Two-layer sheet material and method of its application

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of composite materials, particularly, to two-layer sheet material and to method of its fabrication. Two-layer sheet material comprises metal substrate from aluminium and layer of PTFE. Metal substrate is made from aluminium powder and bonded with the layer of PTFE powder layer over the entire surface of contact by blast extrusion to produce wavy surface of bond. Proposed method comprises producing metal substrate, applying polymer coat from PTFE and thermal treatment. Aluminium powder is used as substrate material. Application of polymer coat is accompanied by blas extrusion using sliding shock wave at the pressure of 0.5-0.7 GPa and with shock pulse duration of, at least, 35 mcs while thermal treatment is performed at 400°C and 0.6-0.7 MPa.

EFFECT: higher adhesion due to PTFE blast shock wave effects.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the production of composite materials and can be used in the manufacture of laminated polymeric materials with anti-corrosion, anti-friction and anti-icing coatings.

Known metal-polymer composite materials containing metal substrate, the underlayer of a mixture of non-metallic substances, constituting the adhesive composition, and a polymeric film bonded through the adhesive composition to the substrate (application 3-62146, JP, IPC6WV 15/08, publ. 25.09.91, the application 3-2036, JP, IPC6WV 15/08, publ. 08.01.91).

The disadvantage of these materials is the existence between the metal substrate and the coating of adhesive sublayer complex chemical composition, which, reacting with the coating, affects its functional properties.

Known composite layered material that includes a metal base consisting of two or more metal layers and polymer coating on the outer surface of the metal layer (patent RF №2220852, M CL VV 15/08, WV 31/12, SS 28/00, publ. 10.01.2004).

The disadvantage of this layered material is that the metal base is underdeveloped in relation to the microgeometry of the surface on which the connection is made of metal with a polymer, which negatively affects the performance of the adhesive coloring strength is I.

Closest to the claimed is a two-layer sheet or tape comprising a metal base and a layer of Teflon, glued together and fitted with a regular microrelief. Regular microrelief on the substrate surface is made convex shape on a surface of the fluoropolymer layer is a convex or concave shape, while it is placed on the PTFE layer on one or both sides and is 40-45% of the area of the bonding layer (patent RF №2033332, M CL VV 15/08, publ. 20.04.1995 - prototype).

The disadvantage of this invention is to limit the creation of development of the microgeometry of a connected surface, and this reduces the operational capability of the material because of the lower adhesion strength between metal and polymer.

The technical result of the invention is to provide a two-layer sheet material with dense multi coating and high adhesive strength, resistant to fracture and delamination in the manufacture and use of products made of this material.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that the two-layer sheet material comprising a metal base and a layer of PTFE, metal base features made of aluminium powder and combine with a layer of PTFE powder on the entire surface of the contact pressed the a W a blast with the simultaneous formation of surface compounds undulating profile.

A known method of manufacturing the composite layered polymeric material, comprising the stage of applying the adhesive polymer composition on the metal surface and forming on the surface of the metal pokrytiya from plastic by injection molding, and then to a metal surface down heat and pressure (patent RF №2245791, MCL C08J 5/12, VS 45/14, publ. 10.02.2005).

The disadvantage of this method is that its implementation is possible only with the use of well raspravlyalsya polymers, and quite impossible, if the polymer adhesive, such as polytetrafluoroethylene, destroy, bypassing the stage a plastic state.

A method of obtaining composite coatings on metal base, such as aluminum and its alloys, comprising obtaining a substrate by the method of electrolytic oxidation in an electrolyte, applying a polymeric film of Teflon by mechanical rubbing powdery material films and subsequent annealing (RF patent No. 2068037, MCL C25D 11/18, publ. 20.10.1996).

The disadvantages of this method are the low density coatings, and low adhesive bond strength of composite coatings with aluminum and its alloys.

Closest to the claimed is a method of manufacturing a composite laminate, in which with obtaining layered metal base, forming a specific surface topography of the outer metal layer, applying a polymer coating of polytetrafluoroethylene, subsequent heat treatment and deformation of the polymer coating (patent RF №2220852, MCL WV 15/08, WV 31/12, SS 28/00, publ. 10.01.2004 - prototype).

