Method for reclamation of worked-out pits

FIELD: environment protection.

SUBSTANCE: the invention relates to reclamation of worked-out pits. The method includes backfilling of worked-out space up to the upper underground water level by construction waste close to minerals by composition, and setting drainage layer. After the pit is filled with construction waste, terracing is carried out using a bulldozer. Furthermore, at first the area is divided and ribs are plowed, the ribs indicate the borders of future terraces. The bed of each terrace is formed by a bulldozer with reverse crossfall up to 2 degrees. Support walls are erected along the whole perimeter of the pit and drainage system is installed, while decorative plants, lawns and gardens are organized.

EFFECT: reduced labour intensity of worked-out pits reclamation, soil is protected from wind and water erosion.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the technical reclamation career grooves, remaining after the extraction of building stone and other subsurface minerals.

There is a method of recovery of disturbed lands in open field development (1), selected as a prototype, including separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, the development of career fields, mined-out space to the border of the upper level of groundwater construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions, in layers with subsequent compaction of each layer, laying drainage layer and the layer of fertile soil.

The disadvantage of this method is the extraction of large volumes of soil to create the fertile soil layer, which in turn leads to the formation of large areas of disturbed land, rising labor costs and a significant increase in the cost of the rehabilitation works.

The present invention provides reduced labor costs and the cost of reconstruction, and also protects the soil from wind and water erosion. For this purpose, the method of restoration of worked-out quarries including separate excavation, movement and storage of topsoil and overburden on the od the development of career fields, mined-out space to the border of the upper level of groundwater construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions, in layers with subsequent compaction of each layer, laying drainage layer construction waste, of a thickness of not less than 0.6 meter and a particle size fractions of 150-200 mm, according to izabranu on the remaining free slopes career, after his bookmarks construction waste produced terracing with bulldozer will first produce a breakdown of the plot and PROPARCO furrows marking the boundaries of the future terraces, then the bulldozer form the fabric of every terraces with opposite transverse slope to two degrees, and the width of the terraces should not be less than five meters, then, starting with the bottom tier terraces around the perimeter of the quarry, arrange the retaining wall and paving drainage system, and on the terraces arrange decorative planting, lawns, gardens, in addition, stockpiles of topsoil and overburden alternate between them, keeping a hilly surface dumps, when storing them on the outside of the pit outside the area of the plateau slopes of the pit.

The slopes of the piles of topsoil and overburden rocks are broken down into strips raschet the second width, but not more than five meters, and propihivayut them three times with the field of the plow, and thus formed an inclined napisow terrace curved profile are planted plants.

Introduction this technical solution reduces the cost of rehabilitation services, through the use of construction waste generated as a result of reconstruction, demolition and repair of buildings and structures, as well as eliminating the need for extraction of large volumes of soil to create a fertile layer, and the terracing of the slopes of the quarry provides high anti-erosion effect. Given that the generated construction waste disposed to landfill disposal of household and industrial waste, implementation of the present invention will improve the ecological situation. The construction of terraces with reverse bias, of course, enhances retention of precipitation, prevent soil washout, and thus allows to obtain a high survival rate of plants and to protect from water and wind erosion and to form an artificial relief.

The drawing shows the circuit implementation of this method. The method is as follows. In the process of making a career stockpiles of topsoil and overburden alternate between them, keeping a hilly surface dumps, when storing them on the outside of the pit wall for before the Lamy area of plateau slopes of the pit. 3 Quiroga on the area of disturbed land perform planning work. The mean absolute elevation (ground level) shall be established with consideration of the feasibility study. The layout of the site comply with planned giving the surface a slight bias towards the General lowering of the earth's surface. Then proceed to the mined-out pit 1, stacking layers of construction waste with different particle size fractions. Each stacked layer compacted by the method of compacting sealing machines and mechanisms. The stacking of layers to produce the upper boundary of the groundwater level 2. Then stack the draining layer 3 of the construction waste thickness of not less than 0.6 meter and particle size fractions of 150-200 mm

