Method of production of the plates from compound materials
FIELD: construction materials production.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the production of the construction materials from waists of the wood processing industry; the method comprises filler fractionating and filler processing by the water solution of copolymer vinylcyclohexene with maleic anhydride followed by drying, adjustment of the modified wooden particles with polyethylene by means of mixing and heating followed by rolling on the laboratory rollers with the roller diameter of 180 mm and gapping between them of 1 mm, pressing of the received mass in the press-mould of the hydraulic pressing unit with the mark of origin ПГ-60 at the temperature of 180-210°C and pressure of MPa; the wood-polymer composites (WPC) is induced as an ingredient increasing the mechanical and physical characteristics of the compound and resistibility to UV irradiation, and thereafter the secondary polyethyleneterephthalate in the following proportions (%, mass): secondary polyethylen: 20.0-50.0; secondary polyethyleneterephthalate: 35.0-20.0; wooden particles: 37.5-22.5; CVMA: 2.5-7.5.
EFFECT: implementation of this method allows to increase physical, mechanical and ecological characteristics of the WPC plates.
2 tbl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to the production of building materials and can be used in the woodworking, furniture and construction industries.
A known method of manufacturing Spending on the basis of modified latex composition of urea-formaldehyde resins, including the processing of the composite particles of the binder followed by hot pressing (Iossifov and other Properties of chipboard on the basis of modified latex composition of urea-formaldehyde resins. The highest isotech. Institute, Sofia, IX Symposium, 9, 1989, str-189).
The disadvantages of this method are the use of styrene-butadiene latexes, not containing carboxyl groups, thickening additives in the form of a latex with a high content of methacrylic groups, and the absence of active filler capable of effectively adsorb residual formaldehyde. Emissions from ready-made plates of this compounds with carcinogenic and mutagenic properties complicates the use of plates in construction and virtually eliminates their use in the furniture industry.
There is a method of manufacturing a composite material (SLM, Ennevelin, Mphenylene / Wood-polymer composition on the basis of secondary materials industry // Izvestiya vuzov. Chemistry and the chemical is Skye technology. - 2001. - T. - V.2. - P.142-145), which includes several stages: fractionation of filler, processing the analyzed fraction with a solution of a synthetic rubber ethylene-propylene thermoplastic (Sept) nerase, followed by drying, a combination of modified wood particles with polyethylene by pre-mixing and heating with subsequent rolling on a laboratory roll mill with a roll diameter 180 mm and the gap between them is 1 mm, the pressing of the mass in the mold of a hydraulic press brand PG-60 at a temperature of 130-140°C and a pressure of 5 MPa, drevesnoplitnye composite WPC contains these components in the following ratio, wt.%:
As wood waste used sawdust produced in large quantities in timber production from sliding table saw machine, saw devices, etc. secondary plastic raw materials in accordance with THE 63-476-32-90 Raw material polymer secondary raw" was a disused film and film products.
The disadvantages of this method are the relatively low strength and water resistance of the plates, as well as technological and environmental negative effects associated with certain requirements on the composition of the starting components of the composite binder.
Closest to the technical nature of the method of manufacturing a composite material (U.S. Pat. 2356728 Russian Federation, IPC B27N 3/00 08L 97/02, the Method of fabrication of a composite material / Ocelli S., Semenova L.K.; Appl. 21.02.2007; publ. 27.05.2009, bull. No. 15), which includes fractionation of filler, processing of filler with an aqueous solution of a copolymer vinylcyclohexane with maleic anhydride RAS, followed by drying, a combination of modified wood particles with a thermoplastic binder in the form of recycled polyethylene by pre-mixing and heating with subsequent rolling on a laboratory roll mill with a roll diameter 180 mm and the gap between them is 1 mm, the pressing of the mass in the mold of a hydraulic press brand PG-60 at a temperature of 130-140°C and a pressure of 5 MPa, in the following ratio, wt.%:
The disadvantages of this method of producing slabs of composite material are relatively low physical and mechanical properties of plates and low resistance to UV irradiation, which reduces the period of operation under atmospheric conditions and significantly reduces the scope.
