Acoustic dissipation elements for operational buildings
SUBSTANCE: the invention relates to industrial acoustics, specifically to broadband acoustic suppression. The acoustic dissipation elements contain a molded wall and a perforated wall with an acoustic dissipation layer between them. The acoustic dissipation elements contain a carcass, window openings, door openings, openings for lighting placement and acoustic protection in the form of molded walls and perforated walls with an acoustic dissipation layer between them. The floor has elastic foundation and contains a foundation platform made of concrete reinforced with oscillation dampening, which is installed on the foundation plate of the floor deck with cavities in oscillation dampening and water-proof materials with a gap between it and the bearing wall of the operational building. The cavities of the base plate are filled with oscillation dampening materials, such as foamed polymer. The acoustic dampening elements are installed in two layers. The first layer is more tough, it is solid and molded, with a complex profile consisting of inclined planes oriented down and connected with horizontal planes which have resonance holes. The second layer is soft, non-continuous and positioned below the sound-reflecting surfaces of the first layer. The solid profiled layer of the acoustic dampening material is made of material which has acoustic reflectivity coefficient greater than its own acoustic absorption coefficient. The acoustic dampening elements installed above the most noisy equipment contain a carcass hung by hooks, for example, by cable wires, or fixed directly to the tough wall or the ceiling of the operational building. The carcass is wrapped in foil on the outside to prevent dust accumulation. A reactive resonance piece is fixed to the bottom of the carcass, the piece is divided by walls with holes which function as Helmholtz resonator inlets, installed in series. The active part of acoustic dampening elements is a cavity between the carcass and the piece, filled with acoustic absorbing material. It is filled with acoustic absorbing non-combustible material, such as vinypore, fibreglass, with a protective layer of glass fabric.
EFFECT: improved acoustic dampening.
The invention relates to acoustics, in particular to broadband samohlasen, and can be used in all sectors of national economy under the maximum sound attenuation functions of production equipment by the method of absorption.
The closest technical solution to the technical essence and the achieved result is a device for RF patent No. 2366785, CL EV 1/84, [prototype], containing the skeleton on the floor of the building and the walls with sound-absorbing lining.
The disadvantage of the prototype is relatively low effectiveness of sound attenuation due to partial reflection of sound waves from the absorber and relatively narrow (very high frequency) the range of noise control.
The technical result - increasing the efficiency of absorption.
This is achieved by the fact that the sound-absorbing elements of the room containing shaped and perforated walls, between which is placed a layer of sound absorbing material, and one of the walls is made smooth, and the sound-absorbing material is in two layers, one of which, more rigid, made a solid and profiled, and the other, soft, made discontinuous and is located beneath the surface of the first layer, sound-absorbing elements of the premises contain a frame, window, door openings, the openings to accommodate the Metalnikov and acoustic enclosures, made in the form of a rigid and perforated walls, between which is located an absorbent material located in two layers, one of which, more rigid, made a solid and profiled, complex profile, consisting of inclined faces that are directed downward and connected to the horizontal edges, which are made of resonant holes, and the other is soft, made discontinuous and is located under the sound-reflecting surfaces of the first layer, and a continuous profiled layer of sound-absorbing material made of a material whose coefficient of reflection of sound is greater than the coefficient of sound absorption.
Figure 1 shows a diagram of the premises, figure 2 - design sound absorbing acoustic fencing areas, figure 3 - element design of the absorber above the most noisy equipment, figure 4 - diagram of the floor slabs on an elastic Foundation.
Sound-absorbing elements of the premises contain the skeleton of a plant (not shown), window 2 and 8, the door 9 openings, the openings 5 for placing lamps and acoustic enclosures 1, 3, 4, 10, 12 (1). Acoustic enclosures (figure 2), made in the form of a rigid 13 and perforated walls 14, between which is located an absorbent material located in two layers, one of which, more than 20 hard, you Olsen solid and profiled, complex profile, consisting of inclined faces 15 and 17, directed downward and connected to the horizontal edges 18, which is made of resonant holes 19, and the other soft 16, made discontinuous and is located under the sound-reflecting surfaces of the first layer 20.