And proceed to the construction of terraces 4. After laying out the plot and propasti furrows marking the boundaries of the future terraces form the canvas terraces. The construction of terraces 4 given width with opposite transverse inclination of up to two degrees is produced by using the universal bulldozer. To which the blade is installed in its working position, pushing forward the right (sermon) side of the blade. For formation of company name to be cut angle right Shoe pusher bulldozer privertyvajut spherical head down, securing it in position, so that the knife blade gets angle in rticula profile. Then the bulldozer, selecting a relatively flat place to start, goes to the top of the right-of-way land under the terrace, carrying a reciprocating motion on a small stretch of road along the planned terraces, cuts the ground before the formation of the horizontal platform. Cut the ground weakly hurts from shoveling, so a slight turn of the bulldozer have to move it to the left (down the slope), pouring under the left caterpillar and thus replenish the bulk part of the terrace 4. Having finished the work in this period (length of 10-15 meters), the bulldozer moves forward to a new area and so on until the end of the terrace. Moreover, the width of the terrace should not exceed five meters. Then the cycle is repeated with the next terrace. Then, starting from the bottom tier of the terraces around the perimeter of the quarry arrange the retaining wall 5 to strengthen the terraces 4. Retaining wall 5 to prevent the erosion of soil. For the construction of retaining walls using different material (natural stone, concrete, brick, wood). To prevent stagnant waterlogging of the soil laid drainage system (the drawing is not marked). On the terraces 4 place the ornamental plants, lawns, gardens, etc. Draining layer 3, located in the career center and free terraces 4, occiput layer of fertile soil is 6, make fertilizer and sow seeds of perennial grasses. The slopes of the piles of topsoil and overburden will be stored on the outside of the pit 1, divided into strips with a calculated width, but not more than 5 meters, and three times their propihivayut with the field plow. In three tillage strips on the slope dumps appeared inclined Napanee terraces curved profile, in which are planted plants, as throughout sloping zapasnoy terrace happened mixing 30-cm soil layer, which allowed for planting for the formation of artificial relief.

Sources of information

1. Patent of Russia №2274749, CL IS 41/32, 2005

1. The way of restoration of worked-out quarries, including separate excavation, movement and storage of topsoil and overburden, the development of career fields, mined-out space to the border of the upper level of groundwater construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions, in layers with subsequent compaction of each layer, laying drainage layer construction waste thickness of 0.6 m and a particle size fractions of 150-200 mm, characterized in that the remaining free slopes career after his bookmarks construction waste produced terracing with bulldozer, etc the first to produce a breakdown of the plot and PROPARCO furrows, marking the boundaries of the future terraces, then the bulldozer form the fabric of every terraces with opposite transverse inclination of up to 2°, and the width of the terraces should be 5 m, then for each terrace, starting with the bottom tier of the terraces around the perimeter of the quarry satisfied with retaining walls and paving drainage system, and on the terraces arrange decorative planting, lawns, gardens, in addition, stockpiles of topsoil and overburden alternate between them, keeping a hilly surface dumps, when storing them on the outside of the pit, outside the area of the plateau slopes of the pit.

2. The way of restoration of worked-out quarries according to claim 1, characterized in that the slopes of the piles of topsoil and overburden rocks are broken down into bands calculated width and propihivayut them three times with the field of the plow, and thus formed an inclined napisow terrace curved profile are planted plants.



 

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FIELD: mining.