The disadvantage of this method is a great complexity of technological operations connected with the preparation metal surface before forming a composite material, the need for deformation processing of polymer coating, which significantly complicates the technology and involves the application of a large number of intermediate operations, compared with the proposed method.

This method has a low technical level, since the deformation of the coating after it is formed, although accompanied by an increase in the density of the coating, but leads to a decrease in the adhesion strength between the metal core and the polymer.

The technical result of the invention to provide a method of manufacturing a two-layer sheet material with dense multi coating and high adhesive strength, resistant to fracture and delamination due to improvements in the explosive shock-wave effects, the adhesion properties of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).

Specified technology the economic result is achieved by a method for manufacturing a double layer of sheet metal material, including the production of the metallic base, the polymer coating of PTFE and subsequent heat treatment, carried out by the new technological scheme, where the material of the metallic base take aluminum powder dispersion 51-100 μm, covered it with a layer thickness of 0.6-1.0 mm layer of powdered PTFE thickness of 2-10 mm, then obtaining a metal base and application of polymer coating takes place simultaneously with pressing the explosion of a moving shock wave pressure of 0.5-0.7 GPA at the duration of the shock pulse is not less than 35 ISS, and heat treatment is carried out at a temperature of 400°C under a pressure of 0.6-0.7 MPa.

The essence of the invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows the profile of two-layer sheet material, figure 2 - scheme for two-layer sheet material, figure 3 shows the graphical dependence of adhesion strength on the thickness of the layers of two-layer sheet material, where the y-axis show the values of resistance, delamination, and the abscissa shows the thickness values of the layers of aluminum powder (a) and PTFE powder (b).

The proposed two-layer sheet material contains a polymer coating (see figure 1) PTFE 1, the metallic base layer 2 made of aluminum, and a surface is the efficiency of the connection layer has an undulating profile 3. In this two-layer sheet material of polymer and metal layers are made of powder components. The compacting of powders in a monolithic layers, and creating a wave-like profile 3 on the entire surface of the contact layers perform explosive pressing the moving shock wave. When explosive compaction is also the welding surfaces of the individual particles, their melting and plastic deformation. Plastic deformation-dependent parameters explosive loading, heterogeneous in terms of particles, layers of sheet material and leads to voids on the border of the metallic base and the porosity of the polymer coating. To eliminate these defects of the sheet material is subjected to heat treatment at a temperature of 400°C under a pressure of 0.6-0.7 MPa.

The level of development of the surface of the connection determines the level of adhesion of the layers 1 and 2. The powder components of the polymer and metal layers together with wavy profile 3, formed during explosive compaction, provides an excellent surface compound layer over the entire area of contact, this significantly increases the adhesion strength (resistance to delamination of the layers). The increase in the adhesion strength also contributes to the shock wave activation components selectorecombinative material, carried out by explosive compaction.

The proposed method is as follows. In the container 4 (see figure 2)mounted on the metal substrate 5 and the soil Foundation 6 (sand), put the metal foil 7, treated with a release material, for example graphite. The foil fall asleep layer 1 powdered PTFE thickness of 2-10 mm, after which the vibration effects give the initial density layer of 0.8 Mg/m3. Then fall asleep layer 2 of aluminum powder fraction in the range from 51 to 100 μm, the thickness of the layer should be 0,6-1,0 mm from the Top of the powder layers have a metal shield 8 in the form of a plate thickness of 2 mm, and on a set metal drummer 9 with a thickness of 10mm At the drummer 9 place the container 10 made of cardboard filled explosive to the desired height and velocity of detonation to ensure compaction pressure of 0.5-0.7 GPA and duration of the shock pulse is not less than 35 ISS. In an explosive, according to the scheme placed the detonator 11. Next, using the detonator carried out undermining explosives, while the shock wave from the detonation products provides pressing layered composite metal material moving shock wave. Then, the resulting sheet material is subjected to sintering in an electric furnace p is a pressure of 0.6-0.7 MPa at a temperature of 400°C. After cooling to produce removing the two-layer sheet material, the separation of the foil.

From the obtained by this technology sheet materials produced samples that were subjected to testing for delamination according to GOST 28966.1-91 at a speed of 30 mm/min Density of the coating was determined after separation of the samples according to GOST 15139-69. The results are given in the table.

