ammonia.

Object of the invention is the reduction of metal separate circuit elements and installation of ammonia production as a whole;

The invention is also reducing the number of DG emitted into the atmosphere;

Object of the invention is the elimination or minimization of harmful emissions (CO and NOx) in the environment with the exhaust DG.

This object is achieved in that in the method of production of ammonia from natural gas, including compression, heating and cleaning of natural gas from sulfur compounds, two-stage catalytic conversion of methane under pressure, including steam conversion in the first stage and the vapor conversion in the second stage, using the heat of the gas that is converted in the second stage, and additionally burned in the burner h is tis natural gas, purge and gas tank for carrying out the conversion in the first stage of the conversion process, catalytic conversion contained in the converted gas of carbon monoxide with obtaining nitric mixture, purification from carbon dioxide purification from oxygen-containing compounds by mahanirvana, compressing the purified nitric mixture, the synthesis of ammonia in a closed loop and the selection of the obtained ammonia with subsequent delivery to the consumer, and waste heat recovery of DG and their secretion into the environment, according to the invention includes the following:

- two-stage conversion of natural gas is carried out in one, divided into two sections of the reactor radial-spiral type, with the process of steam reforming in the first section at a temperature of 800-1000C and air conversion in the second section at a temperature of 900-1400C;

catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide is carried out at a temperature of 200-220C in one step in the reactor radial-spiral type, and the desired temperature of the process is supported by a water evaporative cooling with the issuance of commodity saturated vapor to the consumer;

- cleaning of natural gas from sulfur compounds, purification of nitric mixture from oxygen-containing compounds and the synthesis of ammonia is carried out in reactors glad the socio-spiral type;

- the temperature of the DG after burner before the first section of the reactor the conversion of natural gas maintained within the range of 900-1100C with recirculation of part of the cooled DG by adding them to the air supplied to the burner;

- heat the converted gas is used for heating source natural gas before desulfurization and for generating steam, which is then channelled to conduct steam and steam-reforming of natural gas, and the heat DG after the first section of the reactor the conversion of natural gas used for preheating supplied to the burner mixture of air cooled diesel generator, tank vents and gases;

- synthesis of ammonia is carried out at a pressure of 12 to 18 MPa;

as fuel gas for combustion to the burner serves natural gas, free from sulfur compounds;

- burning fuel, vent and gas tank before the first stage reactor reforming of natural gas is carried out on the burner flameless type;

in the heat recovery process DG by preheating supplied to the burner mixes air cooled DG, purge and fuel gases, DG cooled to a temperature of 70-80C, after which they before discharge into the environment Doklady the coolant from an external source into the end of the heat exchanger to a temperature of 30-50C, and the image is decomposing water condensate sephirot and sent to a water treatment plant;

- the processes of recovery and utilization of heat technology and energy flows environments, as well as heat from the working environments coolants from external sources is carried out mainly in heat exchangers radial-spiral type.

The proposed method has several significant advantages compared with the known technical solutions, including:

1) Conduct a two-stage steam and air-steam catalytic conversion of GHGs in one two-reactor radial-spiral type instead of two devices (tubular furnace and shaft reactor) allows to reduce the dimensions, required production area and heat loss (in particular, by eliminating the "hot" pipe), and reduce the metal cost of the conversion block PG.

2) the Use of the reactor radial-spiral type with water evaporative cooling for catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide gives the possibility to carry out the process in one step with a stable optimal temperature conversion and more complete utilization of heat converted gas.

3) the Use of reactors radial-spiral type for purification of natural gas from sulfur compounds, purification of nitric mixture from oxygen-containing compounds, ammonia synthesis, as well as for kata is eticheskikh processes in other stages of implementation of the method provides an efficient supply of heat directly into the reaction zone in an endothermic catalytic processes and heat directly from the reaction zone when the exothermic catalytic processes by maintaining an optimal temperature throughout the path of the reactants, and also allows the use of fine-grained catalyst at low pressure loss of the reactants passing through the granular layer; and the use of fine-grained catalysts significantly reduces the intensity and dimensions of vehicles.

4) Carrying out the processes of supply and dissipation of internal heat recovery, and when the heat transfer to external sources of heat exchangers radial-spiral type can significantly intensify heat transfer, reduce the pressure loss of the working environments, but also the weight and dimensions of vehicles.

5) Because of the high waste heat recovery converted gas and DG is a significant reduction of GHG emissions as fuel and the amount of DG, and therefore greenhouse gases discharged into the environment; this increases the yield of the final product - ammonia per unit consumed PG.