Object of the invention is the improvement of physico-mechanical properties of plates and their resistance to UV-irradiation on the basis of a complex thermoplastic binder formed by replacing part of the recycled polyethylene secondary terephthalate.
To solve this problem in a known method of manufacturing WPC, including fractionation of filler, processing of filler SVM solution, followed by drying, a combination of modified wood particles with polyethylene by pre-mixing and heating with subsequent rolling on a laboratory roll mill with a roll diameter 180 mm and the gap between them is 1 mm, the pressing of the mass in the mold of a hydraulic press brand PG-60 at a temperature of 180-210°C. and a pressure of 5 MPa, the KDP is introduced as a thermoplastic binder that improves the physico-mechanical properties and resistance to UV-irradiation in the form of recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) the place part of recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate in the following ratio, wt.%:
The positive effect of the proposed technical solutions, namely improving the strength and stability of the finished plates to UV irradiation is achieved by the introduction of the duodenum instead of recycled polyethylene secondary terephthalate. The latter allows to raise efficiency of use of recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate in the form of all kinds of packaging, including numerous bottles of Pat, who invaded the territory of Russia and, until recently, did not find its qualified use.
The resulting effect of the proposed use of the binder composition can be explained as follows.
The chemical nature of polyethylene terephthalate unlike chain polyethylene has a heterochain character, which has a higher physico-mechanical, elastic properties, resistance to aggressive environments, including harsh UV is Lucania, which is present in the spectrum of sunlight.
This invention will serve as an additional incentive for qualified use of secondary raw materials and improve the efficiency of existing enterprises.
The method according to the prior art (example 1 in table 1).
Manufacture of pressed plates made of composite material consisted of several stages: fractionation of filler, processing the analyzed fraction with a solution of a substance that improves the compatibility of the hydrophilic filler with a hydrophobic polyethylene, a combination of modified wood particles with polyethylene by pre-mixing and heating with subsequent rolling on a laboratory roll mill with a roll diameter 180 mm and the gap between them is 1 mm, the pressing of the mass in the mold of a hydraulic press brand PG-60 at a temperature of 130-140°C., a pressure of 5 MPa and time compression to 0.63-0.81 mm/min
Make a single layer plate thickness of 12 mm After pressing each plate is cooled in an upright position without blowing at room temperature. Test plates held not earlier than 5 days after production.
The proposed method (examples 2-6 of table 1) is as follows.
Manufacture of pressed plates made of composite material consisted of several stages: fractionation Napo the preserver, processing the analyzed fraction with a solution of a substance that improves the compatibility of the hydrophilic filler with a hydrophobic polyethylene, a combination of modified wood particles with polyethylene and polyethylene terephthalate by pre-mixing and heating with subsequent rolling on a laboratory roll mill with a roll diameter 180 mm and the gap between them is 1 mm, the pressing of the mass in the mold of a hydraulic press brand PG-60 at a temperature of 180-210°C., a pressure of 5 MPa and time compression of 0.42-0.58 mm/min After which the mold is cooled rapidly in water-salt solution with a temperature of -20÷-23°C for 2-3 minutes.
Make a single layer plate thickness of 12 mm Test plates held not earlier than 5 days after production.
In accordance with the present technology has received Board prototype (example 1) and the proposed method, by changing the composition of the material and technological conditions (examples 2-6 table 1).
|Components||Content, wt.% for example|
|1 (prototype)||2||3||4td align="center"> 5||6|
Plates with different composition composite material manufactured according to the above technologies were subjected to tests on the physico-mechanical properties and the content of free formaldehyde. The parameters of the tested slabs are shown in table 2.