A new two-layer sheet material and the manufacturing method has significant differences compared to the prototype as the structure of the product and aggregate technological methods of influence on the resulting object, the mode of its implementation.

Proposed two-layer sheet material of polymer and metal layers run of the powder components, which in combination with a wave-like profile formed by explosive compaction, provides an excellent surface compound layer over the entire area of contact, this significantly increases the adhesion strength (resistance to delamination of the layers).

Proposed to obtain a metal base to use aluminum powder dispersion 51-100 μm (see table, experiments 1-3), which is the most appropriate for forming sheet blanks sufficient for further processing of the plastic properties and exceptions

Tableno experienceThe particle size, micronsThe pressure of the explosive compaction, HPaThe duration of the shock pulse, ISSThe sintering temperature, °CThe pressure during sintering, MPaThe coverage density, mg/m3Adhesive tensile delamination, kN/mDefects141-502,124,5Cracks in the base metal251-1000,6354000,72,197,7-3101-1252,183,4The porosity of the metallic base 40,42,13of 5.4Cohesive destruction of the layer of metal551-1000,5354000,72,197,6-60,62,197,6-70,72,187,7-80,8--Cracks, traces of the polymer destruction9302,136,5 -10352,197,6-1151-1000,6404000,72,197,7-12452,187,6-13502,197,7-143802,166,4153902,177,21651-1000,6 354000,72,197,7174102,155,8Traces of the polymer destruction180,52,177,4190,62,187,7-2051-1000,6354000,72,197,7-210,8--Extrusion of polymer

technology of production of certain additional operations pre the harmonization of the metallic base. When explosive extrusion of aluminum powder fractions of more than 100 μm, without the prior seals there are certain problems with the quality of the metal layer. Residual surface porosity and partial stratification boundaries of the individual powder particles. It should be noted that very fine grain powder, less than 51 μm, which comprise, for example, aluminum powder, much stronger resist deformation, and in this way it would be necessary to resort to additional pressing operation to avoid damage to metal framework.

Proposed while obtaining a metal substrate and applying a polymer coating of PTFE by pressing the explosion to place a layer of aluminum powder on the layer of PTFE, which provides a higher pressure in the aluminium layer and facilitates the welding of the particles of metal powder and its more uniform distribution along the height of the material. In another arrangement of layers may lack the seal layer of the metallic base or destruction of the polymer.

The proposed filling of aluminum powder to make a layer thickness of 0.6-1.0 mm (see figure 3), the thickness of the metal base is formed in the range of 0.2-0.4 mm Filling aluminum powder layer thickness of 0.6 mm is technically difficult is sustained fashion and does not provide the solidity of the metal base. Backfilling aluminum powder layer thickness of more than 1.0 mm leads to the cohesive nature of the destruction of the layered metal material due to the low strength of the metallic base.

The proposed polymer coating forming of bulk PTFE layer with a thickness of 2-10 mm (see figure 3), which provides a coating thickness of 0.5 to 2.5 mm thickness Reduction of the bulk layer is less than the stated causes technical difficulties, and if the thickness is more than stated, because of the internal stress due to volumetric effects occurring in the polymer during thermal exposure, implemented a lower adhesive strength.

Proposed receiving the metallic base and application of polymer coating can be made simultaneously by pressing the explosion of a moving shock wave pressure of 0.5-0.7 GPA at the duration of the shock pulse is not less than 35 µs (see table, experiments 4-13). This scheme explosive loading provides compacting powder materials into virtually any space. If the pressure is less than 0.5 HPa, it leads to cohesive fracture of the sheet material due to the low strength of the metallic base. If the pressure is more of 0.7 GPA, the polymeric coating cracks and traces of destruction. The duration of the shock pulse less than 35 MK is a decrease of density of the polymer coating.

The proposed heat treatment of the laminated sheet material to produce at a temperature of 400°C under a pressure of 0.6-0.7 MPa to relieve stresses in the metal layer and monolithically polymer coating (see table experiments 14-21). Deviation from the declared values of technological parameters in large and smaller side leads to a decrease of the density of the polymer coating, the adhesion strength and the occurrence of various defects.

Example (see the table, the experience of 20).