6) using a recirculation portion of the cooled DG by adding them to the air supplied to the burner, ensure that the temperature of DG for the burner before the first stage reactor conversion of GHGs in the range 900-1100C, thereby avoiding the formation in the combustion process and emissions from DG in the environment is harmful impurities (CO and NOx).

7) Thanks to the use as a fuel gas GHG purified from sulfur compounds, no release into the environment DG of sulfur dioxide.

8) Through the use of flameless burner type provides stable combustion process, despite the low content of oxygen in the mixture of air and recirculated DG supplied to the burner.

9) Reducing the pressure at which in the closed cycle is the synthesis of ammonia, up to 12-18 MPa can significantly reduce the capital cost of the installation, as well as the energy consumption for compression of nitric mixture.

10) Cooling DG in the process of internal heat recovery to a temperature of 70-80C and subsequent dokladnie them into the end of the heat exchanger by the coolant from an external source to a temperature of 30-50C before being discharged into the environment allows us to distinguish and to separate a significant amount of condensate, which is then channelled to the water treatment plant.

Below the invention is illustrated specific embodiments thereof and the attached drawing, which shows a schematic diagram of ammonia production from natural gas (GHG)emissions.

Marked the following elements:

1 - gas compressor; 2 - air compressor; 3 - heat exchanger; 4 - block desulfurization; 5 - catalytic reactor conversing; 6 and 7, respectively I and II section of the reactor 5 GHG conversion; 8 and 9 - radial-spiral heat exchange surfaces; 10 - channel convertible gas; 11 - channel converted gas; 12 - burner; 13 - steam boiler; 14 - catalytic reactor for the conversion of carbon monoxide; 15 - heater; 16 - heater vent and tank gases; 17 - water cooler; 18 - separator; 19-smoke exhauster; 20 - fan; 21 - cleaning unit ABC of carbon dioxide; the 22 - unit mahanirvana; 23 - the compressor ABC; 24 - Department of ammonia synthesis; 25 - a collection of liquid ammonia; 26 - site water treatment; 27 and 28 water pumps; 29-47 - line approach-retraction production environments.

Natural gas (GHG) with a pressure of 0.4 MPa is supplied to the gas compressor 1, which is compressed to a pressure of 4 MPa with increasing temperature up to 145C, is heated in the heat exchanger 3 to a temperature of 340C converted by the gas flowing through the line 29 from the reactor 5, and fed into the desulfurization unit 4. Then PG, purified from sulfur compounds, is divided into two streams: the first stream is mixed with saturated water steam entering through line 30 from the recovery boiler 13, after which the resulting mixture through line 31 is drawn to section 6 of the reactor 5, where the first stage catalytic conversion PG - steam conversion.

The second thread PG purified from sulfur compounds, sums up what I in line 32 for combustion to the burner 12. Gas converted in section 6, with a temperature of 900C on the channel 10 is fed into the upper cavity section 7 of the reactor 5 for carrying out the second stage of conversion PG - air conversion.

The air necessary for conducting air conversion, goes to the line 33 is compressed by the compressor 2 to a pressure of 4 MPa, is mixed with steam supplied through line 34 from the recovery boiler 13, and line 35 is fed into the upper cavity section 7 where it is mixed with a convertible gas flowing through the channel 10.

Converted gas from section 7 with a temperature of 930C on channel 11 enters placed in section 6 radial-spiral heat exchange surface 8 and is cooled therein to a temperature of 550C, giving heat converterhome PG to cover the endothermic effect of the steam reforming process.

Radially-helical surface 8 of the converted gas is directed through the heat exchanger 3, being cooled to a temperature of 515C, and then through the heat-recovery steam generator 13, which generates water vapor pressure of 4 MPa, necessary for conducting steam and air conversion PG. The nutrient water is pumped into the boiler 13 through line 36 by the pump 27 from the installation of water treatment 26.

The converted gas is cooled in the exhaust-heat boiler 13 to a temperature of 215C, is supplied via line 37 to the catalytic reacto the 14 radial-spiral type, in which in one step is conversion. The constant temperature of the exothermic process of CO conversion in the reactor 14 within 200-220C is maintained using a water evaporative cooling water fed into the reactor 14 by pump 28 through line 38 from the installation of water treatment 26. Saturated water vapor pressure of 1.5 MPa, which is formed in the reactor 14 in the process of evaporative cooling is sent via line 39 to the consumer.