|The tensile strength in bending, MPa||15,30||13,2||18,90||22,5||19,5||14,2|
|The tensile strength in bending after 200 h of UV irradiation, MPa||9,18||8,58||12,29||18,0||to 12.28||7,40|
|The ultimate tensile stress parallel to the plate, MPa||9,56||of 7.90||11.87 per||13,7||12,64||8,10|
|Swelling in thickness, %||0,65||0,75||0,49||0,32||0,58||0,81|
|Water absorption by weight, %||1,23||1,62||1,11||0,93||1,05||1,17|
|The content of free formaldehyde, mg/100 g sample||2,48||2,83||0,51||0,21||0,47||2,49|
As shown in table 2, data plate, obtained by the proposed method have higher strength properties and water resistance, significantly lower formaldehyde emission and significantly exceed the level of a prototype for resistance to UV radiation.
Despite the increase in the temperature of the pressing 140-160°C for prototype to 180-210°C by the proposed method significantly reduces the cycle pressing from 0.63-0.81 mm/is in to 0.42-0.58 mm/min When this pressing cycle ends with the sudden cooling of the molds in water-salt mixture with a temperature of -20÷-23°C for 2-3 min versus 1.5 to 2.0 hours of the prototype, where the gradual cooling of the press mass. Sharp cooling avoids crystallization of polyethylene terephthalate, to preserve the advantages of the amorphous state (transparent, elastic properties) and to significantly improve the performance of forging equipment.
Thus, it is possible to talk about a significant difference of the proposed method from the analogue and the resulting effect in the form of better products on the basis of waste polymer and plant materials.
A method of manufacturing particle boards from waste wood processing industry, including fractionation of filler, processing of the filler with a solution of a copolymer vinylcyclohexane with maleic anhydride (RAS) in nerase, followed by drying, a combination of modified wood particles with polyethylene by pre-mixing and heating with subsequent rolling on a laboratory roll mill with a roll diameter 180 mm and the gap between them is 1 mm, the pressing of the mass in the mold of a hydraulic press brand PG-60 at a temperature of 180-210°C. and a pressure of 5 MPa, the KDP enter as an ingredient that improves the physico-IU adicheskie performance and resistance to UV-irradiation,
secondary terephthalate in the following ratio, wt.%:
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to woodworking industry. Proposed method comprises preparing wood particles, drying and sorting them, making modifying carbamide-formaldehyde resin-based binder, mixing it with wood particles, producing carpet and moulding plates. Carbamide-formaldehyde resin modifier is made up of PVAC dispersion-based composition with ratio of components in wt % as follows: carbamide-formaldehyde resin - 67-92; PVAC dispersion - 5-20; carbamide - 1-5: plasticiser - 1-5, and curing agent - 1-3.
EFFECT: reduced toxicity of chipboards.
7 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises crushing chipwood into shavings. The latter is dried, glue is applied thereon and shavings is filled thereon to produce shavings carpet to be compressed thereafter at certain temperature. Prior to cutting, water steam is fed onto wood chipwood. Wood chipwood, at least, frozen partially through is used. Prior to cutting, it is thawed and dried. Proposed device comprises machine tool to produce chipwood, chipwood drier, appliance for glue application and press. Proposed device differs from known designs in that in incorporates hopper intended for feeding steam onto chipwood contained therein, steam temperature and amount regulator, and chipwood drier. Note here that steam temperature and chipwood amount are controlled to implement above described method.
EFFECT: high process rate using perfected device for production of particle boards.
16 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: wood working industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of production of wood-particle composite materials and relates to wood-particle composite material and method of its manufacturing. Material contains pressed wood-particle filler and binder, material has monolithic low-porosity structure characterized by achieved density of up to 2 g/cm3, thickness of chips makes from 0.1 to 1.0 mm, pores of wood-particle filler are fully filled with binder, such as wood resinous substances that are released from chip filler in process of its hot pressing as composite material is made. Method of manufacturing consists in the fact that filler is pressed as wood chips in presence of binder, at the same time binder is used, which is released from chips as it is pressed with pressure of 2-5 MPa, besides puncheon and die of press are pre-heated to temperature of 220-300°C, and process of hot pressing is carried out in cyclic loading mode.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of wood-particle composite material manufacturing method and to improve quality, due to increased strength, water resistance and fire resistance of manufactured wood-particle composite materials.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: method for manufacturing of boards from chip or fibre material, in particular chip boards, LDF, MDF, HDF and OSB boards, includes the following stages: (S2) - production of dried chip or fibre material, (S3a, S3b) - plasma treatment of dried chip or fibre material, (S4a, S4b) - application of glue onto plasma-processed chip or fibre material and (S5) - pressing chip or fibre material, on which glue is applied into boards. Technological gas used at stage (S3a, S3b) of plasma treatment contains fluorine as additional component. Board contains not more than 50 kg of hard glue per cubic metre.
