Method to recover abandoned pits
SUBSTANCE: method includes separate excavation, movement and storage of the soil layer and overburden rocks, mining of the open-pit field, filling of the mined space to the border of the upper level of ground water with construction wastes close in their composition to natural minerals, laying of the draining layer from construction wastes, with thickness of at least 0.6 m and fraction size of 150-200 mm. After filling of the pit with construction wastes, terracing is carried out using a bulldoser, at the same time at first the site is laid out, and furrows that mark borders of future terraces, paths and access roads are tilled. Then the bed of each terrace is formed serially with the bulldoser with a reverse cross inclination up to two degrees, along the entire perimetre of the pit. Bed width at each terrace is arranged as at least equal to seven metres. Then retaining walls are arranged from plates or stones and are bound with cement mortar. The drainage system is laid, and places are arranged on the terraces for burial of the deceased.
EFFECT: reduced labour inputs and cost of recovery works.
The invention relates to the technical reclamation career grooves, remaining after the extraction of building stone and other subsurface minerals.
There is a method of recovery of disturbed lands in open field development (1), selected as a prototype, includes separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, the development of career fields, mined-out space to the border of the upper level of groundwater construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions, in layers with subsequent compaction of each layer, packing: draining layer and the layer of fertile soil.
The disadvantage of this method is the extraction of large volumes of soil to create the fertile soil layer, which in turn leads to the formation of large areas of disturbed land, rising labor costs and a significant increase in the cost of the rehabilitation works.
The present invention reduces the labor and cost of the rehabilitation works. For this purpose, in the way of restoration of worked-out quarries, including separate excavation, movement and storage of topsoil and overburden, the development of career fields, mined-out the CSOs space to the border of the upper level of groundwater construction waste similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions, in layers with subsequent compaction of each layer, laying drainage layer construction waste, of a thickness of not less than 0.6 meter and a particle size fractions of 150-200 mm, according to izabranu on the remaining free slopes career, after his bookmarks construction waste, produce terracing with bulldozer will first produce a breakdown of the plot and PROPARCO furrows marking the boundaries of the future terraces, paths and driveways, then bulldozer form the fabric of every terraces with opposite transverse inclination of up to two degrees, and the width of the terraces should not be less than seven meters, then for each terrace, starting with the bottom tier of the terraces around the perimeter of the quarry, arrange the retaining wall of the plates or stone and bind them with cement mortar and lay the drainage system, and on the terraces arrange a place for burial of the dead, the distance from the groundwater table to the burial should be at least 2.5 meters, and to ground cloth terraces of not less than 1.5 meters, in addition, walkways, driveways and the space available in the career center spread of natural or artificial stone.
Introduction this technical solution reduces the cost of return is positive works through the use of construction waste, the resulting reconstruction, demolition and repair of buildings and structures, as well as eliminating the need for extraction of large volumes of soil to create a fertile layer, and terracing of slopes career allows you to reap the economic benefits from restoration of disturbed land without considerable cost. Given that the generated construction waste disposed to landfill disposal of household and industrial waste, the implementation of the present invention will improve the ecological situation.
The drawing shows the circuit implementation of this method.
The method is as follows.
First on the area of disturbed land perform planning work. The mean absolute elevation (ground level) shall be established with consideration of the feasibility study. The layout of the site comply with planned giving the surface a slight bias towards the General lowering of the earth's surface. Then proceed to the mined-out pit 1, stacking layers of construction waste is similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions. Each stacked layer compacted by the method of compacting sealing machines and mechanisms. The stacking of layers to produce the upper boundary of the groundwater level 2. Then stack the draining layer 3 of school is June or gravel with a thickness of not less than 0.6 meter and particle size fractions 150-200 mm. Condense it.