After the reactor 14 derived nitric mixture (ABC) passes the cleaning unit of carbon dioxide 21, block mahanirvana 22 and is directed into the compressor 23 which is compressed to a pressure of 15 MPa, and then line 40 is sent to the Department of ammonia synthesis 24, a process which is carried out in a closed loop. The liquid ammonia is discharged into the collection of ammonia 25, and the purge tank and the gases are discharged through line 43.

Additional heat necessary for carrying out the endothermic reaction of steam reforming of NG is introduced in section 6 using the hosted radial-spiral heat exchange surface 9, the heated DG, coming with a temperature of 915C from burner 12 flameless type, to which are fed the following environment: air taken from the line 33 to the compressor 2 through line 41; the fuel part of the PG coming on line 32; a portion of the cooled DG,taken along the line 42 at the discharge outlet of the induced draft fan 19; the purge tank and the gases which are discharged through line 43 from the Department of ammonia synthesis 24. When this cold air and DG flowing respectively through line 41 and line 42, are mixed in the line 44 in the ratio, ensuring that the adiabatic combustion temperature in the range 900-1100C, pumped by the fan 20 through the heater 15, after heating in which the temperature of 550C on line 45 are fed to the burner 12; the purge tank and the gases are heated in the heat exchanger 16 to a temperature of 230C, after which the line 46 are fed to the burner 12.

DG, giving warmth converterhome gas through the walls of the heat exchange surface 9, is placed in section 6, and achladies to a temperature of 570C, pumped by fan 19 sequentially through the heater 15 and the heat exchanger 16, heating, respectively, the mixture of air and cooled DG, and the purge tank and gases; as a result, the temperature of the DG decreases to 75C, after which they are additionally cooled to a temperature of 40C in the heat exchanger 17 water from an external source.

The condensate formed by the cooling of the DG, is separated in the separator 18 and line 47 is sent to the water treatment plant 26 and drained cooled DG is pumped by fan 19, and then divided into two streams: one part is discharged into the environment, and the other is - line 42 is directed to the mixing with the cold air supplied by the fan 20 through the heater 15 to the burner 12.

1. Method for the production of ammonia from natural gas, including compression, heating and cleaning of natural gas from sulfur compounds, two-stage catalytic conversion of methane under pressure, including steam conversion in the first stage and the vapor conversion in the second stage, using the heat of the gas that is converted in the second stage, and additionally combusted in the burner to natural gas, the purge tank and gases for carrying out the conversion in the first stage of the conversion process, catalytic conversion contained in the converted gas of carbon monoxide with obtaining nitric mixture, purification from carbon dioxide purification from oxygen-containing compounds by mahanirvana, compressing the purified nitric mixture, the synthesis of ammonia in a closed loop and the selection of the obtained ammonia with subsequent delivery to the consumer, and waste heat recovery of flue gases and their secretion into the environment, wherein the two-stage conversion of natural gas is carried out in divided into two sections of the reactor radial-spiral type with process steam conversion in the first section when the temperature is 800-1000C and air conversion in the second section at a temperature of 900-1400C, the catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide is carried out at a temperature of 200-220C in one step in the reactor radial-spiral type, and the desired temperature of the process is supported by a water evaporative cooling with the issuance of commodity saturated vapor to the consumer, the purification of natural gas from sulfur compounds, purification of nitric mixture from oxygen-containing compounds, and the synthesis of ammonia is carried out in reactors radial-spiral type, and the temperature of the flue gases after burner before reactor reforming of natural gas of the first stage maintained within the range of 900-1100C with recirculation of part of the cooled flue gas by adding them to the air supplied to the burner at this heat is converted gas is used for heating source natural gas before desulfurization and for generating steam, which is then channelled to conduct steam and steam-reforming of natural gas, and the heat of the flue gases after the reactor the conversion of natural gas of the first stage is used to pre-heat supplied to the burner mixes air with the combustion gases, purge and fuel gases.

2. Method for the production of ammonia according to claim 1, characterized in that the synthesis of ammonia is carried out at a pressure of 12 to 18 MPa.

3. Method for the production of ammonia according to claim 1, the best of the decomposing those as fuel gas for combustion to the burner serves natural gas, free from sulfur compounds.

4. Method for the production of ammonia according to claim 1, characterized in that the combustion of fuel, purge and gas tank before the first stage reactor reforming of natural gas is carried out on the burner flameless type.