EFFECT: invention improves quality of boards.
13 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of construction and heat insulation materials. Proposed complex comprises crusher, hopper, mixer, reed powder hopper, reed powder feed conveyor for production sandwich panels with vacuum-powder insulation or materials made from cheff or reed powder heated to 190-200°C to separate resin-based adhesive, rolls, molds and acclimatizator heated to over 200°C and oscillating at preset rate, and arranged under said conveyor. Note here that hopper is furnished with mixer and hot water circulation jacket and jacket with branch pipe to feed heat carrier and to dry cheff to 90-95°C. Mixer is communicated with vertical heated mill furnished with hot water circulation jacket.
EFFECT: production of new heat insulation material.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to epoxide-wood composition for production of pressed boards used to cover foam polystyrene plates from external and internal sides on glue in order to protect them against external impact and to increase their service life. Composition includes the following components, with their following ratio, wt %: 37.2-43.5 of epoxide-diane resin ED-20, 3.7-4.3 of amine hardener of polyethylene polyamine, 43-52.1 of pine woodchip filler, 6.3-11.9 of polymer filler. Polymer filler used in composition is foam polystyrene chips - wastes of heat insulation production.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase physical and mechanical characteristics of composition, to recycle wastes of wood processing and heat insulation materials.
2 tbl, 3 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for woodworking and construction industry, and also environmental protection, and may be used in production of different construction materials, furniture panels, etc. Particles of organic filler, in particular wastes of woodworking industry, are ground to size of 1-0.25 mm, fractioned and dried to moisture extent of 3% and below. Then particles of this component and thermoplastic binder are charged with opposite electric charges by means of their supply to surface of rotor that rotates with circumferential speed of 80-120 m/s. As thermoplastic binder you can use domestic waste, such as polyethylene bags, containers. Charged particles of filler and binder are mixed. Mass prepared in mixer is sent through overbridge equipped with bipolar ioniser. Length and diametre of overbridge are such that they provide time of 10-12 sec for mass staying, which is sufficient to achieve residual charge of static electricity by voltage value of 20-500 V/cm. Invention makes it possible to produce cheap items by simple method with density of 0.99-1.00 g/cm3 and flexural length of at least 42 MPa, to recycle wastes, improve ecology and reduce toxicity of items.
EFFECT: production of cheap items by simple method with density of 0,99-1,00 g/cm3 and flexural strength of at least 42 MPa, recycling of wastes, improved ecology and reduced toxicity of products.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: wood industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to production of chipboards. The board includes bottom and top surface layers with fine particles, and an intermediate layer with more coarse particles is placed between these surface layers. The intermediate layer has various density in the areas, where the board is supposed to be attached to an other object. The chipboard production method includes even distribution of fines followed by generation of the first particle matrix to form a bottom surface layer, distribution of more coarse particles followed by generation of the second particle matrix above the fine particle matrix using a distribution device so that at least in one zone the coarse particles are applied in a more thick layer than at least in one surrounding area, even distribution of the fine particles followed by generation of the third coarse particle matrix to form a top surface layer and compression of the first, second and third matrices, whereby the intermediate layer thickness remains virtually unchanged, so the intermediate layer has various density.
EFFECT: produced chipboards feature increased soundproof and heat-insulating properties, and light weight, that facilitates efficient shipment of the processed boards.
