Method of determining radioactive contamination of water bodies
SUBSTANCE: method involves collection of initial plankton samples from the water body under investigation, and preparation thereof, said samples containing hydrobionts-bioindicators of radioactive contamination. The resultant samples of said hydrobionts are prepared and analysed, followed by evaluation of the radiation condition of the water body under investigation. The hydrobionts-bioindicators of radioactive contamination of the water body used are sea zooplanktons of the Chaetognath type. One initial plankton sample containing said hydrobionts is collected at any arbitrary or directed given point of the offshore zone under investigation with salinity not lower than 8%. One resultant sample of said hydrobionts is then prepared by collecting from the initial sample not less than 5 zooids of sea zooplanktons of the Chaetognath type. Analysis of the resultant samples of said hydrobionts is carried out through visual examination of outer morphological features which characterise the state of the skin and fins of each separately taken zooid from among those collected. The radiation condition of the investigated offshore zone is carried out by detecting presence or absence from the resultant sample zooids of said hydrobionts, having anomality of said outer morphological features. If the resultant sample has at least one zooid, having damaged skin and/or broken fins, the offshore zone under investigation has radioactive contamination.
EFFECT: simple and shorter method, reduced expenses on implementing the method.
9 cl, 2 ex
The invention relates to the field of ecology and can be used as a method for the rapid assessment on the basis of bioindication the presence or absence of radioactive contamination of the marine environment in various areas as the occasional survey, and within the framework of radiation monitoring of sea areas, in particular in accordance with international environmental programmes (UNESCO, IUBS, DIVERSITAS).
Currently, there is a significant increase of anthropogenic impact on marine ecosystems host a planetary scale, as noted in international programmes: UNESCO, IUBS, DIVERSITAS. This has already led to changes in marine ecosystems and, consequently, to the reduction of biodiversity and inventory of biological resources in the world . Among the most significant hazards to human health include marine pollution by radionuclides, which, falling through contaminated aquatic organisms in the trophic chain in the human body, can cause a number of serious diseases, including cancer. Sources of radionuclides in the marine environment are: disposal of radioactive waste in the oceans, which were produced by all the leading nuclear powers for many years; sunk as a result of accidents at nuclear submarines; plum liquid radioactive substances from ships, the submarines, etc. [2, p.2, 279, 285, 292, 293, 295]. In this regard, the study of the biota of ecosystems exposed to radioactive contamination, is one of the important components of environmental security . Environmental monitoring of radiation environment is also needed to identify factors harmful and dangerous to human health.
Known physical and chemical methods of determination of radionuclides in liquid environments , which provides for the sampling of liquid media and their physico-chemical treatment followed by analysis of radiation methods by measuring ionizing radiation. In particular, there is a method of monitoring the state of pollution of the marine waters [4, p.3-6, 7, 19] by determining the content of radionuclides in the marine environment, including the selection of initial samples of sea water (at low levels of radionuclide concentration is several thousand liters; when the level of radionuclides in the range of 1-100 Bq/m3and more of the order of 100 l) using a pump with the use of the absorber and filter systems; preparation of the resulting samples by concentration of the source water samples by the method of evaporation in a special bath with electric furnaces up to a capacity of 1.5 liters, not boiling, evaporation in a fume hood to dry residue under the lamp and calcination in a muffle furnace at 400°C; the Association of NAC is captured in the course of the year resulting samples with obtaining the total sample; the analysis of total sample by gamma-spectrometric installation; receiving the pulse height spectrum; the determination of the qualitative and quantitative content of radionuclides in the study of the total sample using the mathematical apparatus of the calculations. In cases when the method of evaporation for technical reasons cannot be used (if the radionuclide concentrations below 1 Bq/m3or, if necessary, analysis of the initial samples of sea water containing a lot of salt)before preparation of the resulting samples are additionally conducted model experiments.
The known method is the analog of  does not provide achieved by the invention of the technical result, because of the following. Due to the fact that radioactive contamination of the marine environment is complex and often unknown radionuclide composition, the method  provides a complex, multi-step analysis procedure using expensive equipment, which is characterized by a significant period (at least one year), which completely eliminates the possibility of conducting a rapid determination of the presence of radioactive contamination. This, in turn, allows you to quickly inform the population in the zone of ecological hazard and environmental services and to take timely preventive measures. The method of does not allow to take into account natural fluctuations in the waters, which can cause fluctuations in the level of radioactive contamination (radioactive material, the deposition on top of the source of pollution (etc), which adversely affects the information content of the received determination results. This method has limitations because it can be applied only when the availability of accurate data on the localization of the source of pollution (in particular, there are maps available for the disposal of radioactive waste) and in the presence preview data for concentrations of radionuclides. In addition, if the source of radioactive contamination is at a great depth, additionally, you will need special equipment for sampling water depth (device "ROSETTA"), which further complicates the procedure definition.
Traditional physical and chemical methods for determination of radioactive pollution, registering physico-chemical component of aquatic ecosystems, often ineffective, especially when the need to identify critical state of biological resources, assessing trends to resume, forecasting reproduction. This is because these methods do not provide information on the status of water (particularly marine) biota, which (along with the physico-chemical component) is an integral part of water (in particular, the Morse is) ecosystems, specifically responds to the complex components of radioactive contamination, resulting in violations at the organism, population and system levels, which leads to pathological changes of ecosystem linkages and biodiversity loss, resulting in a reduction (up to total loss) the productivity of the water area in General. In these cases effective is the use of bioindication, allowing to judge about the state of the biota (as differentiated /change at any given level of biocenosis/, as well as being integrated) and, as a consequence, the cumulative status of the whole ecosystem. As objects bioindicators use of unicellular and/or multicellular organisms (mainly invertebrates)that live in a particular (investigational) waters, which are able to specifically respond to anthropogenic impacts and to remain viable after him. Bioindication can be used for a single determination of the presence or absence of anthropogenic pollution of the water environment, and within the framework of environmental monitoring. Objects of environmental monitoring can be as individual organisms and groups of organisms. Currently, there is an opinion that for marine ecosystems priority monitoring is bent is with (benthic community).