5. Method for the production of ammonia according to claim 1, characterized in that in the process of waste heat of flue gases by preheating supplied to the burner mixes air with the combustion gases, purge and fuel gases, the flue gases are cooled to a temperature of 70-80C, after which they before discharge into the environment Doklady the coolant from an external source into the end of the heat exchanger to a temperature of 30-50C, and the resulting condensed water sephirot and sent to the water treatment plant.

6. Method for the production of ammonia according to claim 1, characterized in that the process of recovery and utilization of heat technology and energy flows environments, as well as heat from the working environments coolants from external sources is carried out mainly in heat exchangers radial-spiral type.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: inventions can be used in chemical industry. The method of producing a stoichiometric hydronitric mixture for synthesis of ammonia involves conversion of natural gas and subsequent purification of the obtained synthetic gas. When purifying synthetic gas, the operation of removing methane and argon from the synthetic gas is combined with the operation for condensation of excess nitrogen by absorbing methane and argon with the condensed excess nitrogen. The absorption process takes place in vertical pipes of an absorber-condenser in counter flow with the purified synthetic gas moving in the pipes from bottom up. The space between the pipes is cooled by throttling the condensate, and the absorber-condenser pipes are fitted with apparatus for swirling the stream of condensate. The obtained purified hydronitric mixture can be used in the ammonia synthesis method.

EFFECT: invention enables to completely extract methane and argon impurities from synthetic gas with incidental production of an argon product and liquefied methane, and also enables to considerably reduce ammonia synthesis pressure from 300 to 170 atm, which reduces power consumption in production of ammonia.

19 cl, 3 tbl, 2 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen and can be used in the chemical industry. Ammonia 3 is obtained from a gaseous mixture 4 essentially consisting of nitrogen and hydrogen, obtained from natural gas 5 using the following method. Unpurified synthetic gas 7 is obtained from natural gas 5 through partial oxidation with an oxygen-rich gas 6 in the presence of water vapour. Converted ynthetic gas 8 which contains hydrogen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is obtained from synthetic gas 7 during at least one step for a catalytic reaction (shift) and conversion of a portion of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. On at least one decarbonisation step, carbon dioxide 20a is at least partially removed from the obtained synthetic gas and at least during one purification step, carbon monoxide 22a is at least partially removed. On at least one converted synthetic gas purification step, at least one molecular sieve is used. The oxygen-rich gas contains at least 50% oxygen and partial oxidation takes place at pressure between 40 and 150 bars.

EFFECT: method enables to increase efficiency while reducing power consumption and operational costs owing to reduction of the amount of initial hydrocarbon material.

5 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: synthesis gas consisting of makeup gas or a mixture of makeup gas and recycle gas is passed through at least two synthesis steps connected in series into a synthesis system. After coming out of the synthesis steps, gases which contain the product, except gases containing the product from the last synthesis step, are divided into at least two separate streams, one of which is cooled to condensation temperature of the contained product, and the condensate containing the product is separated from the gas which is then combined with the hot portion of gases containing the product to bring their temperature to a level it should have when entering the next synthesis step. Also before repeated addition to the hot portion of gases containing the product, the separate stream from which the product was separated via condensation and then removed can be heated to a temperature, which after such heating should be below temperature of the hot portion of the gases containing the product, and the heat used for heating the separate stream from which the product was separated via condensation, can at least be partially extracted from the said stream when cooling it.

EFFECT: method allows for carrying out heterogeneous catalytic exothermal gas-phase reactions with increased output and reduced energy consumption.

14 cl, 8 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry. Upright ammonia converter contains fixed bed with its catalyst area arranged within two mechanically separated catalyst capacities. Reactor includes two simultaneously operating gas flows. In this invention each catalyst area of fixed bed can contain the catalyst in annular space formed between two concentric shells surrounding shell-and-tube heat exchanger. Pipes and pipelines are connected in catalyst layers; circular channels surrounding catalyst layer separates gas flow in parallel.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of ammonia converter.