9 cl, 13 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of construction beam production out of modified wood involves wood modification by squeezing fine metal powder into lumber cavity, with further formation of lumber face by rolling even surface before feeding it into reverse mold, where lumber is put by metal faces together. Then ultra high frequency (UHF) current is applied to beam ends to mollify metal powder, and modified materials are connected in reverse mold by pressing, at the moment of which UHF current is switched off, and obtained seam is cooled, finished beam is extracted from reverse mold freeing it for next beam pressing.
EFFECT: obtainment of construction beams of specified shape and strength properties.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: converted timber or chip plate is made of eucalyptus breeds and connected by means of binding substance containing isocyanatic or phenol polymeric compound. Eucalypti of the following species were selected: Bluegum (E. Globulus), Karri (E. Diversicolor), Sydney Bluegum (E. Saligna), Marri (E. Calophylla) or Jarrah (E. Marginata).
EFFECT: high surface strength, wet resistance and low swelling ratios.
10 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: wood-working industry; production of pressed building items.
SUBSTANCE: the group of inventions is pertinent to the field of production of pressed building items made out of plant roughage and may be used in wood-working construction industries and other branches of economy. The panel made by pressing out of a carpet without synthetic binding materials consists of a mixture of a birchen bark ground up to a faction of 40-5000 microns and a filler predominantly out of cellulose filaments at the following ratios in respect to the total dry solid matter (in mass %): a birchen bark - 60-95, cellulose filaments - 5-40. In an alternative version of the panel, which is made the same way as the above, the outer surfaces of the carpet are strengthened with lingo-cellulose-polymeric compound including an excelsior and the KF-EC resin with a hardener or an excelsior and triturated secondary polymer taken in amount of 10-12 mass % to the weight of the excelsior. At that the share of the lingo-cellulose-polymeric compound makes 20-40 % to the total dry weight of the carpet. The method allows to use a ground birchen bark without synthetic binding agents for shaping a carpet and its consequent pressing. At that for a carpet formation they use the birchen bark ground up to a faction of 40-5000 microns, and a filler mainly made out of cellulose filaments taken in the following ratio in respect to the total dry weight(in mass %): a birchen bark-60-95, cellulose filaments - 5-40. Before formation of the carpet the filler is moistened up to 18-20 % of absolute humidity and is mixed with ground birchen bark. The carpet is formed with a thickness equal to 200-300 % of the thickness of a finished panel. The group of the inventions ensures simplification of the production process, reduction of its cost, expansion of the range of the List of items.
EFFECT: group of the inventions ensures simplification of the production process, reduction of its cost, expansion of the range of the List of items.
8 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: production of plate materials of the splint-slab type, applicable in the wood-working and building industries.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in processing of husk particles by a binder containing urea-formaldehyde resin, ammonium chloride, Aerosil butadienstyrene methacrylic latex, forming of the mat, cold prepressing and hot pressing. The binder instead of ammonium chloride contains ammonium fluosilicate at the following relation of the components, mass percentage: urea-formaldehyde resin - 82.8 to 93.4, ammonium fluosilicate - 0.6 to 1.2; butadienstyrene methacrylic latex - 4.0 to 12.0, Aerosil - 2.0 to 4.0.
EFFECT: enhanced physico-mechanical characteristics of the plates.
FIELD: production of building materials, applicable in the wood-working, furniture and building industries.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in mixing together of wood particles with urea-formaldehyde resin, butadienstyrene methacrylic latex, ammonium chloride and Aerosil, forming of the mat, cold prepressing and hot pressing. The binder instead of ammonium chloride contains ammonium fluosilicate at the following relation of the components, mass percentage: urea-formaldehyde resin - 82.8 to 93.4, ammonium fluosilicate - 0.6 to 1.2, butadienstyrene methacrylic latex - 4.0 to 12.0, Aerosil - 2.0 to 4.0.
EFFECT: enhanced physico-mechanical and ecological characteristics.