Known methods of determining the anthropogenic pollution of the water environment in various areas with the use of animals bioindicators. So, there is a method of biological monitoring of the aquatic environment on the basis of the registration provisions of the valves of the shell of the bivalve shell-bearing mollusks (mussels) . The method includes fastening across the shells of mollusks position sensor valves, the placement of shellfish with sensors in a controlled water, the formation and transmission of optical radiation through the optical fiber transmission line, with one section each of which is made in the form of a loop and has fixed on the half-shell based sensor with an emphasis on one side of the loop in the bottom of the groove made in the base of the sensor, with the possibility of mechanical interaction between the other sides of the loop with element impacts on the sensitive element mounted on the other sash shell, and with the possibility of deformation of the shape of the loop in its plane due to mechanical interaction of the loop with element the impact on the sensitive element and the bottom of the groove base of the sensor. Next, the method involves the conversion of optical radiation transmitted through the optical fibers into electrical signals, convert them into digital codes, the input digital codes in the computer, comparing zifrovikov threshold value, the corresponding value of the electric signal with wings closed shell, the determination of the number of shellfish, closed the valves of shells, the number of digital codes, not exceeding a threshold value, and deciding on pollution of controlled waters exceeding the number of shellfish, closed the valves of shells, the threshold value.
The known method is the analogue of  does not allow to obtain the technical result of the claimed solution for the following reasons. Used in this way is analogous to multicellular benthic invertebrates - bivalve shell-bearing mollusks (mussels), which live both in freshwater and in marine environment, able to respond to nonspecific presence in their environment in certain concentrations of various pollutants, including toxic, modification of physiological activity and behavioral responses, which makes the possibility of application of these organisms in environmental monitoring as bioindicators for discrete state assessment (purity) of the water environment (by registering changes /reactions/ at this point in time). It is known that in the presence of radiation shellfish, and other marine biota, can accumulate in tissues and organs of radionuclides [2, S]. The authors imaging the acquisition were not revealed information about the ability of shellfish to respond to radioactive radiation, both in terms of abnormal physiological reactions, and expressed external morphological abnormalities. This excludes the possibility of their use for visual bioindication of radioactive contamination of the aquatic environment. The reasons preventing the use of this method of analog for radiation monitoring are limited chorological characteristics (bottom localization clams in their natural environment), the inaccessibility of these organisms in the winter (the presence of ice cover on large scale water area of habitat).
There is a method of biological monitoring areas (mainly in the areas of mixing of fresh and sea waters) based on multilevel bioindication . In the specified way is the similar as the animals bioindicators of total anthropogenic pollution of the aquatic environment depending on the type of monitoring used the following organisms: bivalves (operational monitoring); mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms (short-term monitoring); sponges, hydroids, polychaetes, some echinoderms and other /indicators of purity; all hydroids and sponges, some echinoderms, some crustaceans and molluscs etc. /indicators salinity/ (long-term monitoring). The method-analogue of  provides a sampling of aquatic animals, the establishment of their number, the biome is ssy, species diversity, borders, distribution and registration of functional parameters of the body, as well as the basic hydrological and hydrochemical indicators, define, on the basis of spatial and temporal trends of biological indicator parameters in a gradient of environmental factors. Biomonitoring is conducted continuously through multiple bioindication, with multiple levels of organization of biological systems and measurement of indicator parameters with different resolution. The results of the operational bioindication by physiological and behavioral reactions of an organism in the natural environment characterized by changing the state of the environment in the interval from 1 hour to 6 months, short-term bioindication - parameters of individual species characterize the range from 0.5 to 3 years, long bioindication at the community level assess changes at intervals of 3 years or more, the evaluation of changes in the environment by comparing with the background and reference trends of indicator parameters. Moreover, the detection of significant differences of indicator parameters by more than 30% relative to the reference trend indicates a steady state change in the environment.
The method-analogue of  also does not provide technical result of savienojamasba. The application in this way is the analogue for bioindication along with the characteristics of the physiological and behavioral responses of individual organisms or groups of even and indicator parameters communities (populations) of intertidal benthic organisms over time you can produce not only the discrete evaluation of the quality of the aquatic environment, but also to track changes in ecological communities and ecosystem dynamics with the ability to determine the transition of environment changes in a stable state. However, provided in a known manner  registration of cumulative effects from exposure to anthropogenic factors (in particular, contaminants) and the natural fluctuations of the natural environment, and the absence among benthic animal species capable of responding selectively to radioactive contamination of morphological or behavioural change, eliminates the possibility of detection of radioactive pollution (both in terms of operational and short-term and long-term monitoring). Furthermore, this method is very cumbersome, because the conclusion about the state of the aquatic environment is given by the aggregate long-term observations of biocenoses with direct continuous observation of the complex characteristics of populations of aquatic organisms and their individual members is oil, and the changing conditions of their environment, which requires a large investment of time and application of numerous morphological, hydrological and hydrochemical methods, and calculations with the use of special integral indexes. The method developed for zones of mixing of fresh and sea waters and involves the use of organisms bioindicators with narrow horological range, which significantly limits the scope of its application.