And proceed to the construction of terraces 4. After laying out the plot and propasti furrows marking the boundaries of the future terraces, walkways and paths, driveways, form the canvas terraces. The construction of terraces 4 given width, not less than seven meters with a cross slope of up to two degrees is produced by using the universal bulldozer. To which the blade is installed in its working position, pushing forward the right (sermon) side of the blade. For formation of company name to be cut angle right Shoe pusher bulldozer privertyvajut spherical head down, securing it in position, so that the knife blade gets the angle in the vertical profile. Then the bulldozer, selecting a relatively flat place to start, goes to the top of the right-of-way land under the terrace, and performing a reciprocating motion on a small stretch of road along the planned terraces, cuts the ground before the formation of the horizontal platform. Cut the ground weakly hurts from shoveling, so a slight turn of the bulldozer have to move it to the left (down the slope), pouring under the left caterpillar and thus replenish the bulk part of the terrace 4. Having finished the work in this period (length of 10-15 meters) bulldozer moves forward to a new area and so on until the end of the Ter is the 4 aces. Then the cycle is repeated with the next terrace. Then, starting from the bottom tier of the terraces around the perimeter of the quarry arrange the retaining wall 5 to strengthen the terraces 4. Retaining wall 5 to prevent the erosion of soil. For the construction of retaining walls 5 used plates and stone, and connect them with concrete mortar. To prevent stagnant waterlogging of the soil laid drainage system (the drawing is not marked). On the terraces 4 arrange places for burial of the dead, the distance (a) from the groundwater level prior to disposal (6) should be at least 2.5 meters, and the distance (b) from the landfill to ground cloth terraces not more than 1.5 meters. Walkways, driveways and free space 7 in the career center 1 post natural or artificial stone.
Sources of information
1. Patent of Russia №2274749, CL IS 41/32, 2005
The way of restoration of worked-out quarries, including separate excavation, movement and storage of topsoil and overburden, the development of career fields, mined-out space to the border of the upper level of groundwater construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions, in layers with subsequent compaction of each layer, laying drainage layer construction waste, casinoin less than 0.6 m and particle size fractions of 150-200 mm, characterized in that the remaining free slopes career after his bookmarks construction waste produced terracing with bulldozer will first produce a breakdown of the plot and PROPARCO furrows marking the boundaries of the future terraces, paths and driveways, then bulldozer form the fabric of every terraces with opposite transverse inclination of up to two degrees, and the width of the terraces should not be less than seven meters, then for each terrace, starting with the bottom tier of the terraces around the perimeter of the quarry, arrange the retaining wall of the plates or stone and bind them with cement mortar and lay the drainage system, and on the terraces arrange a place for the burial of the remains, the distance from the groundwater level prior to disposal shall be not less than 2.5 m, and to ground cloth terraces not more than 1.5 m, in addition, walkways, driveways and the space available in the career center spread of natural or artificial stone.
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: the invention relates to reclamation of worked-out pits. The method includes backfilling of worked-out space up to the upper underground water level by construction waste close to minerals by composition, and setting drainage layer. After the pit is filled with construction waste, terracing is carried out using a bulldozer. Furthermore, at first the area is divided and ribs are plowed, the ribs indicate the borders of future terraces. The bed of each terrace is formed by a bulldozer with reverse crossfall up to 2 degrees. Support walls are erected along the whole perimeter of the pit and drainage system is installed, while decorative plants, lawns and gardens are organized.
EFFECT: reduced labour intensity of worked-out pits reclamation, soil is protected from wind and water erosion.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: flattening of quarry sides is done bottom-up by means of their filling by application of stronger rocks taken from the bottom of the quarry. Filling may be carried out up to various vertical elevations at the board of the quarry depending on mine technical conditions of deposit bedding.
EFFECT: accelerated process of damaged lands recovery by increasing stability of flattened boards of the quarry to erosion processes, by arrangement of water reservoirs in the mined area with parameters favourable for recovery of their biological productivity.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves formation above the filled compartment of recultivation body from wastes with external surface of the specified convex shape and necessary for water flow and increase of the compartment capacity, and coating of external surface of recultivation body with layer of earth. At least lower part of recultivation body is formed in tiers, each of which is inwashed under protection of enclosing element installed along the tier perimetre by means of distributed outlet of pulp from pulp line so that sediment pond is formed in central part of tier and beach, which is specified on the basis of safety condition of width near the enclosing element providing the specified shape of external surface of recultivation body within the limits of the tier height. On wastes of beach zone of the compartment or tier of recultivation body there made is at least one water intake chamber in the form of the channel formed with dams and connecting the water intake facility to sediment pond. During tier-by-tier formation of recultivation body the dam crests of channels are maintained above water level in sediment pond, and water is supplied from channel by means of water intake facility to the water conduit of the water supply system of waste hydraulic transport. Length of channel section, which changes at inwash of wastes, from inlet threshold formed with wastes to water receiver of water intake facility 1k is brought into line with the following condition: Lchannel≥(hs-ht)/iunderwater, where hs - the specified water depth before water receiver of water intake facility; ht - water depth at inlet threshold of the channel; iunderwater - average slope of the projection of underwater inwash of wastes.
EFFECT: simplifying the erection of water intake facility, its operation and inwash of sediment pond with wastes at final stage of recultivation, increasing the storage unit volume and improving the quality of water clarification before water intake facility.