FIELD: wood-working industry, in particular, methods for decreasing the content and emission of formaldehyde intended for fiber boards.
SUBSTANCE: the process of production of fiber boards is conducted with employment of aminated adhesive resins with an addition of substances binding the formaldehyde by compacting in running presses or continuous-action presses and by cooling. After compacting, but before cooling the fiber board is subjected to a short-time curing at 80 to 100C during 6 to 16 hours, depending an the expected level of decrease and emission of formaldehyde and used parameters of the process of production.
EFFECT: reduced content and emission of formaldehyde in the fiber board.
5 cl, 3 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: wood-working industry, applicable in furniture, building, packaging and machine-building branches of industry.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in the fact that filings and sawdust composed of: coniferous needles - 80%< filings - 10%, sawdust - 5% and wood fibers - 5% are added to the ground pulp of coniferous needles. The obtained mass is fed to the forming unit, which forms the sheets, which are fed to a press, where they are compacted at a pressure of not more than 10 Mpa at a temperature of not higher than 250C during not longer than 30 S. The obtained coniferous-needle material is cooled down, packed and delivered to the consumers.
EFFECT: produced material with breaking load, high density, low water absorption.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: manufacture of substantially flat articles, for instance particle boards and other articles of industrial wood residue or vegetable raw materials by hot pressing thereof.
SUBSTANCE: method for particle board production involves performing hot molding at temperature of 120-200°C and under pressure of 2.5 - 30.0 MPa for panel forming. Industrial waste, molasses, concentrated corn steep or mixture thereof are used as binding material, wherein lime and starch-containing materials are added to mixture including industrial wood residue or vegetable raw materials and the binding material before hot molding operation beginning.
EFFECT: increased ecological safety and increased strength of the panels.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: production of plate material.
SUBSTANCE: proposed composition is made on base of dispersed raw material with modifying additive; plate material is made by molding the said composition at temperature of 160-190°C and pressure of 65-95 kg/cm2; molding time of 1 min per 1 mm of plate thickness. Used as modifying agent are acid by-products of oxidation of cyclohexane of caprolactam process at mass ratio to wood wastes of 50-70:30-50, respectively.
EFFECT: facilitated procedure of production of composition.
FIELD: wood-working industry.
SUBSTANCE: fiber or chip is dried, then it is mixed with glue at a temperature of below 100C, and a plate is formed at a temperature above 140C, wood is decomposed into solid and liquid components that are used as the glue. The installation for manufacture of the plate has a drying device, device for application of glue onto the fiber or chip, device for compaction, transport facilities for transferring the fiber or chip from the drying device to the device for application of glue, mixer having means for cooling the body. The contents of glue in a plate obtained with the use of the installation makes up 45 to 55 kg per cubic meter of plate.
EFFECT: produced plate with a lower contents of glue as compared with plates produced by the known methods.
31 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: compositions used for manufacture of plates from wood laminate.
SUBSTANCE: composition for manufacture of plates contains rice shell or rice shell and sawdust mixture used as filler, liquid sodium glass having modulus of 2.4-3.6, and silicon dioxide. Artificial silicon dioxides or siliceous dust-like wastes of various industries may be used as silicon dioxides, with SiO2 content making at least 80%. Composition components are used in predetermined ratio.
EFFECT: improved strength and water tightness, and increased efficiency in utilization of various wastes.
FIELD: wood-working industry, and namely the method of manufacture of the structural unit, in particular, slab of wood fiber, wood chip and/or sawdust, and pressing of fiber, chip, and/or sawdust with applied glue for formation of the structural unit, in particular, slab.
SUBSTANCE: at first the wood fiber, chip and/or sawdust are decomposed by steaming into liquid components and hard components. The liquid components are separated and cooled inside the closed hermetic system up to their discharge from the system. During this process the ecological load caused by odor is sharply reduced. The invention also includes a device for realization of the method and a structural unit manufactured on it.
EFFECT: produced an ecologically pure method for manufacture of slabs and a device for its realization.
46 cl, 3 dwg