Closest to the claimed solution of the essential features is the way to determine the contamination of the waters (inland waters) bioindication carried out under radiation monitoring ecosystems . According to the method adopted for the prototype, as the animals bioindicators of radioactive contamination of the aquatic environment using plankton and aquatic plants, and the selection and preparation of samples of aquatic organisms is carried out in accordance with the indicator properties of aquatic organisms. Take samples of aquatic organisms, containing U-238, Ra-226, Th-232, Fe-59, Co-60, Sr-90, Y-91, Cs-137, Ce-144 /hereinafter - "the original sample prototype"/, in the following points: at the entrance to the reservoir at the outlet of the reservoir, in the control pond, outside the range of the source of contamination, 3 times a year - in may, July, October. Mass analyzed the original samples of the prototype is adout in the range from 500 g to 1 kg, for selection of single-source samples spend between 1 h and for cooking up to 2 hours When preparing for the selection and preparation of the original samples of the prototype take into account the availability of organisms for the selection of representative samples, and the sampling of plankton perform multiple tow net and plants a rake or net, sampled plants before packing rinsed, cleaned of sludge and dried with filter paper. Preparation of samples for radiometric analysis /next - "the resulting sample prototype"/ as follows. Prepared initial tests of the prototype is dried in a drying Cabinet at 105°C until completely dry, the samples of aquatic plants dried for two days, and a sample of plankton within one day. Each of the dried sample is weighed, placed in a porcelain crucible and saleout in a muffle furnace at 400°C. After ashing crucible with the sample cooled in a desiccator and weighed; ash is applied on an aluminum target in the number of 3-8 g; write a cover, where you indicate the code sample, the date of selection, the absolute dry weight of the sample, the mass of ash, the mass of a sample, a list of required tests, and then transmit the resulting sample prototype in radiometric laboratory. Evaluate the integral accumulated the e radionuclide and its seasonal dynamics in reservoirs.
Prototype method  does not allow to obtain a technical result achieved by using the claimed solution. The method is based on measurement of radioactivity in samples of aquatic organisms, capable of accumulation of radionuclides and used as bioindicators of radioactive contamination of water bodies. Use as bioindicators freshwater organisms (plankton and aquatic plants) excludes the possibility of applying this method for the detection of radioactive contamination of the marine environment. The authors of the invention is not revealed information about the ability of these organisms to respond to radioactive radiation in the form of visually expressed external morphological anomalies and to remain viable after him. This excludes the possibility of their use for visual bioindication of radioactive contamination of the aquatic environment. In addition, the analyzed method  provides a complex multi-step and time consuming because of the need for repeated sampling of the large mass of the original sample prototype, pre lengthy processing each of the original samples of the prototype, technically complicated and requires special equipment and adaptations of the stage of preparation of the resulting samples of the prototype, as well as the need for subsequent what about radiometric analysis in specialized radiometric laboratories, therefore prototype method cannot be used for rapid analysis of radioactive contamination of water bodies. Finally, the method is inapplicable in the winter due to lack of interest bioindication, due to the presence of ice cover.
Object of the invention is to provide a method for determination of radioactive pollution on the basis of bioindication, providing for the visual rapid assessment of the presence or absence of radioactive contamination of the marine environment at any time of the day, regardless of season, regardless of territorial and chorological localization source pollution and on the power of its radiation, due to the use as bioindicators widespread marine planktoniella organisms with distinct chorological characteristics defined visually accessible tissues and organs which are capable of specific individual of the same type to respond to radioactive exposure that is capable of preserving life when there is cause significant abnormal changes.
The problem is solved in that in the method of determination of radioactive pollution on the basis of bioindication, including the selection and waters to be investigated is Yu, the original samples of plankton containing organisms-bioindicators of radioactive contamination of the waters and their preparation, cooking the resulting samples of these organisms and their analysis with a subsequent assessment of the radiation situation in the surveyed area, according to the invention as hydrobionts-bioindicators of radioactive pollution use of marine planktonic animals related to the type Seminaturalnych /"Destinatarului"/. Select one of the initial sample of plankton containing seminaturalnych, in any random or directed to the specified point is you want to study marine salinity not less than 8‰ (hereinafter "stated the original sample", "ZIP"/. Prepare one resulting sample of these organisms through the selection of spare parts for at least 5 individuals seminaturalnych /then "declared the resulting sample", "anti-aircraft regiment"/. Analysis rgts made by visual inspection of the external morphological characteristics (hereinafter "VMP"/characterizing the condition of skin and fins, each individual specimens from the shortlist. Assessment of the radiation situation in the studied marine areas is carried out by registering the presence or absence of anti-aircraft regiment individuals seminaturalnych with anomalous VMP specified, and if rgts at least the ne specimens, with damage to the skin and/or violation of the integrity of the fins, ascertain the presence of radioactive contamination of the studied marine areas. In the selection of spare parts as directed set point marine area, subject to investigation, it is advisable to use plankton station /next - "SS"/. The most effective to make a selection of spare parts in the waters, subject to investigation, using vertical total catch from the bottom to the surface or a method of horizontal bottom fishing. Effective is the visual examination of the FMP, characterizing the condition of skin and fins, the analyzed individuals seminaturalnych by the unaided eye or with a magnifying glass or microscope. While visual inspection of these VMP can be performed in living animals seminaturalnych and animals, fixed in 4% formalin (hereinafter "the fixed destinatarului"/.
