Silencer of underground facility
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: silencer includes head-frame ventilation stand with wall closed in transverse plane and provided with air-permeable openings, ceiling and roof, and external enclosure made in the form of an upward diverging funnel with sound reflecting inner surface and arranged with a gap relative to ventilation stand. Wall and ceiling of ventilation stand are made of high-porous noise-absorbing blocks. External enclosure is provided with the roof which has an annular through slot in transverse plane. At that, air openings made in the wall of ventilation stand are located in crossing rows between adjacent noise absorbing blocks.
EFFECT: reducing the noise level in vicinity of head-frame structures.
2 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to the field of energy and can be used for the installation of noise control systems of underground facilities in the places of the latter on the surface.
In cases where an underground structure, such as a metro station with ventilation shaft, placed in dense and densely populated urban development, it demands regarding noise from the powerful underground ventilation units.
Known to the sound of the underground facilities in the form of ventilation kiosk metro, including support structure with vozduhopropuskayuschy Windows, equipped with louvered grilles and external annular fence with vertical walls, lined inside soundproofing lining considerable thickness, not reaching the top of fences and walls designed for killing mostly low-frequency sound vibrations from working in underground construction powerful ventilation units (RU 2286459 C1).
The main disadvantage of such devices is that even a very large thickness of his fences with soundproofing lining does not guarantee safe for human health soundproofing. This is due to the extension part of the low-frequency sound vibrations through the fence in the horizontal such is the pressure down to the lower floors of the surrounding buildings and virtually unimpeded spread up high frequency sound vibrations.
Closest to the proposed muffler to the technical essence and the achieved result is a device that performs mainly a function of the noise underground structures and includes support ventilation kiosk closed in the transverse plane wall with vozduhopropuskayuschy window, ceiling and roof and external fence is made in the form of a funnel extending up from a sound-reflecting inner surface and placed with a gap relative to the ventilation kiosk. In this device a single number vozduhopropuskayuschy Windows made in the wall of solid material, is located at the same level over the entire height of the wall and each of the Windows taken louvered grill (EN 2368848 C1).
The disadvantage of such a muffler can be noted that high-frequency sound vibrations still reach the nearby buildings at a level above the funnel fencing. This is due to the absence of the device, means for filtering the separation of the noise spectrum and virtually unimpeded transmission up high-frequency acoustic waves emanating from underground structures.
Object of the present invention is to provide a highly efficient muffler underground structures, devoid of the disadvantages of the known devices such specifications, the Oia and providing new technical result.
The problem is solved in that the muffler underground structures, including support ventilation kiosk closed in the transverse plane wall with vozduhopropuskayuschy window, ceiling and roof and external fence is made in the form of a funnel extending up from a sound-reflecting inner surface and placed with a gap relative to the ventilation kiosk, wall and ceiling ventilation kiosk made of highly porous sound-absorbing blocks, and the outer enclosure is equipped with a roof, with vozduhopropuskayuschy window in the wall of the ventilation kiosk located in intersecting rows of noise between adjacent blocks, and the roof outer fences muffler is made with the ring in a transverse plane through the slot. In a possible embodiment of the device domed roof are made.
The technical result of solving the problem is to reduce the noise level to a safe for human health values in the surrounding support structures. This result is achieved by the supply of the sound attenuator means filtering the noise spectrum of acoustic oscillations and multiple changes of direction of propagation of high frequency acoustic waves.
The essence of the invention, and it is advantages compared with the known technical solutions will become more clear and apparent from the following description of a specific example with reference to the accompanying drawings.
1 schematically shows a view in vertical section of the muffler underground structures manufactured according to the present invention.
Figure 2 is a top view of the muffler of figure 1.
In this example embodiment of the invention the muffler underground structures installed on the ventilation shaft 1 through underground base 2 made of reinforced concrete.
