Method for producing chitosan oligomers

FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, more specifically to producing chitosan oligomers possessing biological activity and applicable in food industry and medicine. In a method for producing chitosan oligomers, a chitosan solution is taken in the concentration of 0.025-0.075% (weight/volume) and exposed to low-frequency ultrasound of the intensity of 92-460 Wt/cm2 for 5-30 minutes.

EFFECT: reduction in price of the chitosan oligomers production combined with promotion of higher medium viscosity molecular weight of the product within the range 25 ÷ 120 kDa.

3 tbl, 3 ex

 

The invention relates to the production of oligomers of chitosan, biological activity and intended for use in food industry and medicine.

Chitosan, a natural aminopolysaccharide coated (2-amino-2-deoxy-β-D-glucan)is a bioactive polymer and is part of many modern medicines. There are some prospects of its use for obtaining new biologically active forms, either as single component or in combination with other biopolymers or low-molecular substances. It is noticed that almost all of the functional properties of chitosan depend on its molecular parameters, largely on the molecular weight. The literature notes the interest in studying the influence of this characteristic of chitosan on its biological activity. In particular, a significant influence of molecular weight on together with immunomodulating and antiviral activity. The low molecular weight chitosan has antiviral and antitumor activity. Oligomers of chitosan can be used as food additives or bases for pharmaceuticals.

Known invention (RU # 2057760, CL C08B 37/08, 1996.04.10) "Oligomer of chitin and chitosan and its production method". The method of obtaining the oligomer includes the interaction of chitin or Hito the Ana with nitrous acid or sodium nitrite in aqueous solution at pH 3÷4, a temperature of not higher than 10°C, followed by neutralization of the reaction mixture, the hydrogenation of the obtained oligomers in the presence of a reducing agent and/or cooling. The interaction may be carried out in the presence of a stabilizing agent is an organic acid, and neutralization carried out by ammonia, alkylamino or anion-exchange resin after completion of the reaction. The reducing agent may be sodium borohydride or potassium.

The disadvantage of this method is the large amount of used chemicals and the need for purification of the target product.

A method of obtaining low molecular weight water-soluble chitosan (RU # 92015867, CL from 08 F/08, 1996.09.10), including enzymatic cleavage of a 1%solution of chitosan immobilized on silica gel chitinase complex streptomycete. The process of enzymatic cleavage is carried out at pH=4,5÷5,0 at a temperature of 45÷50°C for 16 h, and then at pH=6,0÷6.5 and a temperature of 37°C for 8÷12 o'clock

The disadvantage of this method is a long time process, inactivation of enzymes and their relatively high cost.

There is also known a method of producing oligomers of chitosan (RU # 2316592, CL C12P 19/04, C08B 37/08, A61K 31/722, 2008.02.10). To obtain oligomers of chitosan carry out the enzymatic hydrolysis of chitosan in aqueous solution PR is pH 3.0÷4,4. The hydrolysis is carried out in the presence of a mixture of chitosanases and papain in the ratio 1:(1÷1,2) by weight. The hydrolysate is treated with anion exchange resin, filtered, concentrated to a water content of 62÷80% and dried. The method allows to reduce by 50÷70% loss and to improve the quality of the target product.

The disadvantage of this method is the relatively long period of time, the process, the high cost of enzyme preparations, their inactivation.

A known method of producing oligosaccharides (RU # 2289589, CL C08B 37/08, 2006.12.20). This method involves the enzymatic depolymerization of chitosan by chitosanase in aqueous solution in the presence of acetic, ascorbic, succinic acid or mixtures thereof followed by filtration and drying, and after drying the obtained oligosaccharides subjected to low-temperature processing liquid nitrogen. The method allows to obtain oligosaccharides, no unpleasant aftertaste.

The disadvantage of this method is the relatively long period of time, the process, the high cost of enzyme preparations, their inactivation.

A known method of producing oligomers of chitosan (US 5312908, CL C07H 17/00, 1994.05.17) through the interaction of chitin or chitosan with nitrous acid at a reaction temperature of 10°C or below in aqueous solution at pH 1÷6 for the implementation of the reaction of dataminer the tion, then add recovery agent.

The disadvantage of this method is the need for purification of the target product.

A known method of producing oligomers of chitosan (CN 101684164, CL C08B 37/08, C08B 37/00, 2010.03.31)that includes the following steps: use of chitosan macromolecules as raw material, adding a destructive agent and uniform mixing, irradiation, spraying and drying, obtaining an aqueous solution, drying and obtaining a powdery product.

The disadvantage of this method is the large amount of used chemicals and the need for purification of the target product.

Also known is a method of obtaining powder of chitosan oligomers (DE 102007039490, CL C08B 37/08, C08L 5/08, C12P 19/26, C12P 39/00, C08B 37/00, C08L 5/00, C12P 19/00, C12P 39/00, 2008.03.27), including the dissolution of chitosan in aqueous solution of organic acid at pH 3.5÷4,4, enzymatic hydrolysis of chitosan to the viscosity of the reaction mixture 1,50÷1,58 MPa, removing the acid by ion exchange to pH 7, the removal of the resin by filtration, concentration of filtrate to 62÷80 wt.% and drying the hydrolyzed product.

The disadvantage of this method is the high cost of enzyme preparations, their inactivation and the need for purification of the target product.

Thus, the analysis of patent documents has revealed the presence of only indirect and is Logov the proposed method of producing oligomers of chitosan.