Achievement provided by the invention technical result is the following. Used in the claimed method as bioindicators of radioactive contamination of the waters of the representatives of the type Chaetognatha (destinatarului, chaetognatha, Sagitta, marine arrows) are exclusively marine free-living animals that live in salinity not less than 8‰. The however is relatively low species diversity (about 200 species), these animals belong to the mass and characteristic representatives of plankton, ranging from 30 to 90% of the total plankton biomass [8; 9, p.3]. They have a wide range of horological range, living everywhere from the coastline to the open waters, from the surface to abyssal all the oceans and seas in all latitudes. Representatives of the type Seminaturalnych can be found in the marine environment at any time of day and regardless of the season. Destinatarului are planctomycete animals as have the ability as to move freely in the water column, and (in certain periods of the life cycle) to be near the bottom [9, p.3; 10; 11]. The size of Mature individuals range from 5 to 120 mm . According to the observations of the inventors, individuals of most species have dimensions of from 15 to 45 mm, Destinatarului, both colorless and colored forms, have transparency [13, 14], which makes the possibility of visual observation of their tissues and organs. Destinatarului - elongated animals, arrow-shaped form , the body of which is conditionally divided into three parts: head, trunk and tail. All destinatarului (except Flaccisagitta) have expressed turgor body (not obvious on the tweezers). In the upper part of the head has a head ganglion (brain), grasping the bristles and the teeth. On the dorsal side of the head, behind the brain, are placed symmetrically located pair of g is Aza, and on the ventral side of the head - mouth. A characteristic feature seminaturalnych is the presence of the fins. On the sides of the body are paired fins, and at the end unpaired caudal fin. Each of the fins is made of transparent fin plates and, as a rule, equipped with rays. Most species seminaturalnych (Parasagitta elegans, P. arctica, P. liturata, Sagitta kussakini, Leptosagitta collariata, Aidanosagitta crassa, Pterosagitta draco, Serratosagitta pacifica and others) have thickening of the skin, called the alveolar tissue, which may cover certain parts of the body. Some species, in particular Flaccisagitta hexaptera, F. inflata, do not possess the alveolar tissue. Muscle tissue is developed in all three parts of the body, and the body and tail forming four longitudinal strand adjacent to the skin surface [9, P.8-21, 102, 103, 104, 81, 69, 63, 121, 122, 126].
A number of researchers found that destinatarului have high viability, which is due to their ability to absorb dissolved in water organics. In particular, there is evidence that individuals seminaturalnych with an amputated head continued to exist in the aquarium during the month [16, 17].
To prove the specificity revealed by the inventors of changes in tissues seminaturalnych in response to radioactive exposure was conducted comparative ASCS shall adowanie reaction seminaturalnych on various anthropogenic impacts and natural fluctuations. For this purpose we have set a series of experiments using the model and full-scale principles. For model control and test experiments of the ecologically clean district of the Amur Bay was formed aliquot sample of plankton (according to methodology described in ), containing seminaturalnych different species (in particular, Parasagitta elegans, P. liturata, Sagitta kussakini, Leptosagitta collariata and others)that live in this particular water area [/hereinafter - the "autochthonous control destinatarului", "ACS"/] in the amount of 20 capture /hereinafter - "aliquot sample", "AP"/. From AP were selected (manually with a pipette from a Cup Koch) on 100 individuals ACS for each of the model experiments, which were placed in aquariums, where either were sea water from the ecologically clean district of the Amur Bay (hereinafter "clean sea water", "ECPS"/ (control)or simulated conditions of different anthropogenic impacts (experience). Full-scale control experiments consisted of the selection of the most ecologically clean district of the Amur Bay samples of plankton containing seminaturalnych (different species)that live in a given area (ACS) with subsequent capture for analysis 100 individuals ACS. Full-scale pilot experiments consisted in the selection of areas subjected to various anthropogenic influences, the Rob plankton, containing seminaturalnych (of different species)living in each of these areas is "autochthonous experienced destinatarului", "AS"/, followed by taking on 100 individuals AS for each of the field experiments used to study a particular type of impact. Scheme of studies generally consisted of a series of experiments (experiment and control) with the following conditions of production:
|I series (model control)||- environment research: a primer of ecologically clean district of the Amur Bay, placed in an aquarium with ACMV;|
|the object of the study: 100 individuals ACS from AP;|
|II series (field control)||- environment research: ACMV placed in the aquarium;|
|the object of the study: 100 individuals ACS;|
|III series (model experiment)||environment study: radioactive soil from the nuclear accident cart boat /next - "SSN"/ Bay Chasma (radioactive radiation of the soil, according to , was 107-103Bq/kg), placed in an aquarium with ACMV;|
|the object of the study: 100 the person who AKS of the AP;|
|Series IV (field experience)||object and environment research: 100 individuals AS in seawater due to the submarine Bay Chasma (radioactive radiation of water, according to , was:-60 - (1,3-66) Bq/m3; Cs-137 - (1,3-5,8) Bq/m3);|
|V series (model experiment)||environment study: radioactive soil from the specified zone of radioactive precipitation (received from the submarine Bay Chasma) in the Gulf of Arrows /hereinafter - "radioactive soil zone out"/ (radioactivity of soil, according to the works [2, P.279; 21], was 200 Bq/kg), placed in an aquarium with ACMV;|
|the object of the study: 100 individuals ACS from AP;|
|Series VI (field experience)||object and environment research: 100 individuals AS in sea water from the zone set geophysical activity in the Bay Crater of an active volcano Ushishir [22, S];|
|VII series (model experiment)||object and environment research; impact: 100 individuals ACS of AP in ACMV placed in the aquarium and processed by the action of ultrasound on the methodology described in ;|
|VIII, IX, X, XI and XII series (model experiments)||object and environment research; impact: 100 individuals ACS of AP in ACMV made with salts of heavy metals such as iron, zinc, Nickel, copper, and lead (at a concentration of 5 µg/l each), placed in the aquarium.|