Cardboard container with transverse dimensions 500×300 mm was mounted on top of the metal substrate (sheet) made of steel St 3 15 mm thick, placed on a sand base. At the bottom of the container put food aluminum foil, oiled, powdered graphite. The foil sequentially covered with a layer thickness of 3 mm of PTFE powder, which after vibration exposure compacted to the original density of 0.8 mg/m3and then layer with a thickness of 0.7 mm of aluminum powder brand PA-2 GOST 6058-73 with particle sizes 51-100 μm. On top of the powder layers have a metal shield of steel 20 with a thickness of 2 mm, and the metal drummer (sheet) steel Article 3 with a thickness of 10mm At the drummer placed a container made of cardboard, where slept the explosive with a detonation speed of 1,900 m/s (mixture of Ammonite IV and ammonium nitrate in zootoxin and 25/75). Using the detonator carried out undermining explosives, and the resulting moving shock wave was provided by compressing the layered composite metal material pressure of 0.6 GPA at the duration of the shock pulse 35 ISS. Thus obtained sheet material was subjected to sintering in an electric furnace under a pressure of 0.7 MPa at a temperature of 400°C, which corresponds to 1.22 melting point of PTFE, with exposure of 0.25 hours. After cooling produced removing the sheet and the separation of the foil from the workpiece.

The material obtained in this way has no cracks, delamination and other defects and has a high density polymer coating 2,19 mg/m3and adhesive strength when the delamination of the layers 7,7 kN/m

The use of this technical solutions for the development of a two-layer sheet metal material will achieve at the same time many performance properties of various parts, as the material of the polymer layer is used PTFE (most corrosion-resistant polymer, has a high-friction characteristics, little is icing). The main disadvantage of PTFE is its low adhesive strength to various substrates. The proposed method of manufacture will allow you to obtain a double-layer l is stoway composite material based on PTFE and aluminum with a high density polymer coating and high adhesive strength between the layers. Unlike PTFE sheet obtained laminated material may easily connect through the layer of the metallic base by welding, gluing or other means with the surface of the products, working in conditions of friction, corrosive environment in a wide range of temperatures from cryogenic up to 280°C).

1. Two-layer sheet material comprising a metal base and a layer of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), interconnected, characterized in that the metal base is made of powder of aluminum, is connected with a layer of PTFE powder on the entire surface of the contact by pressing the explosion with the simultaneous formation of surface compounds undulating profile.

2. A method of manufacturing a two-layer sheet material, including the production of the metallic base, the polymer coating of PTFE and subsequent heat treatment, characterized in that the material of the metallic base take aluminum powder dispersion 51-100 μm, covered it with a layer thickness of 0.6-1.0 mm layer of powdered PTFE thickness of 2-10 mm, then obtaining a metal base and application of polymer coating takes place simultaneously with pressing the explosion of a moving shock wave pressure of 0.5-0.7 GPA at the duration of the shock pulse is not less than 35 ISS, and heat treatment is carried out at a pace which the temperature of 400°C under a pressure of 0.6-0.7 MPa.



 

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FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder metallurgy. Particularly it relates to structure and method of production of sintered contact plate. It can be used for outfitting of current collector for railway vehicle. Contact plate is implemented in the form of strip made of posder antifriction material on the basis of copper and contains plastic layer made of powder from copper or iron. Into plastic layer there are pressed in fastening bolts. Blank for contact plate and by holes for bolts there are formed in a press during the press process. Fastening bolts, preinstalled in press mold, are pressed into heated blank during the compression process.

EFFECT: received plate allows high mechanical properties and allows increased operating resource.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely manufacture of cutting members of composition materials on base of diamond and(or) cubic boron nitride for cutters, milling cutters, drilling and dressing tools.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of placing in press-mold charge 2 containing powder of super-hard materials and binder; at first pressing charge while simultaneously pressing out binder through gaps 4 between die 1 and punch 3. Value h of gaps is no more than minimum size of grains of powder of super-hard material. In order to form metallic layer, pressed out binder is pressed in addition in gap-free press-mold until it distributes along surface of blank. Both stages of pressing process are realized at temperature providing fluidity of binder. Formed cutting member includes cutting layer with stable concentration of super-hard materials exceeding 62 vol.% and metallic layer providing reliable joining of cutting member with holder.

EFFECT: improved quality of cutting member.

6 cl, 8 dwg

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