The objective of the invention is to develop a new effective method of producing oligomers of chitosan.

The technical result is to reduce the cost of obtaining chitosan oligomers with a simultaneous increase srednevozrastnoe molecular weight product in the range 25÷120 kDa.

The task and the specified technical result is achieved by the fact that in the method of producing oligomers of chitosan according to the invention the solution of chitosan take a concentration of 0.025÷0,075% (weight/volume) and treated with low-frequency ultrasound intensity 92÷460 watts/cm2within 5÷30 minutes.

Increasing the concentration of chitosan solution above 0,075% leads to an increase srednevozrastnoe molecular weight of the macromolecules of the polymer after ultrasonic treatment because of increased viscosity and density of the solution, which leads to attenuation of ultrasonic waves and, consequently, to less degradation of chitosan macromolecules. The decrease in the concentration of chitosan solution is less than 0,025% makes the solution is highly diluted, which is undesirable from the point of view of its further use.

Treatment of a solution of chitosan ultrasound intensity less than 92 W/cm2does not provide the degree of degradation of macromolecules, which are necessary to obtain samples of chitosan with srednevozrastnoe molecule the Noah weighing less than 120 kDa. When the ultrasound intensity more than 460 watts/cm2get samples of chitosan have srednevozrastnoe molecular weight of less than 25 kDa. In addition, for such values of intensity occurs in a strong heating of the processed solution, which is undesirable.

The optimal value of the time of ultrasonic treatment was acknowledged within 5÷30 minutes. In this case the reduction of the time of ultrasonic treatment is less than 5 minutes not achieved the necessary degree of degradation of chitosan macromolecules, and processing more than 30 minutes impractical due to the maximum extent of degradation at a given value of the intensity of the ultrasound.

A method of producing oligomers of chitosan is illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1.

Prepared chitosan solution with a concentration of 0.025% (weight/volume) in acetate buffer (0.33 M CH3COOH+0.2 M CH3COONa). Next, a series of solutions (6 samples 25 ml) was subjected to processing by low-frequency ultrasound intensity 460 watts/cm2in different periods of time (from 5 to 30 minutes). After that, through the equation Mark-Kuhn-Houwink determined srednevozrastnoe the molecular weight of chitosan macromolecules subjected to degradation (table 1).

Table 1
Dependence srednevozrastnoe molecular weight chitosanfrom the time of ultrasonic treatment
The time of ULTRASONIC treatment, min, kDa
No processing200,5
5,045,5
10,037,6
15,0of 31.4
20,026,8
25,025,8
30,022,9

Example 2.

The experiment was carried out analogously to example 1 except that instead of different periods of time processing solutions of chitosan used ultrasound of different intensity (from 92 to 460 watts/cm2). The treatment was carried out for 5 minutes (table 2).

Table 2
Dependence srednevozrastnoethe molecular weight of chitosan on the intensity of the ultrasound
The intensity of UZ, W/cm2 , kDa
0200,5
92,0128,9
138,0118,2
184,0100,5
230,084,2
276,074,8
322,066,8
368,056,6
414,0to 49.3
460,046,7

Example 3.

The experiment was carried out analogously to example 1 except that the ultrasonic processing of various intensity and duration were subjected to solutions of chitosan with different concentrations of 0.025; and 0,075 0,050% (weight/volume) (table 3).

Table 3
Dependence srednevozrastnoethe molecular weight of chitosan on the concentration of its solution at various intensity and duration of ultrasonic treatment
The intensity of UZ, W/cm292,0138,0184,0230,0276,0322,0368,0414,0460,0
, kDa128,9118,2100,584,274,866,856,6to 49.346,7
The time of ULTRASONIC treatment, min5,010,015,020,025,030,0
, kDa45,537,7of 31.426,825,822,9
The concentration of chitosan solution: 0,050%
The intensity of UZ, W/cm292,0138,0184,0230,0276,0322,0368,0414,0460,0
, kDa171,2168,4157,0152,4123,1110,292,880,674,4
The time of ULTRASONIC treatment, min5,010,015,020,025,030,0
, kDa75,4to 59.445,237,633,1 30,7
The concentration of chitosan solution: 0,075%
The intensity of UZ, W/cm292,0138,0184,0230,0276,0322,0368,0414,0460,0
, kDa156,5151,2142,1133,8116,495,793,5to 91.189,7
The time of ULTRASONIC treatment, min5,010,015,020,025,030,0
, kDa88,967,661,1 51,447,638,1

Examples of complete method confirm that the use of low-frequency ultrasound intensity 92÷460 watts/cm2to obtain oligomers of chitosan with a given molecular weight in the range of 23 to 130 kDa (with the initial value 200 kDa) in a very short processing time (5-30 minutes), which distinguishes this method from enzymatic and chemical hydrolysis. Thus the final value of the molecular weight chitosan using this method can be set very accurately by varying the values of the processing time, the ultrasound intensity and the concentration of the polysaccharide (see table 1, 2, 3). In addition, obtained after processing, the product does not require additional cleanup operations and can be directly used, for example, in the processes of bioencapsulation to create a chitosan coating on the microcapsules.

Currently, way is at the stage of laboratory experiments.

A method of producing oligomers of chitosan, characterized in that the solution of chitosan take a concentration of 0.025÷0,075% wt./about. and treated by low-frequency ultrasound intensity 92÷460 watts/cm2during 5 is 30 minutes



 

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