6 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves application of stationary sources of mixture dust escape on dust-forming surfaces. Note that the mixture is obtained by mixing of organic residues of natural origin and high-molecular weight compound in the ratio of 125:1 and it is applied with simultaneous natural or artificial watering and hayseed planting, thus creating the foundation for strong grass-covered bio-productive layer forming.
EFFECT: increase of dust escape efficiency of stationary sources of dust-forming surfaces and return of disturbed lands to agricultural fund.
3 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method consists in formation of recultivation body over filled pond from wastes with specified convex shape of external surface required for water drain, increase of pond capacity and improvement of esthetic value of landscape, and in coverage of external surface of recultivation body with a layer of soil. At least lower part of recultivation body is formed in tiers, every of which is washed under protection of barrier element by means of dispersed pulp discharge from pulp line to create a setting pond adjacent to slope and beach, with width specified by safety condition around barrier element, which provides, within the limits of tier height, giving recultivation body specified shape of external surface, afterwards upper part of recultivation body is formed. To obtain all of this, at least one water intake bucket is made on slope in the form of canal, which connects overtile to settling pond, and its sides are formed by means of excavation and/or backfill and exceed water level in settling pond. Upper part of recultivation body is formed by means of settling pond washing by wastes of settling pond with water displacement into canal done through dispersed discharge of pulp from pulp line at the side of slope. Length of canal section that varies in process of wastes washing from inlet threshold formed by wastes to overtile lo by means of canal extension towards settling pond is brought in compliance with the following condition: lo≥(hs-ht)/iunder, where hs - specified depth of water upstream overtile; ht - depth of water at inlet threshold of canal; iunder - average inclination of surface in underwater washing-in of wastes.
EFFECT: simplified erection of new overtile, increased reliability of pond and quality of water clarification.
5 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: pressure wells are drilled through landfill into water-bearing layer of rocks. Cement plug is developed in well bottomhole, and injection of grouting mortar is done in portions with delay between portions. Volume of each subsequent portion is increased relative to the previous one, and at least three first portions of grouting mortar are prepared on the basis of quick-hardening binder.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of grouting mortar and accordingly reduced finance inputs.
1 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to the field of hydraulic engineering and may be used in creation and reclamation of washed in collectors of grainy wastes, such as tailing dumps, sludge collectors and ash disposal areas, which adjoin slope of hillside or beam. Collector comprises earth reservoir formed by barrier dams and slope, system of washing-in arranged in the form of distribution pulp line with outlets and water intake structure equipped with water receiver, which takes water from settling pond, and drain water line, which supplies this water into system of wastes hydraulic transport return water supply. Collector is equipped with at least one water intake bucket made on slope in the form of canal, which connects water intake structure to settling pond, and its sides are formed by means of excavation and/or backfill and exceed water level in settling pond. Water receiver of water intake structure is arranged as floating and is equipped with pump and/or siphon, and drain water line is equipped with at least one hinged insert. Length of canal section that changes in process of wastes washing from inlet threshold formed by wastes to water receiver of water intake structure lc meets the following criterion: lc≥(hs-ht)/iunder, where hs - specified depth of water upstream water receiver of water intake structure; ht - depth of water at inlet threshold of canal; iunder - average inclination of surface in underwater washing-in of wastes.
EFFECT: group of inventions increases reliability and economic efficiency of collector due to simplified erection and increased reliability of water intake structure, improved quality of water clarification, simplified reclamation of collector and application of potential water energy in settling pond.
12 cl, 1 ex, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering and may be used in reclamation of sludge ponds. Method includes formation of reclamation body over compartment from wastes in tiers, and its outer surface is faced as convex with specified height, and this surface is coated with soil layer. Each tier is arranged by inwash of tier body to form settling pond and beach zone, realised under protection of barrier element erected along perimetre of tier with earth-moving equipment and providing for giving the reclamation body specified shape of external surface within the height of tier body. Barrier element in cross section is erected serially in parts. At first upstream fill is erected from soil material, then beach zone wastes are used to erect downstream fill, afterwards head wall is arranged from soil material suitable for further coating of external surface of reclamation body. Head wall is arranged over upstream fill and partially over downstream fill. It consists of temporary (cut) part and permanent, which forms a layer of soil with variable thickness over upstream fill and partially over downstream fill. Downstream fill is erected by means of excavator, which is equipped with dragline, moves in upstream fill, processes wastes of beach zone and puts them down into downstream fill. External surface is shaped as specified, afterwards it is coated with a layer of soil material taken from temporary part of head wall in barrier element of previous tier. Area of cross section in temporary part of head wall Wg in erected barrier element satisfies the following condition: wB<bxeS> where b - width of outer surface of downstream fill in barrier element subject to coating intended to erect the tier following in height by inwash; eS - thickness of soil layer. If a drain trench is arranged along compartment perimetre on upstream side from its barrier dam, its depth provides for lowering surface of soil water in body and foundation of barrier element in lower tiers of recultivation body below foot of layer of their seasonal freezing.