In each of the control series 50% of instances out of 100 selected specimens examined alive, and 50% after fixation in 4% formalin. Similarly, in each of the experimental series (model or full-scale) 50% of the 100 analyzed individuals (exposed in the experiment or after exposure to environmental conditions) were examined alive, and 50% after fixation in 4% formalin. In all individuals seminaturalnych (both live and fixed in 4% formalin) of control and test series conducted visual inspection using a handheld field magnifier with increased 4-6 times (the average size of the analyzed individuals in all series was 15-20 mm) following VMP: the integrity of the animal's body, the turgor of the body, the condition of the skin, the condition of the fins, the symmetry of the eye, the condition of the muscle tissue. Was conducted comparing the results of the examination of specimens of different experimental series with each other and with the results of the survey species control series. Morphological examination of animals from the control series (I, II) showed that the rate of SETI kochelsee possess integrity of the body; the turgor of the body is expressed (not obvious on the tweezers); alveolar tissue forms a smooth layer; fins integral; the eyes are symmetrical; muscle tissue usually has rigidity. The observations also showed that appropriate fixative (4% formaldehyde) does not affect the morphological picture. In animals undergoing natural or simulated radiative forcing (series III, IV, V)were injured skin (pathological changes in the formation of alveolar tissue) and violation of the integrity of the fins. Pathological changes of other profit centers of the specimens of series III-V not found. In series III and IV both of these anomaly occurred in 100% of the surveyed individuals (both living and fixed), and V-series - 100% of the examined animals (live and fixed) were present damage to the skin, and only 70% of the individuals (live and fixed) was observed violation of the integrity of the fins. Abnormal morphological changes found in series III-V, not observed in other types of impacts (series VI-XII) and control individuals (series I, II), indicating the specificity of these changes for radioactive exposure.
To check the viability of animals with abnormal morphological changes due to radioactive impact of the m, 50 living individuals of each series III-V after examination VMP kept in aquariums with ACMV (separate individuals each series). The control were ACS of AP (50 living individuals), placed in an aquarium with ACMV. Over the test and control animals was conducted by visual observation. It was found that all destinatarului (both the control and abnormal animals) in the observation period remains viable (remained clear and active), the same period of time (over 3 weeks).
Thus, the inventors have found that radioactive contamination causes specific changes in external morphology, expressed in skin injury (pathological changes in the formation of alveolar tissue and the integrity of the fins. While the authors claimed solution revealed that these anomalous FMP, as a rule, are found in the complex. The lack of integrity of the fins of the specimens of series V (30%), according to the authors of the claimed solution, may be due to the fact that the alveolar tissue is more sensitive to radiation exposure than the fins. In this regard, when a lower level of radioactive contamination (in particular, when the level of radiation generated by radioactive soil zone of removal), pathological changes of the alveolar the fabric, apparently, priority will be apparent with respect to changes of the fins, which will increase the likelihood of individuals seminaturalnych with (at the time of analysis) damage only the skin. In this case, a marker of radioactive contamination of the surveyed area will serve as declared morphological feature characterizing the condition of the skin. On the other hand, it is known that the alveolar tissue can be poorly expressed (in particular, juveniles) or completely absent (for example, the above species)that in some cases significantly complicates the analysis of the condition of the alveolar tissue or completely eliminates the possibility of its realization. In the situation described by the criteria for making decisions about the presence of radioactive contamination of the surveyed area will be declared morphological feature characterizing the state of the fins. In this regard, according to the authors of the invention, it is stated set of FMP is necessary and sufficient to obtain reliable results on the radiation situation of the surveyed area.
The method is as follows. Make a selection of the original sample of plankton (marine environment)containing seminaturalnych (ZIP)in marine waters (salinity not less than 8‰)subject to study aniu (in particular, in the waters affected by radioactive contamination), and its preparation. Taking the ZIP carry out once in any random or directed to the specified point, characterizing, from the point of view of service radiation and ecological security, and other interested entities or persons, the radiation situation in this particular area. As directed set point can be used, for example, PS ("planktonic station", adopted in Hydrobiology term meaning: "point on map", "stop sampling" [11, 24]). Selection of spare parts can be made both at the substation, a member (at the time of the survey) in a regular coordinate regulatory scheme PS this specific area, as in PS, target (hydrological services or environmental commissions) for inclusion in the regular coordinate scheme PS, regulatory approved or newly compiled for the study area. The selection of spare parts carried out by standard methods adopted for selection of plankton. Depending on the technical equipment of the working group conducting the survey, as well as the depth of the sea at the point identified for analysis, used vertical total catch from the bottom to the surface [25, S] or horizontal bottom fishing [25, S; 24; 26]. As the primary p is sposobleny for fishing (regardless of method of fishing) use planktonic network (various models) consisting of metal (usually brass) ring with the diameter of the inlet is not less than 30 cm and attached to the ring conical shaped bag, made from mill sieves (No. 38), with the lower part of which is connected planktonic glass, designed to collect plankton from the marine environment. For sampling plankton can be used, for example, the network Juday (the diameter of the inlet 37 cm), chain Dam (the diameter of the inlet 50 cm), etc. [25, S-145]. In cases where the source of radioactivity is at a great depth, it is advisable to use the network (any model), equipped with an additional contactor (to exclude the presence of planktonic animals from the top, clean horizons water mass) [25, 164, 175, 178]. For horizontal bottom fishing using plankton net (any model)attached to a drag or sled or directed manually by a diver [24, 26]. Sampling at the water's edge of the surveyed area can be done using the net (with the mill sieve No. 38) [25, S]. After completing fishing spare parts from the standard planktonic Cup volume, for example, 0.5 l, or directly from the net transfer in the capacity of the primary placement of the ZIP volume, for example, 0.5 l /next - "primary capacity"/. In primary receptacles of destinatarului (in the selected plankton) can the content is the promise alive until analysis. If there are factors preventing the analysis immediately after sampling ZIP (pitching of the vessel during oceanic flight due to a storm), or to request delivery of