The muffler contains fixedly mounted on the base 2 ventilation kiosk with 3 closed in the transverse plane of the wall 4, the ceiling 5 and the roof 6. 4 wall and ceiling 5 are made of a highly porous sound-absorbing blocks. The wall 4 has in this example a hexagonal shape. The sound-absorbing material of the blocks is highly porous claydite-concrete. Noise block wall 4 is folded so that between adjacent blocks left vozduhopropuskayuschy Windows 7, arranged in intersecting rows across the surface of the wall 4. Noise blocks ceiling 5 stacked without leaving air layers between adjacent blocks. Roof 6 ventilation kiosk 3 is executed in this example, of galvanized sheet iron.
On the basis also have an external enclosure 8 of glass "triplex", placed with a gap 9 for ventilation kiosk 3 and is provided with a domed ceiling 10 of whether the domestic iron. In the overlay 10 is made circular in transverse plane through slot 11.
The operation is made in accordance with the present invention muffler underground structures is as follows:
Work with powerful ventilation units underground structures is accompanied by the appearance of sound waves of different frequencies, manifested in noise effect at the outlet of the ventilation shaft 1. In the case of exhaust ventilation air flow from the ventilation shaft 1 passes through the grid vozduhopropuskayuschy Windows 7 into the gap 9 between the wall 4 ventilation kiosk 3 and the external enclosure 8 and is available through the annular slot 11 of the slab 10 to the atmosphere.
Together with the air flow are propagated sound waves.
When passing through the trellised wall 4 is filtered noise spectrum of the sound waves with the separation of high-frequency and low-frequency components. When this sound wave of high frequency partially extinguished by passing them through a labyrinth network of pores in the blocks of the wall 4 and the ceiling 5 of the ventilation kiosk 3. The main part of the high-frequency waves passes freely (separated) through the lattice with numerous vozduhopropuskayuschy Windows 7. Low-frequency sound waves largely extinguished by the sound-absorbing material of the components the wall 4 and the ceiling 5. The residual energy of low-frequency waves extinguished material outer fences 8 and the roof 6 of the ventilation kiosk 3. High-frequency sound waves when moving in the gap 9 between the outer fence 8 and ventilation kiosk 3 first recorded along the inner surface of the enclosure 8 to the top 10, where they again change direction and extend along the inner surface of the roof 10. When meeting with the external enclosure 8 and the roof 10 and passing through the annular slot 11 with the direction of the movement of high-frequency sound waves largely lose their energy in and out of the muffler that is safe for human health noise level.
As can be seen from the above, made in the form of a lattice of highly porous sound-absorbing wall blocks of a closed loop serves as a combined means for separating, filtering and damping of acoustic waves of different frequencies. The use of such means, characterized in the claims traits together with other structural features of the muffler, provides a significant reduction coming from underground construction noise to safe for people's health level.
1. The muffler underground structures, including support ventilation kiosk with a closed cross plosko and wall, having vozduhopropuskayuschy window, ceiling and roof and external fence is made in the form of a funnel extending up from a sound-reflecting inner surface and placed with a gap relative to the ventilation kiosk, characterized in that the wall and ceiling ventilation kiosk made of highly porous sound-absorbing blocks, and the outer enclosure is equipped with a roof, with vozduhopropuskayuschy window in the wall of the ventilation kiosk located in intersecting rows of noise between adjacent blocks, and the roof outer fences are made with circular in transverse plane through the slot.
2. The muffler according to claim 1, characterized in that the top of the outer fence is made dome.
SUBSTANCE: air distributor has perforated housing having the possibility of its being introduced to the joint area between the first air duct that is arranged in one direction and the second air duct that is arranged in the second other direction so that air flow at the outlet of the first air duct can be switched over to the second air duct.
EFFECT: reducing the level of low-frequency noise.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: throttle gate consists of multitude of friction elements arranged lengthwise downstream at distance from each another so, that fluid is continuously throttled along length of throttle gate due to friction on individual throttling elements.
EFFECT: control of volume of fluid consumption in pipe at low noise.