Solid profiled layer of sound-absorbing material 20 made of a material whose coefficient of reflection of sound is greater than the coefficient of sound absorption. Items 6 and 7 of the absorber above the most noisy technological equipment 11 contain a frame 21 which is hooked over the hooks 22, for example, wires (not shown) or directly attached to a rigid wall or ceiling industrial premises. The frame 21 is covered with the outer side of the foil, preventing the deposition of dust. To the bottom 23 of the frame with the inner side of the fixed reactive resonance box 24, separated by partitions 25 and 27, with the holes 26 and 28 that performs the functions of the necks of Helmholtz resonators installed in this case series. The active part of the elements of material is a filled with sound-absorbing material 29 of the cavity between the frame 21 and the insert 24. Filling exercise absorbent non-flammable material (for example, Vinprom, fiberglass) with a protective layer 30 of fiberglass, p is eduversum the roll of absorbent material. The shape of the frame 21 and the insert 24 can be any (for example, round or polyhedral shape), and the frame 21 may be perforated to increase the surface absorption. The equipment 11 is installed on the vibration-insulating supports (not shown), the window openings 2, 8 contain a vacuum insulating glass units, and as a sound-absorbing material acoustic fencing areas and elements of the heat sinks used ceramics with porosity in the range of optimal values: 30...45% or element is used in the form of layer-by-layer and cross-winding of the porous yarn wound on acoustically transparent frame, for example the wire frame (not shown) or an item from a rigid porous sound-absorbing material, such as metalloboranes or stone, shell (not shown).
The floor structure on an elastic Foundation (figure 2) contains the installation plate 31 made of reinforced fibrogenesis material of concrete, which is installed on the base plate 34 floors with the cavity 35 through the layers vibrationfree material 33 and waterproofing material 32 with a gap 36 relative to the bearing walls industrial premises. In order to provide effective vibration isolation mounting plate 31 registration of birth, directions, layers vibrationfree material 33 and waterproofing material 32 is made flared, tight to the joists walls and base of the carrier plate 34 overlap. For efficiency, sound insulation and sound absorption in the shops, under floor ceiling cavity 35 is filled fibrogenesis material, such as foamed polymer, such as polyethylene or polypropylene, and the walls are lined with sound-absorbing structures.
Sound-absorbing elements are as follows.
Sound waves propagating in the production area interact as follows. Sound energy from equipment 11 in the room, passing through the perforated wall 14 of acoustic enclosures 1, 3, 4, 10, 12, gets on the layers of soft absorbent material 16 (for example made of basalt or glass fiber), which is made discontinuous and is located under the sound-reflecting surfaces of the first layer 20. The transfer of sound energy into heat (dissipation, the dissipation of energy occurs in the pores of the material, which represents a model of cavities "Helmholtz", where energy losses occur due to friction oscillating with the frequency of excitation of the mass of air in the mouth cavity wall itself the neckline, having a form of an extensive network of pores of the material. The ratio of the perforation of the perforated wall is equal or greater than 0.25. To prevent rashes soft absorbers provided by the glass, such as type EZ-100, located between the absorber and the perforated wall.
Items 6 and 7 of the material with the reactive and the active elements are as follows. The interaction of sound waves with active cavities filled with non-combustible absorbent 29, causes samohlasen in the high frequency range, and by performing these cavities inclined increases the surface sound absorption and, consequently, increases the sound absorption coefficient. A resonant cavity can also be completely or partially filled with material depending on the desired frequency range of the noise.
When installing on revealing equipment on the plate 31 is a two-stage vibration protection due vibrocentric inclusions in the weight plates 31, and through the layer vibrationfree material 33, which can be used: needle-punched mats type Vibrocil" on the basis of silica or aluminosilicate fiber, the material of the solid vibrocentric materials, such as plastic, sound the plates on the basis of glass staple fiber type Solotop" with the density of the material, 60÷80 kg/m3.