spare parts from the selection in the item of the environmental committees or specialized laboratories can be fixed seminaturalnych (in the selected plankton), for example, formalin according to the standard methodology adopted for the forwarding conditions . When the ZIP contained in the primary vessel, add 40% formalin in the ratio of 9:1, resulting in seminaturalnych, fixed in 4% formalin-fixed, destinatarului). To prepare rgts selected from spare parts found in primary receptacles that are 5-10 individuals seminaturalnych (live or fixed) manually, for example, using tweezers with curved ends (hooking), or pipette, and then transferred into a vessel containing a small amount of sea water is the "capacity for analysis/. As the capacity for analysis can be used, for example, Petri dishes, Koch; Bogorov chamber. You can carry out the analysis directly on a glass slide (drop of water). Produce a visual survey of selected individuals seminaturalnych. However, if the length of the selected individuals exceeds 20 mm, make a survey of neverbeen the m by eye or by using a hand magnifier (with increased 4-6 times); in smaller animals the analysis is performed with the help of a magnifying glass or microscope (increase 6-8 times), for example the model of IAS 10 (LOMO, Russia). During visual inspection evaluate each of the selected individuals seminaturalnych VMP characterizing the condition of skin and fins. Record the presence or absence of anti-aircraft regiment individuals with damage to the skin (pathological changes in the formation of alveolar tissue) and/or violation of the integrity of the fins. If rgts at least one individual having the above-mentioned anomalous VMP, ascertain the presence of radioactive contamination of the studied marine areas. The claimed method can be used as a method for the rapid assessment as the occasional survey, and within the framework of radiation monitoring of sea areas.
The claimed method /next - LC/ was used as an additional method to survey the area in 2007 (summer and autumn), conducted as part of routine periodic hydrological and radiological testing research /"PGPI", "PCI"/ in the zone of a nuclear accident nuclear submarine in the Bay of Chasma (salinity is 33‰ [27, S]) Peter the Great Bay, sea of Japan in the area of the epicenter of the radioactive spots and its periphery. PGPI, PRPI about odilis on three cops, included in regular coordinate regulatory scheme TS the study area [28, 4, 1; 8]: at station 1, located in the area of the epicenter of the accident (hereinafter "PO1"/; at station 5, located on the axis of the underwater radioactive plume within 150 m from the source of the contamination is "PS2"/; at station 3, located on the periphery of the radioactive plume at a distance of 250 m from the source of the contamination is "PS3"/. PCI included standard methods for the determination of radionuclides in the water column [28, p.3; 4] and sediments [28, p.3-4] /next, respectively, "SMART", "SORDO"/. When the water samples were made in the daytime; water with a given horizon (PO1 and PO2 - horizons of 0.5, 8 and 9 m on the PS3 from the bottom metre layer) using a submersible pump was pumped through the filters and cartridges with a fibrous sorbents for extraction of sediment and concentration of radionuclides analysis total samples for gamma-spectrometric installation. Sampling of sediments produced in the daytime with dirt tube diameter 42 mm After pre-selection of samples from a distribution of the total gamma activity (defined using radiometers PSA - 68-1 and RKS-20.03 "Pripyat") in the column and subsequent drying of the samples of bottom sediments were determined in their activity of radionuclides scintillas the district (Gamma Trac 1191-TN 7200) and semiconductor (with a HPGe detector, "Canberra") gamma-ray spectrometers.
During the execution of CS produced a selection of spare parts for each of the specified substation twice a day (in the periods: 12-13 hours a day and 0-1 h night) vertical total catch from the bottom to the surface with Juday. After the completion of fishing each ZIP transferred from the standard planktonic glass 0.5 l (which is included as an integral element in the network Juday) in the primary capacity of a volume of 0.5 L. Given the risk factor for the researcher associated with radioactive contamination of the water column were recorded seminaturalnych (in the selected plankton) formalin according to the standard methodology adopted for the forwarding conditions . While each of the ZIP contained in the primary vessel, was added 40% formalin in the ratio of 9:1, resulting in the fixed seminaturalnych. After that, all spare parts were delivered in a specialized inpatient laboratory where he conducted the analysis. For the preparation of anti-aircraft regiment was selected from each of the ZIP, in the primary tank, five fixed specimens seminaturalnych manually with tweezers with curved ends (hooking), then transferred into a Petri dish. Produced visual inspection of individuals seminaturalnych selected from each ZIP. Given that the average length of the selected individuals was 20±2 mm, p is oizvodil survey using handheld magnifier (with increased 4-6 times). During visual inspection was evaluated in each of the selected individuals seminaturalnych VMP characterizing the condition of skin and fins. We recorded presence or absence of anti-aircraft regiment individuals with damage to the skin (pathological changes in the formation of alveolar tissue) and/or violation of the integrity of the fins. All anti-aircraft regiment, received on PO1, PO2 and the PS3 both in the daytime and at night, both in summer and in autumn, all individuals (100%) had pathological changes in the formation of alveolar tissue and the integrity of the fins, on the basis of which noted the presence of radioactive contamination on all surveyed PS, which helped make the conclusion about the General pollution of the studied marine areas. The average duration of the procedures for the selection of spare parts was 40±10 min and samples 12±2 minutes
The results of the analysis of the claimed method were compared with data obtained using SMART and SORDO. In particular, according to SMART, concentrations of radionuclides Co-60 and Cs-137 in water (dissolved and particulate form) at intermediate horizons and in the surface layer in the area of the accident was, respectively, 1,3-32,5 Bq/m3and 1,2-a 5.3 Bq/m3. At PO1 specific activity of Co-60 in dissolved form and in suspension amounted to, respectively: in the sample is, selected on the horizon 0.5 m to 1.0 Bq/m3, 0.12 Bq/m3; on the horizon 8 m to 1.4 Bq/m3, a 2.5 Bq/m3; on the horizon 9 m to 8.8 Bq/m3, 26,7 Bq/m3. According SORDO, integral characteristic of radioactive contamination of sediments Co-60 (contamination density) on PO1, PO2 and PS3 were, respectively: 1,3·108Bq/m2; 2,0·106Bq/m2; 2·104Bq/m2. In particular, the maximum values of specific activity of Co-60 in the bottom sediments were, respectively: PO1 - 1,3·106Bq/kg dry weight (subsurface layer); PO2 - 19,2·103Bq/kg (surface layer); on the PS3 - 208 Bq/kg (surface layer). The data obtained by standard methods, showed the presence of total radioactive contamination of the surveyed area.