8 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: here is disclosed element of silencer consisting of case with flap cover. The case is filled with sound absorbing material placed in a protective shell. Walls of the case are formed with a sound absorbing structure made as cylinder perforated coaxial shells - internal and external ones. Between the shells there is installed a sound absorber made out of at least one profiled sheet. Also, profile of the sheet in cross section can be rectangular or trapezoidal.
EFFECT: improved acoustic characteristics in region of low, medium of high frequencies.
SUBSTANCE: system includes pit shaft with air-sound channels, ventilation and noise silencer chambers and ventilation stall. Stall is attached to pit shaft by means of the pipeline piece built in the building located above the underground structure. Between ventilation and noise silencer chambers there installed is elastic diaphragm with an opening.
EFFECT: reducing noise level by means of multi-staged silencing.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to procedure of noise suppressing. The noise suppressor consists of a case, of inlet and outlet branches and of a sound absorber. The sound absorber includes a rigid wall. A profiled layer out of sound absorbing material is attached to this wall. Sound absorbing material is produced by alteration of semi-sphere or partially spherical surfaces so, that between the wall and the layer of sound absorbing material there are continuous intervals alternating with air intervals formed with semi-sphere. The profiled layer is also attached to a perforated element of the case. This profiled layer consists of sound absorbing material obtained at alternation of semi-sphere or partially spherical surfaces. This arrangement facilitates alteration of continuous and air gaps formed with semi-sphere between the perforated element of the case with acoustic transparent material and the layer of sound absorbing material. Also the profiled layer at the rigid wall is a mirror reflection of the profiled layer at the perforated element of the case relative to symmetry line 0-0 of the solid profiled layer.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of noise suppressing.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to procedure of noise suppressing. The noise suppressor consists of case of rectangular cross section rigidly connected to inlet and outlet branches and of sound absorbing plates. The sound absorbing plates are made as a frame containing perforated sheets filled with sound absorber. The plates are arranged in the case at a specified step forming flat channels. Also each sound absorbing plate contains perforated walls. Sound absorbing profiled layers of triangular cross section out of sound absorbing material are attached to the perforated walls and are arranged opposite to them; this arrangement ensures an air gap between the profiled layers. Notably, a recess of one layer opposes projection of another. Surfaces of profiles are congruent and are arranged with a shift at value equal to half of length of triangle base.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of noise suppressing.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: noise suppressor is designed for damping noise. The noise suppressor consists of a case of rectangular cross section rigidly tied with end inlet and outlet branches and of noise absorbing plates. The noise absorbing plates are arranged in the case at a certain step, forming flat channels in the case. Each noise absorbing plate contains perforated walls. A noise absorbing profiled layer is inserted between the walls; depending on density, the layer is either made as a solid element, for example by sintering or pressure moulding, or is composed out of two noise absorbing profiled layers. Each of these profiled layers is produced by alternating semi-spherical surfaces or surfaces of part of sphere so, as to facilitate alternation of continuous and air intervals between the perforated wall and the layer of noise absorbing material. Also the noise absorbing profiled layer at one perforated wall is a mirror reflection of the profiled layer at another perforated wall relative to symmetry line 0-0 of the continuous profiled layer. The layers merge to ensure location of a recess of one layer opposite to the recess of another and a projection of one layer opposite to projection of another.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of noise suppressing.
SUBSTANCE: device contains casing, which allows inlet-pipe connection for air and exhaust branch for air and in inner space of which it is placed device for change of air direction, between inlet and exhaust branches for air it is located pass approximately vertically divide wall, which divide inner space for two chambers, separated by drain port.
EFFECT: compactness and small loses of pressure.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: box is designed for ventilation shaft of the subway. The box includes a headgear construction with air-conducting windows and external barrier in the form of ring-shaped shield. The shield is made in the form of cone widening upward and of amorphous material, and the inner surface of which is coated with a protective coating with sound reflecting inner surface. There is a through clearance between the shield and headgear construction.