15 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: way of syngas cleaning includes: introduction of the flow of initial syngas, into the feed zone of the distillation column, flow expansion of the liquid remainder from the distillation column by means of a dilator of liquids with the extraction of work for forming the flow of the cooled waste liquid, the rectification of vapour from the feed zone for forming the upper flow of vapour with the decreased content of nitrogen and inert gases, cooling of the upper vapour flow in the indirect heat exchange with the flow of the cooled waste liquid for forming the of partially condensed upper flow and flow of the partially heated waste liquid, separation of the partially condensed upper flow into the flow of condensate and the flow of the purified vapour of syngas with the decreased content of nitrogen and inert gases and the irrigation of distillation column by the flow of condensate. By the first variant the method of production of ammonia includes reforming of hydrocarbon for forming syngas, cooling the flow of initial syngas, expansion of the cooled flow of initial syngas, introduction of the extended flow of initial syngas in the feed zone in the distillation column, flow expansion of liquid remainders from the distillation column with the aid of the dilator of liquid forming the flow of cooled waste liquid, according to the first variant the method of the production of ammonia includes reforming of hydrocarbon for forming syngas, cooling of a stream initial syngas, expansion of the cooled stream initial syngas, introduction of the extended flow of initial syngas in the feed zone in the distillation column, flow expansion of liquid remainders from the distillation column with the aid of the dilator of liquid for forming the flow of the cooled waste liquid, the rectification of vapour from the feed zone in the distillation column for forming the upper flow of vapour with the decreased content of nitrogen and inert gases, cooling the upper flow of vapour in the indirect heat exchange with the flow of the cooled waste liquid for forming of partially condensed upper flow and flow of the partially heated waste liquid, the separation of the partially condensed upper flow into the flow of condensate and the flow of purified vapour of syngas with the decreased content of nitrogen and inert gases, the irrigation the distillation column by the flow of condensate, heating the flow of the purified vapour of syngas in the heat exchanger with the cross-section flow, heating the flow of partially heated waste liquid in the heat exchanger with a cross-section flow, the supply of the flow of the purified vapour of syngas from the heat exchanger with the cross-section flow into the outline of synthesis of ammonia. According to the second variant the method of the production of ammonia includes the reforming hydrocarbon with excess air for forming the flow of initial syngas, removal of nitrogen and inert gases from the flow of the syngas by distillation, thus provide cooling with the aid of the expansion of the liquid by means of the dilator-generator, and the upper flow partially condense the waste flow, cooled by means of expansion of the liquid remainder from the distillation column, and the supply of syngas with the decreased content of nitrogen and inert gases from distillation into the contour of the synthesis of ammonia at which the liquid remainders expand by means of the dilator of liquid with the extraction of work.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve industrial and economic characteristics.

18 cl, 5 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: chemical industry; methods and the devices for the heterogeneous synthesis of the chemical compounds.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of the heterogeneous synthesis of the chemical compounds such as methanol or ammonia and to the installation for the method realization. The method includes the catalytic conversion in the pseudo-isothermal conditions of the corresponding gaseous reactants routed through two sequentially located zones of the reaction. At that in the first zone of the reaction are gated through the immovable mass of the corresponding catalyst, in which the placed side by side mainly box-shaped lamellar heat-exchange components, through which the working fluid heat-carrier medium is gated. At that the gaseous reactants are fed into the first zone of the reaction after the indirect heat-exchange in the second zone of the reaction with the reaction mixture, which is fed into the second zone of reaction from the first zone of the reaction. The installation for the heterogeneous synthesis of synthesis of methanol or ammonia by the catalytic conversion of the gaseous reactants contains the sequentially connected the first and the second zones of the reaction, the corresponding heat exchangers mounted in the first and the second zones of the reaction. At that in the first zone of the reaction the heat exchanger is dipped in the mass of the catalyst and contains some disposed side-by-side box-shaped lamellar heat-exchange components, through which the working fluid heat-carrier is passing. At that the inlet into the first zone of the reaction communicates with the outlet of the heat exchanger in the second zone of the reaction. The invention allows to produce methanol or ammonia by the simple in realization method at the high conversion yield at the chemical installations of the high productivity at the low capital investments and the power input.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of methanol or ammonia by the simple in realization method at the high conversion yield at the chemical installations of the high productivity at the low capital investments and the power input.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; methods and devices for production of ammonia from the synthesis gas.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method and installation for production of ammonia from the synthesis gas. The method of production of ammonia provides for the catalytic reaction of the synthesis gas contracted in the appropriate compressor having several stages, each of which has the inlet and the outlet for the synthesis gas. The synthesis gas is purified by the liquid ammonia from contained in it water and carbon dioxide. At that at purification of the synthesis gas use the gas-liquid mixer, which is connected on the one hand to the outlet of the first stage of the compressor, or to the outlet of the intermediate stage of the compressor, and on the other hand - with the inlet of the second stage located behind the first stage, or with the inlet of the intermediate stage of the compressor, and has the section of the certain length with diminishing cross-section. Into the mixer in the axial direction feed in the forward flow the stream of the synthesis gas taken from the first stage of the compressor, or from the intermediate stage and the stream of the liquid ammonia, essentially the dehydrated synthesis gas is separated from the mixture flow coming out of the mixer and guide it into the second stage of the compressor, which is located behind the first stage or behind the intermediate stage. The technical result of the invention consists in the rise of the conversion outlet and in the decrease of the power inputs.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased conversion outlet and the decreased power inputs.