Thus, the results obtained by the AP, is fully consistent with data obtained using the methods of control of radioactive pollution of sea areas, adopted in radiological practice.
CS was used to pay a quick assessment of the state of the marine environment in the Gulf of Peter the Great (the salinity of this water area is 29‰ [29, S]). For testing was chosen arbitrarily taken as the point with coordinates: 43°06' North latitude. 131°42' e, (hereinafter "OEM"/. CS carried out analogously to example 1. If this is m the selection of spare parts in OEM produced once during the day (9-10 am) horizontal bottom fishing with Juday. In primary receptacles of destinatarului was kept alive until analysis. For the preparation of anti-aircraft regiment was collected from the ZIP, in primary receptacles that are 10 individuals living seminaturalnych manually using a pipette, and then transferred into a Petri dish. Given that the average length of the selected individuals was 10±2 mm, made a visual inspection of each of the specimens using a microscope model MBS 10 (LOMO, Russia) (increase 6-8 times). In the visual examination, it was found: in rgts obtained in HTP, were not marked individuals with damage to the skin (pathological changes in the formation of alveolar tissue) and/or violation of the integrity of the fins. The results obtained allowed to conclude that the absence of radioactive contamination in the area of the OEM of this Maritime area. The average duration of the procedures for the selection of spare parts was 60±20 min and sample analysis 15±2 minutes
In parallel with the rapid assessment of the state of the marine environment according to the AP, the OEM conducted a one-time determination of radionuclides in the water column and bottom sediments using SMART and SORDO analogously to example 1. Selection of water HTP produced from the bottom meter of the layer. The results of the analysis: the content of radionuclides, in particular, Cs-137 and Sr-90 were, respectively: in the water of 1.2 and 0.9 Bq/m3 (within the natural background); in the bottom sediments of 0.3 Bq/kg and 0.1 Bq/kg (within the natural background).
Thus, the results obtained by the AP, correlated with the results of measurements carried out by standard methods, and literature data, according to which the radioecological situation in the waters of the Gulf of Peter the Great is generally characterized as successful .
CS passed the practical test within three years (2007-2009) in carrying out radiation monitoring of anthropogenically polluted marine waters of the sea of Japan (in particular, the Bay Chasma Peter the Great Bay) and adjacent seas in the framework of international environmental programmes of UNESCO, IUBS, DIVERSITAS, and one-time surveys of individual sea areas (bays Kievka, Golden horn Peter the Great Bay, bays, Large Stone, Rogue Bay of Arrows, the Amur Bay and others). The results obtained by the AP, correlated with the data of radiological measurements carried out by standard methods.
The claimed solution is characterized by the availability and versatility of used animals bioindicators, simplicity and relatively short duration of the procedures for their selection (from 5-10 minutes to 2-3 hours) and analysis of samples (10-20 min); does not require expensive technical equipment and chemical reagents. I.e. monitoring) reference the I of the proposed method enables operational decisions on the radiation situation of the surveyed area, in particular, directly in the field.
Sources of information
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1. The method of determination of radioactive pollution on the basis of bioindication, including the selection and waters subject to investigation, the original samples of plankton containing animals bioindicators of radioactive contamination of the waters and their preparation, cooking the resulting samples of these organisms and their analysis with a subsequent assessment of the radiation situation in the surveyed area, characterized in that as the animals bioindicators of radioactive pollution use of marine planktonic animals related to the type seminaturalnych, select one of the initial sample of plankton containing these organisms, in any random or directed to the specified point is you want to study marine salinity not less than 8‰, prepare one the resulting sample of these organisms by sampling from the original sample of at least 5 species of marine planktonic animals related to the type seminaturalnych, analysis of the resulting samples of these organisms produce by visual inspection of the external morphological features characterizing the condition of the skin and fins of each individual specimens from the shortlist and assessment of the radiation situation in the studied marine areas is carried out by registering the presence or absence in the resulting sample of individuals of these organisms, with an anomaly of these external morphological characters, and if the resulting sample at least one individual with damage to the skin and/or violation of the integrity of the fins, ascertain the presence of radioactive contamination of the investigated marine waters.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the selection of the original sample of marine planktonic animals related to the type seminaturalnych, as directed set point marine area, subject to investigation, use of plankton station.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the selection in the waters, subject to investigation, the original samples of marine planktonic animals related to the type seminaturalnych, produce a vertical total catch from the bottom to the surface.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the selection in the waters, subject to investigation, the original samples of marine planktonic animals related to the type seminaturalnych, produce a horizontal bottom fishing.