EFFECT: sound reduction.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device, system and method aim at generation of column air flow. An air handling device comprises a body, an in-built driving wheel that generates downward air flow and in-built blades mounted in close proximity to the driving wheel at specified distance and serving to generate straight-line air flow. The device generates air flow that essentially holds column shape at the considerable distance. The method consists in generating air flow that essentially holds column shape at the considerable distance and is directed from ceiling to floor to mix air layers of air of various temperatures in an enclosed air space. Besides, the method consists that warm air directed from ceiling to floor accumulates thermal energy in floor, in devices being thereon and thereunder. If ceiling is colder than floor, accumulated energy is released.
EFFECT: reduced power consumption and noise level.
32 cl, 24 dwg
SUBSTANCE: scroll conveyor designed for vertical coarse size elements transportation. Scroll conveyor consists of an outer casing with a platform, scroll spiral, loading and off-loading window, off-loading chute and reduction gear. The casing is equipped with an inner linear groove located parallel to the axis along the casing. Inside the casing splined bushings with hollow axis and splined bushings anti-rotation device is situated on the stationary shaft. Bearing bushings of helice severity are located in the casing. Reduction gear is situated in the upper, lower or middle part of the casing.
EFFECT: enhancement of the coefficient of uprise of transported masses efficiency, as well as reduction in the quantity of the equipment items involved, elimination of breaking zones at the centerline and in the corners of the spiral-shaft.
SUBSTANCE: controller comprises multiple louver plates adapted to be installed in a frame and to rotate in it around the longitudinal axis between the specified position, in which the louver plates are combined to close or to limit a part of a channel, and the open position for passage of air between plates of louvers and through a channel, an inclined mechanism to impact every louver plate so that in process of usage each louver plate is adapted to be held in the specified position until the specified air flow to the plates is achieved, at the same time the inclined mechanism is a spacer mechanism, capable of impacting every louver plate for its rotation into the specified position and represents a gas spacer connected to a lever mechanism acting at louver plates, for their displacement into the specified position, at the same time at the air flow specified the louver plates are capable of impacting the lever mechanism, which is capable of impacting the gas spacer as each plate is displaced towards the open position.
EFFECT: protection of mechanism against excessive force and automation of operation.
14 cl, 9 ex, 18 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises pumping waste drill fluids from drilling rig to subsurface reservoir 1, forcing them through well 2 into said reservoir and changing them into frozen state. For this, free space 7 is provided in reservoir top section making at least 9% of the volume of fluid contained in drill wastes. In-season refrigerating device 3 is lowered through the well onto the reservoir bottom into drill wastes sediments. Drill wastes are frozen at the temperature lower than that of permafrost rocks in direction from reservoir vertical axis to its side surface.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of disposal.
SUBSTANCE: device includes metal pressure shield in the form of rectangular parallelepiped consisting of four triangular prisms attached to each other, the bases of which have the shape of oblique right triangle, drain pipes with filters and sampling pipes with plug, door opening with door made in the shield, soft covers arranged on upper and lateral sides of shield, the height of which exceeds distance between shield and mine working section outline at their complete filling with compressed air. At bottom, on the side of filling mass the shield is equipped with rubber-coated canvas. Soft covers installed to lateral sides of shield are arranged on brackets attached throughout the height of connection strap to its side walls. Width of brackets is accepted equal to 2/3 of width of soft covers, and distance between brackets is determined from the following ratio: hmax>a>hmin, where a - distance between brackets, m; hmax - maximum height of soft covers at supply of compressed air to it, m; hmin - minimum height of soft covers after air discharge from it, m.
EFFECT: reducing labour intensity at installation of connection strap, increasing efficiency and improving reliability of control of filling mass.
SUBSTANCE: method involves arrangement of reinforcing elements made in the form of mesh in filling chamber at the boundary with rock ore to be developed. Reinforcing elements are arranged at distance of 0.05b from each other, where b - chamber width. After installation of reinforcing elements the worked out space is filled with filling mass of various strength. Lower, central and upper part of chamber is filled at 1/10 of its height with curing mixture, and space between them with hydraulic fluid from fine material without binding agent.