Sound-absorbing elements of the room containing shaped and perforated walls, between which is placed a layer of sound absorbing material, sound-absorbing elements of the premises contain a frame, window, door openings, openings for placement of lamps and acoustic enclosures are made in the form of a rigid and perforated walls, between which is located the sound-absorbing material, and the floor is made on an elastic Foundation and contains the installation plate, made of reinforced fibrogenesis material of concrete, which is installed on the base plate floors with cavities through the layers vibrationfree material and waterproofing material with a gap relative to the supporting walls of the production of space, and the cavity of the base plate filled fibrogenesis material, for example foamed polymer, characterized in that arranged in two layers, one of which, more rigid, made a solid and profiled, complex profile, consisting of inclined faces that are directed downward and connected to the horizontal edges, which are made of resonant holes, and the other is soft, made discontinuous and is located under the sound-reflecting surfaces of the first layer, and a continuous profiled layer zvokopola is its material is made from a material whose reflection coefficient of sound is greater than the coefficient of sound absorption, and elements of material over the most noisy technological equipment contain a frame which is hooked over the hooks, for example, on the ropes, or directly attached to a rigid wall or ceiling industrial premises, and the frame is covered with the outer side of the foil, preventing the deposition of dust, and to the bottom of the frame with the inner side of the fixed reactive resonance box, separated by partitions, with holes that act necks of Helmholtz resonators arranged in series, and an active part of the elements of material is a filled with sound-absorbing material in the cavity between the frame and the insert, while the filling is made of absorbent non-combustible material, such as viviparum, fiberglass, with a protective layer of glass.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: here are disclosed sound absorbing devices of shop floor. These devices contain profiled and perforated walls with a layer of sound absorbing material between them. Also, one of the walls is flat. Sound absorbing material is arranged in two layers. One, more rigid, layer is solid and profiled; another, more soft one, is non-continuous and is laid under surfaces of the first layer. The sound absorbing devices of the shop floor have a frame, window and door openings, and openings for arrangement of lights and acoustic barriers with flat and perforated walls with sound absorbing material in two layers. One, more rigid layer, is solid and profiled. Another, more soft layer, is non-continuous in form of non-continuous sound absorbers. It is positioned is a focus of sound reflecting surfaces of the first layer. The continuous profiled layer of sound absorbing material is made out of material with sound reflection factor higher, than sound absorbing factor. The non-continuous sound absorber located in the focus of the solid profiled layer is made in form of solids of revolution, for example, sphere, ellipsoid, cone, or truncated cone and is secured on the perforated wall by means of pins, one end of which is rigidly attached to the perforated wall, while another one is pointed and enters the body of non-continuous sound absorbers.
EFFECT: raised efficiency of noise absorbing due to extended frequency range and secondary absorbing sound waves reflected from sound absorber.
SUBSTANCE: in sound-absorbing elements of a premise, containing profiled and perforated walls, between which there is a layer of sound-absorbing material, besides, one of walls is arranged as smooth, and sound-absorbing material is arranged in two layers, one of which, more rigid one, is arranged as solid and profiled, and the other one, soft one, is arranged as interrupted and is located over surfaces of the first layer. Sound-absorbing elements of premises comprise frame, window, door openings, openings to locate lamps and acoustic barriers, arranged in the form of rigid and perforated walls, between which there is a sound-absorbing material arranged in two layers. One layer, a more rigid one, is arranged as solid and profiled, of complex profile, made of inclined faces, directed downwards and joined with horizontal faces, where resonant holes are provided, and the other one - soft one, is arranged as interrupted and is located under sound-reflecting surfaces of the first layer. Besides, solid profiled layer of sound-absorbing material is made of material, sound reflection coefficient of which is higher than coefficient of sound absorption.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of sound absorption.
SUBSTANCE: method for recovery of sealing and heat insulation of wall panels in finished buildings includes filling cavities in these panels with sealing foam. At the same time in area of cavities through holes are drilled in wall panels with pitch of 30-100 cm, and filling of cavities with sealing foam is carried out by feeding sealing foam through at least one of holes until this foam starts coming out through neighbouring holes. Then each hole is plugged.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability.
SUBSTANCE: spacing holder (7) is intended for fixation of object (2) on base (3) having insulating layer (4) with the help of anchor bolt (8) and spacing bushing (9) screwed onto anchor bolt (8). According to invention, spacing bushing (9) has cutting accessory (14) at its external perimetre, besides spacing bushing (9) has narrowing (15) of external diametre at the end facing against anchor bolt (8).
EFFECT: spacing holder may be applied at high loads and may be simply installed.
9 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: plate for fixation of facing slabs comprises back wall, shelf and pairs of tabs arranged symmetrically relative to axis of plate and made of upper and lower tabs, besides planes of upper and lower tabs are parallel to plane of back wall. Shelf is arranged in the form of bend from back wall, and pairs of tabs are arranged in the form of bends from shelf. Upper or lower tab of each pair of tabs is made of body of according lower or upper tab of the same pair of tabs, for instance by means of stamping. Shelf is arranged at a specified angle versus back wall, besides this angle depends on thickness of facing slab and radius of upper tan bending, and is set so that edge of lower end of facing slab installed on shelf adjoins plane of upper tab not below ending of upper tab bending radius.