10 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: inorganic synthesis catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: ammonia synthesis catalyst is based on ruthenium on carrier of inoxidizable pure polycrystalline graphite having specific BET surface above 10 m2/g, said graphite being characterized by diffraction pattern comprising only diffraction lines typical of crystalline graphite in absence of corresponding bands of amorphous carbon and which graphite being activated with at least one element selected from barium, cesium, and potassium and formed as pellets with minimal dimensions 2x2 mm (diameter x height). Catalyst is prepared by impregnating above-defined catalyst with aqueous potassium ruthenate solution, removing water, drying, reduction to ruthenium metal in hydrogen flow, cooling in nitrogen flow, water flushing-mediated removal of potassium, impregnation with aqueous solution of BaNO3 and/or CsOH, and/or KOH followed by removal of water and pelletizing of catalyst.

EFFECT: increased activity of catalyst even when charging ruthenium in amount considerably below known amounts and increased resistance of catalyst to methane formation.

12 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemical industry; installations and the methods of production of the synthesis-gas from the natural gas.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to the installation and the method for simultaneous production from the natural gas of the methanol synthesis-gas, the ammoniac synthesis-gas, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The installation consists of the in-series connected to each other assembly units and includes: the first reactor (A), in which at feeding of oxygen realize the transformation of the natural gas into the synthesis gas consisting of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and the steam; the second reactor (B), in which exercise the regular transformation of carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide; if necessary the compressor (C) using which the formed gases may be contracted; absorbing apparatus D, which serves for absorption of carbon dioxide and production of he mixture of monoxide with hydrogen used for synthesizing methanol; the refrigerating separator E, in which at feeding of the liquid nitrogen receive the ammoniac synthesis gas and simultaneously produces carbon monoxide, argon and methane. The invention allows to increase profitability of the installation due to production at one installation of several products.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased profitability of the installation due to production at one installation of several products.

15 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: petrochemical industry; methods of the synthesis of ammonia from the nitrogen and hydrogen mixture produced from the natural gases.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of petrochemical industry, in particular, to the method of the synthesis of ammonia from the nitrogen and hydrogen mixture produced from the natural gases. The method of the catalytic synthesis of ammonia from the mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen provides, that the natural gas together with the oxygen-enriched gas containing at least 70 % of oxygen is subjected to the autothermal reforming at temperature from 900 up to 1200°C and the pressure from 40 up to 100 bar at the presence of the catalyzer of cracking, producing the unstripped synthesis gas containing in terms of the dry state 55-75 vol.% of H2, 15-30 vol.% of C and 5-30 vol.% CO2. At that the volumetric ratio of H2: CO makes from 1.6 : 1 up to 4 : 1. The unstripped synthesis gas is removed from the furnace of the autothermal reforming, cooled and subjected to the catalytic conversion producing the converted synthesis gas containing in terms of the dry state at least 55 vol.% of H2 and no more than 8 vol.% of CO. The converted synthesis gas is subjected to the multistage treatment for extraction ofCO2, CO and CH4. At that they realize the contact of the synthesis gas with the liquid nitrogen and using at least one stage of the absorption treatment produce the mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen, which is routed to the catalytic synthesizing of ammonia. At that at least a part of the synthesized ammonia may be transformed into carbamide by interaction with carbon dioxide. The realization of the method allows to solve the problem of the ammonia synthesis efficiency.

EFFECT: the invention ensures solution of the problem of the ammonia synthesis efficiency.

8 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: heat power and chemical industries, applicable in production of ammonia.

SUBSTANCE: in the method for steam generation at production of ammonia from hydrocarbon gases, saturation of the hydrocarbon gas after desulfurization and/or process air fed to the secondary reforming is effected due to the use of the flue gas of a tube furnace at a temperature of 160 to 580C, preferably within 220 to 480C, by means of water recirculation.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of energy due to reduction of the total amount of generated steam, reduced consumption of feed water, and recovered gases dissolved in the process condensate.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heat power and chemical industries, applicable in production of ammonia.

