Use of polyamine-containing wood materials to reduce formaldehyde content in ambient air

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: wood materials (i) contain polyamine as binder or binder different from polyamine. The wood materials additionally have polyamine inside or on their outer layer and the polyamine has average molecular weight of not less than 500 g/mol and has at least 6 primary or secondary amino groups per molecule of polyamine.

EFFECT: reduction of formaldehyde in ambient air.

6 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex

 

This invention relates to the use of wood materials for the manufacture of furniture parts, wall cladding, insulating materials and the like for reducing formaldehyde in ambient air, with wood materials

(i) contain as a binder polyamine or

(ii) contain a binder that is different from polyamine, and additionally have in the outer layer of wood materials or on their outer layer polyamine,

and polyamine has an average molecular weight of at least 500 g/mol and has at least 6 primary or secondary amino groups.

For the manufacture of wood-based materials have long been used condensation products on the basis of urea, if necessary, melamine, and formaldehyde. The latter are used mainly for production of fibrous or chipboard for furniture production. These resins along with their reasonable price, have the advantage of ease of processing and prolonged viability at a time when high reactivity. However, a serious disadvantage is that the resulting wood materials during processing and thereafter emit formaldehyde.

Also the wood itself can release into the environment of formaldehyde, especially after the heat treatment. In General, wood materials with what richiami have lower formaldehyde emissions compared to substrates without coating ("Holz als Roh und Werkstoff" "Wood as raw material and articles thereof", t, 1989, str).

Above certain boundary concentrations of formaldehyde can cause people allergies, skin irritation, respiratory tract or eyes. Therefore, the reduction of formaldehyde indoors or in the air of residential areas is an important wish.

In DE 4308089 A1 describes a binder for bonding wood, containing a) a polyamine, b) from 0.01 to 0.25 moles of sugar per mole of the amino group a), and (C) from 0.01 to 0.25 moles per mole of the amino group and one or more components from the group consisting of dicarboxylic acids, aldehydes having two or more carbon atoms and epoxides. As polyamine named, for example, polyethylenimine or N,N',N”-Tris(6-aminohexyl)melamine. In the examples described formaldehyde emission, equal to 0.04-0.1 mg NSNO/m2/PM

In EP 1192223 B1 describes a fibrous plate with polyamines or polyamine containing aminoplast resin as a binder. As the adhesive is called amongst the aqueous solution of aliphatic polyamine at least three functional groups selected from the group of primary and secondary amino groups; polyamine has an average molecular weight of from 600 to 1000000 g/mol and in addition to the tertiary amine groups of other functional groups in the main does not. Described that as the preferred polyamine used polyethylenimine is whether polyvinyliden. Also described that polyethylenimine has preferably an average molecular weight of from 800 to 100,000, and polyvinyliden preferably has an average molecular weight of from 5,000 to 200,000.

Therefore, in the prior art there is information about how you can replace the named binder containing formaldehyde. However, in the residential area there are other sources of formaldehyde such as, for example, fabric, chipboard, furniture, especially older furniture, and cigarette smoke.

In SA 1241524 described the use of polyamines as acceptors of formaldehyde. For example, the filters in the heating cover polyamines or polyamine added as additives to paints for the walls.

The objective of the invention is to provide wood materials that can absorb formaldehyde from the ambient air, and these wood materials are already used in a residential zone or useful to integrate into a residential area.

The objective of the invention is solved by use of wood materials for the manufacture of furniture parts, wall cladding, insulation materials, etc. for reducing formaldehyde in ambient air, with wood materials

(i) contain as a binder polyamine or

(ii) contain a binder that is different from polyamine, and additional is but have in the outer layer of wood materials or on their outer layer polyamine

and polyamine has an average molecular weight of at least 500 g/mol and has at least 6 primary or secondary amino groups.

Preferably used polyamine, which have an average molecular weight of at least 800 g/mol and at least 6, preferably at least 10, primary or secondary amino groups. Can be used only one specific polyamine or a mixture of several polyamines. As polyamines preferably choose polyethylenimine or polyvinyliden or mixtures thereof.

The average molecular weight of polyvinylidene is mainly 5000-500000 g/mol, preferably 5000-350000 g/mol, particularly preferably 5000-100000 g/mol. The average molecular weight of polyethylenimine is mainly 500-100000 g/mol, preferably 500-70000 g/mol, particularly preferably 500-50000 g/mol and most preferably 500-20000 g/mol.

For use polyamine in accordance with the case (i):

Polyamine is used as a binder is preferably in the form of aqueous solutions containing solid particles polyamine from 1 to 95 wt.%, preferably from 5 to 80 wt.%. In the case of aqueous solutions of polyvinylidene the solids content is preferably 5-30 wt.%, most preferably 5-15 wt.%. In the case of aqueous solutions of polyethylenimine the solids content sostav the em preferably 10-60 wt.%, most preferably 30-50 wt.%.