EFFECT: simplified design, improved reliability and bearing capacity of plate, manufacturability of its making, reduced material intensity and prime cost of item.
7 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of industrial and civil construction. Method for detection of air temperature dependence inside closed object with fencing structures on time whenever system of specified air temperature maintenance inside object is disconnected, in which air temperature detector is installed inside closed object to register air temperature in process of cooling. Temperature detectors are installed near all external surfaces of object fencing structures, and fan heater is installed inside object, which is used to heat air inside object until it exceeds its temperature by more than 10°C, simultaneously with heating air temperature is registered by all installed detectors, then fan heater is disconnected, and air temperature is registered by all installed detectors until it lowers by more than 5°C, afterwards, using system of heat balance equations, they calculate air temperature inside object depending on time and thermal parametres of object, after performed calculations they select those values of object thermal parametres, at which calculated air temperature inside object is most close to measured air temperature inside object, then based on selected parametres, dependence of air temperature inside closed object on time with disconnected system of specified air temperature maintenance inside object is built, using system of heat balance equations and arbitrarily setting air temperature inside object at the moment of disconnection of system for specified air temperature maintenance inside object and air temperature near all external surfaces of object.
EFFECT: invention provides for accurate detection of time when specific closed object may remain with disconnected system of specified air temperature maintenance inside closed object, not being damaged.
2 tbl, 5 dwg,1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns building construction, maintenance and repair. Method of sealing and heat insulation recovery for interpanel joints involves joint filling with construction foam and sealant layer application onto external surface of joint seal and panel surface areas adjoining the joint. Through holes are drilled in joint seal along the length of joint at the pitch under 100 cm. Cavities in seal are filled with construction foam is performed by construction foam injection over at least one hole till the foam shows out of neighbouring holes. Each hole is stopped by plug to form external surface of joint seal under sealant layer.
EFFECT: reduced terms of works on heat insulation and sealing recovery of interpanel joints.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to production of mineral wool items, mostly multi-layer ones. Method includes production of mineral wool carpet, its displacement, longitudinal cut of carpet into strips along width, changing shape and size of strips cross section, laying of strips on top of each other, their mutual displacement, hardening. Prior to strips laying on top of each other every strip is turned around its longitudinal axis by angle of 180 degrees, with variation of displacement direction by angle of 180>α>0 degrees.
EFFECT: simplified technology of multi-layer mineral wool products making.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to production of mineral wool products, mostly strips and boards. Method includes formation of mineral wool carpet of fibers, introduction of binding agent, displacement of mineral wool carpet in horizontal plane, mashing and hardening. During displacement mineral wool carpet is turned by 180 degrees, around its longitudinal axis with simultaneous change of its displacement by angle 180≥α>0 degrees, in horizontal plane.
EFFECT: higher quality of mineral wool boards and strips.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to production of mineral wool products, namely to methods for production of multi-layer mineral wool boards. Method includes compaction of primary mineral wool carpet, its horizontal longitudinal cutting into layers by thickness of the first cut layers of primary carpet, which is equal to thickness of the first board layer, the second layer of primary carpet is additionally compacted to density of the second board layer, shaping of double-layer carpet, supply of binding agent, thermal treatment. Thickness of the second layer of the primary carpet is arranged as equal to where h3 is thickness of the second layer of board, ρ1 is density of the first board layer, ρ3 is density of the second board layer.
EFFECT: increased quality of mineral wool boards.
FIELD: building units, particularly for heat insulation.
SUBSTANCE: article comprises layer of heat-insulation material and mineral fiber material having opposite sides, two major surfaces and thickness defined by above surfaces. Article includes fastening means to provide article fixation. Fastening means extends from the first article end in the first direction substantially parallel to one major surface. The first and the second ends of fastening means adjoin corresponding layer side. Fixing means may be increased in length to secure article to building structure so that fixing means may extend outwards from article sides. Length increase is carried out by applying pulling force to fixing means end.
EFFECT: provision of article adjustment in length and shape, possibility to connect article to itself, to adjoining sheets, to structure to be insulated and so on.
26 cl, 6 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: aircraft construction, building industry and mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: panel comprises sheeting and filler of corrugated sheet material. Corrugation walls extend at an angle to horizontal plane, in which projections and valleys alternate in zigzag order.
EFFECT: reduced noise due to sound wave dissipation.