SUBSTANCE: in the method for steam generation at production of ammonia from hydrocarbon gases the mean-pressure steam used for the process of steam reforming and/or for the compressor drives is subjected to humidification by injection of the process condensate or feed water, and the obtained humidified steam is overheated by the heat of the flue gas in a unit of the heat-using equipment of the reforming tube furnace.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of energy due to reduction of the amount of generated steam and reduced of the amount of generated steam and reduced consumption of feed water; provided additional cleaning of the process condensate and recovering of gases dissolved in it in the process of steam humidification in the mass transfer device.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: inorganic synthesis catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention provides ammonia synthesis catalyst containing ruthenium as active ingredient supported by boron nitride and/or silicon nitride. Catalyst can be promoted by one ore more metals selected from alkali, alkali-earth metal, or rare-earth metals. Ammonia synthesis process in presence of claimed catalyst is also described.

EFFECT: increased temperature resistance of catalyst under industrial ammonia synthesis conditions.

4 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; production of ammonia.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the process of synthesis of ammonia, in particular to improvement of the process of cleanout synthesis of the gas added into the catalytic reactor for substitution of the reacted synthesis gas. The method of synthesis of ammonia provides for compression of the synthesis gas containing hydrogen and nitrogen in a many-stage centrifugal compressor. On the first stage of this compressor the synthesis gas is compressed up to the pressure making from approximately 800 up to 900 pounds per a square inch - (56-63)·105 Pa, withdraw from this stage and cool, and also dehydrate by a contact to a liquid ammonia in a dehydrator. Then the cooled and dehydrated synthesis gas is fed back in the compressor and bring it on the second stage. The installation for realization of this process contains a centrifugal compressor supplied with the synthesis gas outlet, that connects the synthesis gas discharge outlet from the first stage of the compressor with the synthesis gas inlet in the dehydrator, and also an intermediate inlet of the synthesis gas connecting by a hydraulic link the inlet of the second stage of the compressor with the synthesis gas discharge (outlet) from the dehydrator. Due to the intermediate cooling and a dehydration the compressor rate is lowered, and due to favorable effect of the dehydrator on the last two stages of the compressor a significant saving of the consumed power is also achieved. The additional saving of the consumed power is possible due to decreased need of chill in the closed contour of the synthesis process.

EFFECT: the invention ensures a significant saving of the consumed power for the synthesis process in the installation.

13 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: industrial inorganic synthesis.

SUBSTANCE: process comprises passing nitrogen and hydrogen-containing synthesis gas stream through three stacked catalyst beds, wherein catalyst is based on iron with magnetite as principal constituent, which is reduced during the process until catalytically active form of alpha-iron is produced. Above-mentioned synthesis gas stream is obtained by combining stream directly supplied onto first catalyst bed with another stream, which is preheated via indirect heat exchange with products exiting first and second catalyst beds, whereupon product is recovered. Method is characterized by that gas under treatment is passed through middle catalyst bed at volume flow rate between 0.65 and 2.00 value of volume flow rate, at which gas under treatment is passed through upper catalyst bed, volume ratio of middle catalyst bed to upper catalyst bed lying preferably between 0.5 and 1.5.

EFFECT: increased yield of product.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: inorganic synthesis catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: ammonia synthesis catalyst includes, as catalytically active metal, ruthenium deposited on magnesium oxide having specific surface area at least 40 m2/g, while concentration of ruthenium ranges between 3 and 20 wt % and content of promoter between 0.2 and 0.5 mole per 1 mole ruthenium, said promoter being selected from alkali metals, alkali-earth metals, lanthanides, and mixtures thereof. Regeneration of catalytic components from catalyst comprises following steps: (i) washing-out of promoters from catalyst thereby forming promoter-depleted catalyst and obtaining solution enriched with dissolved promoter hydroxides; (ii) dissolution of magnesium oxide from promoter-depleted catalyst in acidic solvent wherein ruthenium is insoluble and thereby obtaining residual ruthenium metal in solution enriched with dissolved magnesium compound; and (iii) regeneration of residual ruthenium metal from solution enriched with dissolved magnesium compound via liquid-solids separation to form indicated solution enriched with dissolved magnesium compound and ruthenium metal.

EFFECT: increased catalyst activity.