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FIELD: mining, construction engineering, possible use during technical reclamation of quarry pits.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting the quarry field, forming paired stopping walls in extracted space of quarry field, filling the space between paired stopping walls by construction wastes, while preserving full height of draining and ventilation channels, and building a ceiling. After extraction of quarry field, present hanging sides of quarry walls are collapsed to impart required verticality to them, flexible longitudinal links are attached to quarry walls with following guniting of quarry walls with solidifying solution across whole perimeter of extracted quarry space. Then, quarry bottom is evened out with following densification by means of rolling with appropriate machines and devices, after that wells are drilled in soil by means of washout and soil is mixed with solidifying solution, then reinforcing cage is mounted therein with simultaneous feeding of concrete mixture for making iron-concrete pile in soil-cement cover, while diameters of soil-cement covers overlap one another, creating a foundation having increased filtration and hardness characteristics, paired stopping walls are built along perimeter of quarry, letting flexible longitudinal links through them with their following attachment inside paired stopping walls, and columns are set up to make a ceiling.

EFFECT: expanded area of possible use of extracted and reclaimed quarries, for example, for further industrial construction.

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FIELD: mining industry, possible use for reclamation of damaged lands in agriculture, power-construction industrial branches.

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EFFECT: decreased laboriousness and costs of restorative operations.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes separation of fertile layer during opening of mineral resources and stocking of rock during extraction of same, planning of open mines by backfill with rock and application of fertile layer with restoration of vegetation in accordance to land usage direction. During backfill of rocks into open mines, inclined trench is made from earth surface to open part of exposed formation outlet being left in sides of mine, which provides access and following underground extraction of left deposit resources, and is meant to be a part of payable area.

EFFECT: combination of coal extractive processes with reclamation of lands and preservation of access to concealed resources for their later extraction.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: methods of underground or surface mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas after production of building stone and other surface-sited minerals.

SUBSTANCE: method involves developing open-pit field; caving hanging walls of the pit; forming floor; installing one-sided form and filling the created space with claydite-concrete; arranging heat-insulation and water-proofing screen along pit wall so that the screen extends for the full wall length, wherein the heat-insulation and water-proofing screen includes heat-insulation material combined with waterproofing sheets of surface waterproofing agent; erecting paired support walls provided with natural ventilation system along pit perimeter so that the support walls are spaced predetermined distance from pit wall; covering space between paired support walls and pit wall with surface waterproofing agent and filling the treated space with ice.

EFFECT: extended field of exhausted pit usage, for instance for further freezing facility construction.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining and processing industry, particularly to reclaim soil in agriculture and building and power engineering industries.

SUBSTANCE: method involves performing selective mining, conveying and stacking ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; developing pit field; filling exhausted space with building waste in several layers along with rolling of each building waste layer; leveling thereof with overburden and laying ground layer. Pit is filled with building waste up to mid-height pit level, but not under ground water level. After that building waste is rolled and covered with overburden for total pit filling. Then overburden layer is leveled. To prevent ground settlement wells are formed along filled pit surface, wherein the wells are formed up to design depth and are filled with building waste with each building waste portion compaction. Overburden layer, building waste layer, reinforced structure level formed of geo-synthetic sleeves filled with building waste milled to obtain particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm are serially laid on filled pit.

EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and costs.

1 dwg

FIELD: construction and mining, particularly reclamation of pit depressions after building stone and other surface mineral production.

SUBSTANCE: method involves working out pit; filling the worked-out space; leveling thereof and laying ground layer thereon. After pit working-out ditch and water-draining trenches are formed along pit perimeter to impart regular geometrical shape to pit along with pit side flattening to obtain pit sides inclination of not more than 30° along with following pit side compaction by rolling thereof with compaction machines and mechanisms; pouring sand on designed pit slopes; laying impervious screen made of high-density polyethylene on sand layer; pouring ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.5 m on the impervious screen; covering pit bottom with clay layer; compacting clay layer and inclining thereof towards collecting well composed of reinforced concrete rings; arranging radial bed drainage of crushed stone and sand on pit bottom so that the drainage is directed towards collecting well; forming water-removal ditch along pit perimeter; filling the pit with compacted building waste briquettes; arranging clay screen having thickness of not less than 0.3 m over building waste briquettes; arranging plant layer on clay screen.

EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and reclamation work costs.

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