FIELD: building units, particularly laminated articles of vegetable material providing high acoustic properties and adapted to be used in rooms, electromechanical audio transmitters, musical instruments and the same objects.
SUBSTANCE: laminated article comprises outer layer made of wooden material, namely of wood veneer, and inner layer comprising dried plant stems and made as chips or bars of dried burdock stems. The inner layer is active acoustic layer. The article has modulus of elasticity in static flexure of 2.63×1010N/m2, density of 190-215 kg/m3 and ratio between modulus of elasticity and density of (138.4 - 122.3)×106 m2/s2.
EFFECT: extended range of technical means for article production.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to turbounits of gas-transfer set and gas-turbine power stations. Proposed noise-absorbing shell of gas-turbine plant has load-bearing skeleton, outer housing and inner panels with noise absorbing material placed in between. Upper cover of housing is made detachable. For this purpose edges of cover form flange with holes on which longitudinal elements are installed at angle forming faces of truncated pyramid, and inner panel is secured on smaller base of pyramid. Guides with surfaces are made on mating part of skeleton equidistant to faces of truncated pyramid. Elastic gasket is arranged between flange and skeleton, and flange is fastened on skeleton, for instance, by means of screws.
EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of shell owing to possibility of taking out engine from top of shell.
FIELD: food-stuff refrigerators.
SUBSTANCE: proposed refrigerator includes refrigerating chambers equipped with outer and inner guards and provided with detachable shields mounted along walls and ceiling of refrigerating chambers and cooling units. It is provided with heat-reflecting coat over entire surfaces of walls and ceiling of refrigerating chambers; shields are rigidly mounted at some distance from inner surfaces of walls and ceiling and are secured by means of wooden bars; they are made in form of thin-walled mounting plates covered with heat-reflecting coat on side of inner surfaces of walls and ceiling of refrigerator.
EFFECT: maximum reduction of effect of radiation heat flows on food-stuff kept in refrigerator practically excluding drying-up of frozen food-stuff.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises feeding the fiber of mineral slag to the conveyor, introducing a binder into the fibers to form a plate or strip of sheet material, and passing the product through two conveyors arranged in series to provide crumpling.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
13 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: construction, superstructures.
SUBSTANCE: principle applies to construction, partly to facilities meant for protection from sound waves (noise), and other wave emission and its absorption and can be used in noise protection screens. A noise absorbing panel consists of a perforated panel, hollow panel, sound absorbing element between the above mentioned panels. The perforated panel is made with openings in the form of fissure traps with reflectors turned in the direction of the sound absorbing element. The perforated panel contains, at least, two fissure traps, whose reflectors are inclined at different angles to the panel plane. The noise absorbing element has a thickness from 30 mm to 100 mm and placed in a polyethylene sheath of thickness 0.1 mm to 3 mm. The technical result consists of increasing the absorption capability of the panel.
EFFECT: increasing the absorption capability of a panel.
SUBSTANCE: invention deals with technological process of manufacture of foam plastics in general and oriented texture collagenic reticular foamed plastics in particular. The foamed plastics specified are to be used as heat-insulating, thermostatic and sound-proofing materials.
EFFECT: ensuring a useful effect more pronounced than in case of alternative materials usage.
SUBSTANCE: plate for fixing a lining panel of a building consists of locking tabs fitted vertically in pairs and spring-loaded lining plates. The upper and lower tabs are immovable and cavated and forward bent from the panel. The lower tab has a rectangular shape. The root of the upper tabs is broached into an isosceles trapezium, on the upper base of which there is a superstructure, broached into a rectangle, or some other shape. The clearance for the tabs has a larger width than the tabs on the value of the rounded radius of clearance angles.
EFFECT: more effective fixing of lining panels of buildings.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: plate for fastening of building facing panel installed in power belt that is arranged on the building bearing wall is arranged with slots and contains fastening L-shaped grips, which spring-load facing panels, at that grips are installed vertically in pairs, and top grip of every pair is installed motionlessly. There are slots in groove that allow vertical moving of bottom grips in case of temperatures differences during building operation, and forges for spring-loading of facing panels and their tight abutment. Forges are made thicker than thickness of bottom grips by thickness in order to provide guaranteed clearance and freedom of bottom grips movement.
EFFECT: provision of even and tight laying of facing panel, heat and moisture insulation of building wall and ventilation.
2 cl, 6 dwg