The solution polyamine may contain conventional auxiliary substances and additives, such as tools, giving hydrophobicity, for example paraffins, protection of wood or fire-retardant means.

The solution polyamine is applied in the usual way on sawdust cellulose/fiber (cf., ".mdf Mitteldichte Faserplatten" = "MDF - fibrous plates of medium thickness" Hans-Joachim Deppe, Kurt Ernst, 1996, DRW-Verlag Weinbrenner GmbH & Co., 70771 Leifelden-Echterdingen, Chapter 4.3, p.81; see also EP 1192223 B1, paragraph [0034]).

The solution polyamine is used as a binder mainly in such quantities that 100 g of absolutely dry fibers/sawdust is used 0.1 to 20 g, preferably 0.2 to 5 g, particularly preferably 0.5 to 2.5 g polyamine.

Then sawdust or cellulose fibers are pressed in the usual way at the plate. To do this, by Sands sawdust or cellulose fibers on a substrate to form a Mat of wood chips or fibers and the latter are pressed at a temperature of from 80 to 250°C. and at a pressure of from 5 to 50 bar in chipboard (particleboard or fibreboard (MDF) (cf. the above-cited book, Chapter 4.5, page 93 onwards).

Preferably fill cellulose fiber layer of such thickness that after hot pressing the resulting plate density from 100 to 1000 kg/m3p is edocfile from 450 to 900 kg/m 3and a thickness of 0.5 to 200 mm, preferably 1-40 mm, particularly preferably 1.5 to 20 mm

For use polyamine in accordance with the case (ii)

Polyamine or aqueous solutions of the polymers can be applied to the glued wood materials. As a binder can be applied to all known specialist binders for the production of wood-based materials, in particular aminoplast resin.

An aqueous solution of the polymer, in particular obtained by mixing, in each case based on the polymer solution -

(a) 1-99 wt.% polyamine;

(b) 0-5 wt.% additives to improve wettability;

(c) 0-30 wt.% additives to control pH;

(d) 0-30 wt.% other additives such as fungicides, tools,

increasing hydrophobicity, dyes, organic solvents;

(e) 0-20 wt.% urea

and water added up to 100 wt.%, moreover, these data refer to the beginning of the mixing.

An aqueous solution polyamine contains mainly from 5 to 90 wt.% polyamine, preferably 10-75 wt.% polyamine, particularly preferably 15-45 wt.% polyamine, most preferably 25-40 wt.% polyamine, respectively, based on the polymer solution.

As optional components (b) an aqueous solution of polymer can be used ionic and nonionic surfactants for improved what I wettability, such as described, for example, in the Handbook .Stache "Tensid-Taschenbuch", publisher Carl Hanser, Munich, Vienna, 1981, concentration mainly from 0 to 5 wt.%, preferably from 0 to 2 wt.%.

To adjust the pH value by using the following additives, such as the optional component (C): mineral or organic acids, such as, for example, sulfuric acid or formic acid. Component (C) may be added to aqueous solution of the polymer in an amount of from 0 to 30 wt.%, preferably from 0 to 20 wt.%.

As optional component (d) to aqueous solution of polymer may be added other additives, for example additives from the group that includes tools that enhance the hydrophobicity, for example, paraffin wax, and waxes, fungicides, organic solvents or dyes. Component (d) may be added to aqueous solution of the polymer in an amount of from 0 to 30 wt.%, preferably from 0 to 10 wt.%.

As an optional component (e) aqueous solution of the polymer can contain up to 20 wt.% urea based on the polymer solution. Predominantly aqueous solution of the polymer contains less than 15 wt.% urea, preferably less than 10 wt.% urea and particularly preferably less than 5 wt.% urea in each case based on the polymer solution. Most preferably the polymer solution does not contain urea.

Use the : solution polyamine with pH from 3 to 12, preferably from 6 to 11, most preferably pH from 9 to 11.

Apply enough solution polyamine, so that the number polyamine 1 m2the surface of the wood material was 0.1-100 g, preferably 0.5 to 50 g, particularly preferably 1-10,

An aqueous solution of the polymer can be applied to wood materials of different, well-known specialist methods. These include, for example, spraying, rolling, dipping, applying a layer with a doctor blade, smearing or curtain coating. Preferably the amine solution is applied by spraying and rolling, especially by rolling.

Woody materials obtained by the methods (i) or (ii), can be processed further as usual and, in particular, suitable for the manufacture of furniture parts, linings for walls, insulation materials and the like, i.e. subjects/objects of wood, which are in direct contact with air or a source of formaldehyde. So manufactured wood materials preferably used for the manufacture of the rear wall of the furniture.

Preferably wood materials get in the way (i) and therefore do not contain formaldehyde.