6 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: petrochemical industry; methods of the synthesis of ammonia from the nitrogen and hydrogen mixture produced from the natural gases.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of petrochemical industry, in particular, to the method of the synthesis of ammonia from the nitrogen and hydrogen mixture produced from the natural gases. The method of the catalytic synthesis of ammonia from the mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen provides, that the natural gas together with the oxygen-enriched gas containing at least 70 % of oxygen is subjected to the autothermal reforming at temperature from 900 up to 1200°C and the pressure from 40 up to 100 bar at the presence of the catalyzer of cracking, producing the unstripped synthesis gas containing in terms of the dry state 55-75 vol.% of H2, 15-30 vol.% of C and 5-30 vol.% CO2. At that the volumetric ratio of H2: CO makes from 1.6 : 1 up to 4 : 1. The unstripped synthesis gas is removed from the furnace of the autothermal reforming, cooled and subjected to the catalytic conversion producing the converted synthesis gas containing in terms of the dry state at least 55 vol.% of H2 and no more than 8 vol.% of CO. The converted synthesis gas is subjected to the multistage treatment for extraction ofCO2, CO and CH4. At that they realize the contact of the synthesis gas with the liquid nitrogen and using at least one stage of the absorption treatment produce the mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen, which is routed to the catalytic synthesizing of ammonia. At that at least a part of the synthesized ammonia may be transformed into carbamide by interaction with carbon dioxide. The realization of the method allows to solve the problem of the ammonia synthesis efficiency.

EFFECT: the invention ensures solution of the problem of the ammonia synthesis efficiency.

8 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; installations and the methods of production of the synthesis-gas from the natural gas.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to the installation and the method for simultaneous production from the natural gas of the methanol synthesis-gas, the ammoniac synthesis-gas, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The installation consists of the in-series connected to each other assembly units and includes: the first reactor (A), in which at feeding of oxygen realize the transformation of the natural gas into the synthesis gas consisting of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and the steam; the second reactor (B), in which exercise the regular transformation of carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide; if necessary the compressor (C) using which the formed gases may be contracted; absorbing apparatus D, which serves for absorption of carbon dioxide and production of he mixture of monoxide with hydrogen used for synthesizing methanol; the refrigerating separator E, in which at feeding of the liquid nitrogen receive the ammoniac synthesis gas and simultaneously produces carbon monoxide, argon and methane. The invention allows to increase profitability of the installation due to production at one installation of several products.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased profitability of the installation due to production at one installation of several products.

15 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: inorganic synthesis catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: ammonia synthesis catalyst is based on ruthenium on carrier of inoxidizable pure polycrystalline graphite having specific BET surface above 10 m2/g, said graphite being characterized by diffraction pattern comprising only diffraction lines typical of crystalline graphite in absence of corresponding bands of amorphous carbon and which graphite being activated with at least one element selected from barium, cesium, and potassium and formed as pellets with minimal dimensions 2x2 mm (diameter x height). Catalyst is prepared by impregnating above-defined catalyst with aqueous potassium ruthenate solution, removing water, drying, reduction to ruthenium metal in hydrogen flow, cooling in nitrogen flow, water flushing-mediated removal of potassium, impregnation with aqueous solution of BaNO3 and/or CsOH, and/or KOH followed by removal of water and pelletizing of catalyst.

EFFECT: increased activity of catalyst even when charging ruthenium in amount considerably below known amounts and increased resistance of catalyst to methane formation.

12 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemical industry; methods and devices for production of ammonia from the synthesis gas.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method and installation for production of ammonia from the synthesis gas. The method of production of ammonia provides for the catalytic reaction of the synthesis gas contracted in the appropriate compressor having several stages, each of which has the inlet and the outlet for the synthesis gas. The synthesis gas is purified by the liquid ammonia from contained in it water and carbon dioxide. At that at purification of the synthesis gas use the gas-liquid mixer, which is connected on the one hand to the outlet of the first stage of the compressor, or to the outlet of the intermediate stage of the compressor, and on the other hand - with the inlet of the second stage located behind the first stage, or with the inlet of the intermediate stage of the compressor, and has the section of the certain length with diminishing cross-section. Into the mixer in the axial direction feed in the forward flow the stream of the synthesis gas taken from the first stage of the compressor, or from the intermediate stage and the stream of the liquid ammonia, essentially the dehydrated synthesis gas is separated from the mixture flow coming out of the mixer and guide it into the second stage of the compressor, which is located behind the first stage or behind the intermediate stage. The technical result of the invention consists in the rise of the conversion outlet and in the decrease of the power inputs.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased conversion outlet and the decreased power inputs.

10 cl, 2 dwg

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