EFFECT: reduced costs and environmental expenses, increased reliability and wider field of application.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to open mining developments during terrace recultivation. Method of a terrace formation in the for of an artesian reservoir involving dumping inside the terrace first a layer of water-resistant rock, then - a layer of water-permeable rock with another layer of water-resistant rock on the top; the above layers are shaped in the form of lenses with outlets to the day surface wherethrough water is charged into the water-permeable layer.
EFFECT: creation of a terrace represented by an artesian reservoir.
SUBSTANCE: surface of dumps is formed by technological or loose combs with level depressions between them, closed on both sides with technological passages, without earthing of dump surface by fertile layer of soil.
EFFECT: accelerated process of pit-run fines formation and development of optimal agrotechnical conditions by heat and moisture parametres for biological recultivation.
FIELD: earth recovery during drilling work performing.
SUBSTANCE: method involves waterproofing sump walls and bottom; filling thereof with used drilling mud; pumping-out liquid phase and filling thereof with peat and mineral ground. Liquid phase is previously accumulated in the sump and cleaned. Mineral ground, peat and used drilling mud are mixed one with another and supplied to bank slope or to road slope. Then grass is planted on slopes. Cleaned liquid phase is used for grass watering.
EFFECT: increased quality of earth sump reclamation.
FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves selectively excavating, moving and accumulating ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; excavating open-pit field; filling and smoothing thereof and ground layer laying. After open-pit field excavation the excavated space is filled with building waste up to high ground water layer. The building waste has composition close to that of natural minerals with different fraction dimensions. The building waste is laid in several layers each having thickness of 40-60 cm. Each layer is compacted with soil compactors or compacting mechanism. Then draining layer is laid. The draining layer has particle dimensions of 150-200 mm and thickness of not less than 0.6 m. The draining layer is compacted by vibratory plates. Draining layer is covered with fertile ground so that fertile ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.3 m is created. Then straw layer in which chemical fertilizers and perennial grass seeds are added is formed over fertile ground layer. The straw layer is smoothed and sprinkled with dispersions containing water-soluble polymeric substances and synthetic water-soluble phosphates, wherein synthetic water-soluble phosphates are taken in amount of 1-4% by ready dispersion weight.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and reclamation work costs, improved land protection against wind erosion and scouring.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves selectively mining, moving and accumulating ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; excavating open-pit field; smoothing thereof and ground layer laying. After open-pit field excavation the excavated space is filled with building waste up to high ground water layer. The building waste has composition close to that of natural minerals with different fraction dimensions. The building waste is laid in several layers each having thickness of 40-60 cm. Each layer is compacted with soil compactors or compacting mechanism. Then draining layer is laid. The draining layer is layer of gravel-sand ground with particle dimensions of not more than 200 mm and has thickness of not less than 0.6 m. The draining layer is compacted by vibratory plates. Then two parallel spiral channels are excavated along each pit perimeter from slope side. Coil of each channel starts at pit slope top and terminates at bottom thereof at upper ground water level. Both channels are filled with building waste having particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm. After that holes for trees planting are dug out, wherein the holes are arranged between channel coils. Drainage layer is located on hole bottoms so that the drainage layer is connected with building waste of the channels and holes are filled with fertile ground. Then perennial grass, bushes and trees are planted in the reclamated land.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and reclamation work costs, improved land protection against wind erosion and scouring.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: environment protection, particularly to protect nature against dust blown off with wind from man-made massif surfaces.
SUBSTANCE: method involves contouring dust-forming surface and creating protective structures on dust-forming man-made massif surface in two mutually perpendicular directions, namely transversely to and along prevailing wind action directions; determining wind speed Vlim, m/s which provides maximum permissible dust concentration and maximal prevailing wind speed Vmax, m/s at massif sanitary zone boundary; partitioning man-made massif surface into square areas; installing protective barriers along protective barrier perimeters, wherein the protective barriers are formed of cellular material. Each square area has side length Lar determined from mathematical expression.
EFFECT: reduced dust carryover.
