Energy generation method

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: low pressure oxidiser is compressed with multi-stage compressor, and then it is supplied to high pressure combustion chamber to which some part of fuel and heated high pressure oxidiser flow is supplied as well. Combustion products are supplied from combustion chamber to gas turbine, and then to fuel element for electrochemical oxidation of the other fuel part. At least some part of low pressure oxidiser is supplied to fuel element input and the flow leaving the fuel element is burnt in low pressure combustion chamber. Low pressure oxidiser supplied to fuel element input is taken from lower stages of compressor.

EFFECT: reducing fuel flow, improving operating reliability of fuel element and decreasing the losses due to insufficient expansion of combustion products in the turbine.

9 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to methods of energy conversion of gaseous fuels (natural or synthesis gas, hydrogen) in mechanical (electric), mainly to transport power plants and energy systems on their basis, and is intended for vehicles equipped with electric or hybrid drive.

Known methods of converting thermal energy of the gaseous fuel (natural or synthesis gas, hydrogen) in mechanical (electrical), including in the transport power plants that convert primary energy into electrical energy, which is stored in accumulators and then the need is driven propulsion of vehicles. Significant capabilities have hybrid power sources, which are advantageously used when a constant load while the vehicle moves unevenly, that changes the required power. The characteristics of the transport energy generating systems known problem of increasing the efficiency of the energy source when working on a variable power. Thus, the challenge is to create ways of energy conversion, energy-accumulating plants and systems, capable of providing high efficiency energy generation required under the terms of the consumption uneven offline mode is depending on the graph's primary energy mix.

In particular, the proposed gas turbine power generation system containing a compressor for compressing the first environment and the electrochemical Converter which is connected to the compressor and adapted to receive the first and second environment. The Converter is intended to effect a chemical reaction between the first and second environments, producing in accordance with this electricity and producing an exhaust stream having a selected elevated temperature. The power system further comprises a turbine chamber connected with the electrochemical Converter and adapted to receive the release of the Converter so that the turbine transforms the issue into rotational energy and electricity. The system may further comprise a steam generator and a steam turbine that generates electricity (RF application for invention No. 97104031, publication date 1999.04.10). The disadvantage of this method and device is the low temperature at the inlet to the turbine, which reduces the efficiency.

There is also known a method of production of electric power from natural gas using a fuel cell solid oxide containing phase electrochemical oxidation of natural gas which has passed the preliminary expansion and heating of the natural gas exiting the fuel cell flow (RF application for invention No. 200017827, publication date 2002.01.20). The disadvantage of this method and device is the low temperature at the inlet to the turbine, which reduces the efficiency.

Partly this disadvantage is overcome in the method and device of generating energy, in order to improve the efficiency of the oxidizer (air) is compressed by the compressor, is heated and then directed into the combustion chamber, which also serves part of the fuel and heated regenerative oxidant stream and from which the combustion products are directed into the gas turbine are cooled by the incoming oxidant stream and sent to the fuel cell for the electrochemical oxidation of another part of the fuel, the reaction products which are cooled by the flow of oxidant flowing into the combustion chamber (application USA for the invention №2006/0105207, publication date 2006.05.18). The disadvantage of this solution is the low reliability and efficiency of energy generation, which is associated with increased fuel costs, as well as the relatively low efficiency of gas turbine transformation in transitional modes associated with a low rate of heating/cooling of the fuel element, the limited heat resistance of the ceramic electrodes.

The objective of the invention is to improve the dynamic and flexible possibilities of energy generation, reduce fuel consumption, reduce losses associated with inadequate extension product is tov combustion turbine, to increase the reliability of the fuel element due to additional opportunities to regulate its temperature and power modes, regardless of the mode of the gas turbine, to improve the economic performance of power plants and power supply systems and to create conditions effective to improve the reliability of the energy source.

- The problem is solved in that the applied method of generating energy, in which the oxidizer low pressure compressed multi-stage compressor, and then directed into the combustion chamber of a high pressure, which also serves part of the fuel and the heated oxidant stream of high pressure and from which the combustion products are directed into the gas turbine, and then in a fuel cell for the electrochemical oxidation of another part of the fuel, while at least part of the low pressure oxidizer is directed to the input in the fuel cell, and recovering the stream is burned in the combustion chamber of low pressure.

In addition:

- oxidant low pressure supplied to the inlet to the fuel element selected from lower-speed compressor;

- the fuel before the combustion chamber of a high pressure compressed, vaporized or reducing;

at least part of the compressor stages rotate by means of the gas turbine;

after the combustion chamber low pressure facing the C her stream is cooled by heating the oxidant and/or fuel;

- burning in the combustion chamber of the low pressure lead on the catalyst based on palladium or rhenium or platinum, or rhodium, or their compounds;

- regulate the flow of fuel and/or oxidant in the fuel cell depending on energy needs or speed limits heating of the fuel element;

- fuel is selected from a range that contains hydrogen, natural gas, synthesis gas, hydrocarbons, methanol, ammonia, ethyl alcohol, or a mixture thereof;

as oxidant choose oxygen or air.