Made so parts of furniture, tiles, insulation materials and tomopterna, are not only not containing formaldehyde items, but these items can also absorb formaldehyde from the ambient air and thus reduce the formaldehyde content, for example, in a residential area in a long time.

Examples.

Example 1

Was made MDF-plate (30×30 cm)which had a density of 850 kg/m3and a thickness of 4 mm, with the use of a binder consisting of 30 wt.% an aqueous solution of polyethyleneimine (average molecular weight polyethylenimine: 5000 g/mol), while the binder used in the amount of 1.5 grams of solids per 100 g of absolutely dry fibers. The pressing was carried out at the pressure of 4 N/mm2, the temperature pressing of 200°C and time compression 120 C.

Thickness and density MDF-plate selected in accordance with the usual form for the manufacture of the rear wall of the furniture.

Example 2

Was made MDF-plate (30×30 cm)which had a density of 850 kg/m3and a thickness of 4 mm, with the use of a binder consisting of 30 wt.% an aqueous solution of polyethyleneimine (average molecular weight polyethylenimine: 5000 g/mol), while the binder used in the amount of 3 grams of solids per 100 g of absolutely dry fibers. The pressing was carried out analogously to example 1.

Example 3

Was made MDF-plate (30×30 cm)which had a density of 85 kg/m 3and a thickness of 4 mm, with the use of condensing urea-formaldehyde resin (Kaurit Leim 340, the solids content of 68%), while the binder used in the amount of 12 g of solid resin per 100 g of absolutely dry fibers. The pressing was carried out analogously to example 1. Then the upper and lower sides of the plates were sprayed with 10 g/m230 wt.% solution polyethyleneimine (average molecular weight polyethylenimine: 1300 g/mol) (active substance: 3 g/m2) and were dried for 24 h at room temperature.

Example 4

Was made MDF-plate D (30×30 cm)which had a density of 850 kg/m3and a thickness of 4 mm, without using a binder, while the wet fibrous Mat (blank plate) (moisture content 20%) was extruded in a loose plate at the pressure of 4 N/mm2, the temperature pressing of 200°C and time of pressing of 200 C.

Example 5. Particleboard (chipboard) trading as a source of formaldehyde

When it comes to wood-shaving plate E trading quality, which has a density of 670 kg/m3and thickness of 16 mm and a formaldehyde emission of 1.16 mg/l (executory method). Thickness and density particleboard selected in accordance with the usual form for the manufacture of the rear wall of the furniture.

Measurement of formaldehyde emission.

Formaldehyde emission was determined executory method (JIS And 5908). Love the e executone measurement took place on 10 test samples. Measured or 10 samples in the form of plates (plates A-D)or 5 samples (plate E) and 5 samples (plate a or b or C or D). Executory values are summarized in table 1.

Table 1
Review executory values
The test sampleExecutone value [mg/l]
MDF-plate<0,01
MDF-plate<0,01
MDF-plate0,03
MDF-plate D0,12
DSP E1,16
DSP E+MDF-plate0,29
DSP E+MDF-plate0,21
DSP E+MDF-plate0,25
DSP E+MDF-plate D0,80

The examples show that the formaldehyde that emits in the surrounding air particleboard E, is captured through the use of MDF-plates a, b or C, and thus the possession of formaldehyde in indoor air are effectively reduced.

1. The use of wood materials for the manufacture of furniture parts, wall cladding, insulation materials, etc. for reducing formaldehyde in ambient air, with wood materials
(i) contain as a binder polyamine or
(ii) contain a binder that is different from polyamine, and additionally have in the outer layer of wood materials or on their outer layer polyamine and polyamine has an average molecular weight of at least 500 g/mol and has at least 6 primary or secondary amino groups per molecule polyamine.

2. The use according to claim 1, and polyamine has an average molecular weight of at least 800 g/mol and at least 10 primary or secondary amine groups per molecule polyamine.

3. The use according to claim 1, and as polyamine used polyvinyliden and/or polyethylenimine.

4. The use according to claim 3, and polyvinyliden has an average molecular weight of from 5,000 to 500,000 g/mol, and polyethylenimine has an average molecular weight of from 500 to 100,000 g/mol.

5. The use according to claim 3, and polyvinyliden has an average molecular weight of from 5,000 to 100,000 g/mol, and polyethylenimine has an average molecular weight of from 500 to 20,000 g/mol.

6. The use of wood materials according to one of claims 1 to 5 for the manufacture of the rear wall of the furniture.



 

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3 tbl, 3 ex

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12 cl, 8 tbl, 20 ex

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11 cl, 11 tbl

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2 cl, 1 tbl

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22 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg, 9 ex

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17 cl, 1 tbl, 27 ex

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2 cl, 1 tbl

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2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

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2 tbl, 7 ex

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1 tbl, 10 ex

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Polymer binder // 2005747

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2 tbl, 1 dwg

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5 cl, 2 dwg, 7 tbl

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