2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining, construction engineering, possible use during technical reclamation of quarry pits.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting the quarry field, forming paired stopping walls in extracted space of quarry field, filling the space between paired stopping walls by construction wastes, while preserving full height of draining and ventilation channels, and building a ceiling. After extraction of quarry field, present hanging sides of quarry walls are collapsed to impart required verticality to them, flexible longitudinal links are attached to quarry walls with following guniting of quarry walls with solidifying solution across whole perimeter of extracted quarry space. Then, quarry bottom is evened out with following densification by means of rolling with appropriate machines and devices, after that wells are drilled in soil by means of washout and soil is mixed with solidifying solution, then reinforcing cage is mounted therein with simultaneous feeding of concrete mixture for making iron-concrete pile in soil-cement cover, while diameters of soil-cement covers overlap one another, creating a foundation having increased filtration and hardness characteristics, paired stopping walls are built along perimeter of quarry, letting flexible longitudinal links through them with their following attachment inside paired stopping walls, and columns are set up to make a ceiling.
EFFECT: expanded area of possible use of extracted and reclaimed quarries, for example, for further industrial construction.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, possible use for reclamation of damaged lands in agriculture, power-construction industrial branches.
SUBSTANCE: method includes, after extraction of quarry field is finished, closure of each quarry by reinforced structures made in form of sleeves of geo-synthetic material and filled with milled construction wastes, while ends of sleeves are sewn shut. Reinforced structures are placed one after another, closely to each other. On top of reinforced structures, draining layer is filled, then a layer of stripping rocks and finally a layer of potentially fertile soil with following seeding thereof with perennial grasses, brushes and trees.
EFFECT: decreased laboriousness and costs of restorative operations.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes separation of fertile layer during opening of mineral resources and stocking of rock during extraction of same, planning of open mines by backfill with rock and application of fertile layer with restoration of vegetation in accordance to land usage direction. During backfill of rocks into open mines, inclined trench is made from earth surface to open part of exposed formation outlet being left in sides of mine, which provides access and following underground extraction of left deposit resources, and is meant to be a part of payable area.
EFFECT: combination of coal extractive processes with reclamation of lands and preservation of access to concealed resources for their later extraction.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: methods of underground or surface mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas after production of building stone and other surface-sited minerals.
SUBSTANCE: method involves developing open-pit field; caving hanging walls of the pit; forming floor; installing one-sided form and filling the created space with claydite-concrete; arranging heat-insulation and water-proofing screen along pit wall so that the screen extends for the full wall length, wherein the heat-insulation and water-proofing screen includes heat-insulation material combined with waterproofing sheets of surface waterproofing agent; erecting paired support walls provided with natural ventilation system along pit perimeter so that the support walls are spaced predetermined distance from pit wall; covering space between paired support walls and pit wall with surface waterproofing agent and filling the treated space with ice.
EFFECT: extended field of exhausted pit usage, for instance for further freezing facility construction.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining and processing industry, particularly to reclaim soil in agriculture and building and power engineering industries.
SUBSTANCE: method involves performing selective mining, conveying and stacking ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; developing pit field; filling exhausted space with building waste in several layers along with rolling of each building waste layer; leveling thereof with overburden and laying ground layer. Pit is filled with building waste up to mid-height pit level, but not under ground water level. After that building waste is rolled and covered with overburden for total pit filling. Then overburden layer is leveled. To prevent ground settlement wells are formed along filled pit surface, wherein the wells are formed up to design depth and are filled with building waste with each building waste portion compaction. Overburden layer, building waste layer, reinforced structure level formed of geo-synthetic sleeves filled with building waste milled to obtain particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm are serially laid on filled pit.
EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and costs.
FIELD: construction and mining, particularly reclamation of pit depressions after building stone and other surface mineral production.
SUBSTANCE: method involves working out pit; filling the worked-out space; leveling thereof and laying ground layer thereon. After pit working-out ditch and water-draining trenches are formed along pit perimeter to impart regular geometrical shape to pit along with pit side flattening to obtain pit sides inclination of not more than 30° along with following pit side compaction by rolling thereof with compaction machines and mechanisms; pouring sand on designed pit slopes; laying impervious screen made of high-density polyethylene on sand layer; pouring ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.5 m on the impervious screen; covering pit bottom with clay layer; compacting clay layer and inclining thereof towards collecting well composed of reinforced concrete rings; arranging radial bed drainage of crushed stone and sand on pit bottom so that the drainage is directed towards collecting well; forming water-removal ditch along pit perimeter; filling the pit with compacted building waste briquettes; arranging clay screen having thickness of not less than 0.3 m over building waste briquettes; arranging plant layer on clay screen.
EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and reclamation work costs.