An example implementation of the invention is a method of generating energy, described below.

In the described example implementation of the invention, the fuel used natural gas as the oxidant is air, which allows us to characterize the features of the invention as applied to the processes of electrochemical oxidation products of incomplete combustion of natural gas after applying the expansion machine, in particular for transport or stationary power units.

In the figure given schematic of the proposed method of generating energy.

The method is as follows.

Spend the expansion of the combustion products of natural gas in the gas turbine 1, in which the products of combustion produced from the low pressure air compressed in the compressor is e 2, and the fuel supplied from the tank natural gas 3, is supplied from the combustion chamber high pressure 4, and then send them to the fuel cell 6, in which another part of the natural gas may be supplied by the compressor 5 at pressures tend to be higher than atmospheric. Depending on the mode of operation of the fuel element 6 serves also air, which may be selected from the lower-speed compressor 2. Flow generated due to the electrochemical oxidation entering the fuel cell 6 components, is directed into the combustion chamber low pressure 7, after which the exiting stream is cooled by heating the oxidant and/or fuel 10 in the heat exchanger 9. Combustion in the combustion chamber of the low pressure lead to the catalyst 8, selected on the basis of palladium, rhenium, platinum, rhodium or their compounds, which allows to provide a flameless mode at different temperatures.

Fuel (in the described example natural gas) before the combustion chamber of a high pressure compressed, vaporized or reduce depending on the pressure and the physical state of the fuel supplied from the tank of natural gas 3. At least part of the compressor stages 2 rotate by means of the gas turbine 1, which allows to reduce the size of the compressor 2 through a high speed.

Regulate the flow of fuel and/or Oka the amplifier in the fuel element 6 valves 11-13 depending on energy needs or speed limits heating of the fuel cell 6, which, in turn, is limited mainly by the resistance of the ceramic components of the fuel cell 6.

As fuel can also be hydrogen, natural gas, synthesis gas, hydrocarbons, methanol, ammonia, ethyl alcohol, or a mixture thereof.

As the oxidant can be selected as oxygen and air, or a mixture thereof.

In the process of implementation of the presented method of generating energy can be used the possibility of heating the fuel element 6 by means of an external heat supply. It is also possible inside the fuel element 6 apply a pre-conversion fuel by partial oxidation with an oxidant or supplied with water vapor, including the composition of the products of combustion. The increase in energy generation while increasing the mechanical load on the gas turbine 1 are due to both changes in the supply of fuel through the control valves 11 to 13, which can be used Poppet valve, or valve rod, or any other device that affects the hydraulic resistance to the passage of fuel or its combustion products, or due to changes in the supply of oxidant from the compressor 2 through the control valve 12, which can increase the selection of oxidant from the compressor 2 bypassing the combustion chamber of high pressure to increase power and fuel cell 6.

Thus, this method will increase the dynamic and flexible possibilities of energy generation, reduce fuel consumption, reduce losses associated with inadequate expansion of the combustion products to the turbine, to increase the reliability of the fuel element due to additional opportunities to regulate its temperature and power modes, regardless of the mode of the gas turbine, to improve the economic performance of power plants and power supply systems.

1. The method of generating energy, in which the oxidizer low pressure compressed multi-stage compressor, and then directed into the combustion chamber of a high pressure, which also serves part of the fuel and the heated oxidant stream of high pressure and from which the combustion products are directed into the gas turbine, and then in a fuel cell for the electrochemical oxidation of another part of the fuel, characterized in that at least part of the low pressure oxidizer is directed to the input in the fuel cell, and recovering the stream is burned in the combustion chamber of low pressure.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the low pressure oxidizer supplied to the inlet to the fuel element selected from lower stages of the compressor.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the fuel prior to combustion chamber high pressure is of compress, evaporated or reducing.

4. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that at least part of the compressor stages rotate by means of the gas turbine.

5. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that after the combustion chamber low pressure exiting stream is cooled by heating the oxidant and/or fuel.

6. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the combustion in the combustion chamber of the low pressure lead on the catalyst based on palladium, rhenium, platinum, rhodium or their compounds.

7. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that regulate the flow of fuel and/or oxidant in the fuel cell depending on energy needs or speed limits heating of the fuel element.

8. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the fuel is selected from a range that contains hydrogen, natural gas, synthesis gas, hydrocarbons, methanol, ammonia, ethyl alcohol, or a mixture thereof.

9. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the oxidizing agent is chosen oxygen or air.



 

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