EFFECT: reducing the costs; improving manufacturing capabilities.
SUBSTANCE: method involves pre-planning of tunnel route as per the data of engineering geology and topography and tunnel driving. First, according to the route of the future tunnel there determined are underground water courses, their width, depth, specific yield, distance between them and direction of water movement. Tunnel driving is performed; at that, first, infiltration tunnel of small section is drilled, and then, parallel to it there drilled is the main tunnel with some delay; pillar is left between tunnels, which through the distance determined by technological necessity is cleaved by breaking off, or the main tunnel is driven after infiltration tunnel with absorption of its section. Along the route of infiltration tunnel there arranged are recesses in its wall, into which filters for water interception and reduction of hydraulic pressure are drilled from the surface. Drilling frequency of filters are chosen depending on the number of underground water courses, their thickness and considering water abundance of confined aquifers. At top and bottom of infiltration tunnel there also arranged are upward and downward filters; at that, the water supplied from all filters is collected in water diversion terrace of infiltration tunnel and diverted to safe place on the surface.
EFFECT: reducing construction cost, controlling big water flows, reducing hydraulic water pressure, providing reliable safe and dry driving of the main tunnel and non-overhaul operation in the future.
SUBSTANCE: method involves driving of mine workings of the first order at an angle of 5-7° to horizon through pillars with width equal to one bay, their further stowing with stowing mixture and its solidification, driving of entry ways of the second order with their further stowing with stowing mixture. Entry ways of the second order are driven with the height increased in relation to entry ways of the first order by 0.7-1.0 m. Cavities under roof of adjacent entry ways of the first order are filled with stowing mixture of entry ways of the second order, thus providing their stowing and contact of covering mining thickness with stowing mass.
EFFECT: increasing ore development safety.
SUBSTANCE: air supplying gate and the main air gate pass along opposite boundaries of mine field so that they run ahead of extraction front through the length equal to distance between axes of the rooms. At that, rooms have the length equal to width of mine field and are located between air supplying gate and ventilation air gate. Fresh air is supplied through the tunnel located in front of extraction front. At that, return ventilation air is removed along auxiliary air gate.
EFFECT: improving concentration of mining operations, reducing volumes of preparatory mine work, and decreasing air leaks through the worked-out area.
SUBSTANCE: gate includes double-leaf bed installed in box and longitudinal and transverse bed movement mechanisms. Elastic seals are arranged in closed position of gate between box and front surface of bed, as well as on rear surface of bed. Simultaneous pressure of bed leaves to box is performed with external support fixed in the wall of underground mine working.
EFFECT: higher strength of double-leaf bed of gate and higher sealing reliability of underground mine working.
7 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: composition of a filling mixture, containing cement, a surfactant, a filler and water, as a binder it additionally contains a ground blast-furnace granulated acidulous slag, containing particles of less than 1 mcm of at least 4.3%, the surfactant is a superplasticiser SP-1, and the filler is a mixture of wastes of dressing of wet magnetic separation of ferric quartzites with slag crushed stone at the following ratio of components, wt %: cement - 4.85; specified slag - 12.1; specified crushed stone - 10; specified wastes - 55; superplasticiser SP-1 - 1.0% from cement; water - balance.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of cement, increased strength of massif, recycling of mining and metallurgical industry wastes and wastes of ferric quartzites dressing, reduced contamination of environment for considerable improvement of environment in the region.
1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: pipeline has sections made in form of hermetically interconnected outer and inner covers, mounted with space relatively to each other, and main ventilator. On different ends of pipeline flow meter and additional ventilator are mounted, the latter having adjustable characteristics and being connected to inter-pipe space by branch pipe. In inner cover apertures are made placed along radius and along length of cover. Air comes from apertures to air channel and forms additional air flow near walls of inner cover, which lowers or heightens aerodynamic resistance of ventilation pipeline.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher safety, lesser costs.