5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the visual examination of the external morphological features that characterize the condition of the skin and smooth the Cove analyzed specimens of marine planktonic animals, related to the type seminaturalnych, carried out with the naked eye.
6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the visual examination of the external morphological features that characterize the condition of the skin and fins of the analyzed specimens of marine planktonic animals related to the type seminaturalnych, performed with the help of a magnifying glass.
7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the visual examination of the external morphological features that characterize the condition of the skin and fins of the analyzed specimens of marine planktonic animals related to the type seminaturalnych, performed with the microscope.
8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the visual examination of the external morphological features that characterize the condition of skin and fins analyzed marine planktonic animals related to the type seminaturalnych, carry out in living animals.
9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the visual examination of the external morphological features that characterize the condition of skin and fins analyzed marine planktonic animals related to the type seminaturalnych, carried out in individuals, fixed with 4%formalin.
SUBSTANCE: converter has an additional layer placed in front of said layer of material, the geometry of said additional layer enabling attenuation of radiation on the entire cross-section of the converter, and material of the additional layer in the given geometry is selected based on the condition for reduction of the slope coefficient b2 of the linear spectral characteristic of an additional detector by increasing dimensions of said additional layer, with simultaneous increase in the slope coefficient b1 of the linear spectral characteristic of the main detector, wherein the composition of the converter is defined such that, selection of materials for the detecting element and each of the layers of the converter on weight and geometry is provided in a defined proportion according to the structural formula of the components of the converter (D×H)El, where D is the characteristic lateral dimension of the corresponding layer of the converter, H is the characteristic thickness of the corresponding layer of the converter, El is the chemical composition of material of the layer.
EFFECT: reduced errors when determining characteristics of deceleration radiation.
7 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: dynamic radiation monitoring method involves recording of ionisation radiation at least with one detector, continuous measurement at unit time interval of the number of pulses χi of detector, which is proportional to flow of recorded radiation, determination of background value χb, which differs by the fact that during the monitoring there constantly determined is background value as where m - positive number meeting the ratio m≤σ/S, where σ -standard deviation of detector signal from minimum possible background value, S - maximum possible curvature value of background variation, there calculated is difference the values of which are compared with threshold K being dimensionless constant value during monitoring within 1 to 4, and in case the above difference exceeds threshold K, radioactivity in the monitoring object is supposed, and values χi at which the above difference exceeds the threshold are excluded from the process of determining χb value.
EFFECT: improving detection reliability of radioactive sources in conditions of quickly changing background.
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises an unmanned aircraft, a control device, a device for observation of radiation situation, consisting of a set of radiometric sensors equipped with parachutes and an indicator module, which are dropped to earth surface in the area of a radiation accident and are combined into a single structural assembly. If radioactivity above the specified limit is detected, the indicator module is started, and the accident area decontamination is done by spraying of decontaminating polymerising indicator mixture under pressure.
EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities.
SUBSTANCE: system is configured to activate when moving through the registration zone of the system by scanning and comprises a separate identification device which transmits information to the reader of individual identification devices of transportation vehicles, a device for gathering and processing information which includes a video server and a controller, and receives information from the monitor controller, transportation vehicle identification system through the said reader, at least one video camera which transmits information to the video server of the device for gathering and processing information and at least one sensor for disclosing design of the equipment of gathering and processing information, wherein the device for gathering and processing information is configured to transmit information to an information cryptographic protection device, which in turn is configured to provide the required level of information protection and transmit the protected information to the information receiving/transmitting device of the system, which in turn is configured to transmit information to the information receiving/transmitting device of the information gathering and display centre which interprets information from standard onboard equipment of transportation vehicles and includes the said receiving/transmitting device, a data base server, at least one automated operator workstation and a local area network for gathering and displaying information.
EFFECT: high quality of detecting and identifying a radiation source in transportation vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: when conducting full-scale tests on radiation survey equipment, a uniform field of ionising radiation intensity with dynamically variable parametres is created based on point sources of gamma radiation using attenuating filters with a special configuration for increasing uniformity of the field. As a result of the tests, it can be established that the spread of values of gamma-radiation intensity from the source of ionising radiation with activity of 480 Ci between 1 and 8 gamma-radiation sources, without using attenuating filters, ranges from 1.65 to 6.4 rad/h (approximately 70%), and, when using attenuating filters, the spread of values drops to between 1.65 and 2.0 rad/h (18%) and 12% between 2 and 7 gamma-radiation sources. The calculated data were confirmed by experimental investigations and the spread of values did not exceed 15%.
EFFECT: high accuracy of obtained data.
SUBSTANCE: components of different types of fissions in the overall activity of krypton and xenon isotopes is determined by generating a signal F1 for the given moment of separation tq and measurement time t, obtaining a system of linear algebraic equations at fixed values for each iteration from the signal F1 by differentiating said system on elements pNj, solving the system of linear algebraic equations by forming several target functions and using 4 methods for multi-criteria mathematical programming by reducing the multi-criteria problem to a single-criterion problem with limitations, using iterative calculation procedures to solve the said single-criterion problem with limitations for given tq with estimates of elements of a two-dimensional signal specified on each iteration, determination of point signals of components of types of fissions into the overall activity of isotopes. To determine the moment of separation tq, components pNj are calculated at equal tq and tq for which the relationship is minimal is selected.
EFFECT: high efficiency of determination and accuracy of point estimates of components of different types of fissions into the overall activity for each krypton and xenon isotope.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in radiation monitoring soil where mineral fertiliser has been applied to the soil for a long time, resulting in significant accumulation of Ra-226 in the soil. The method simplifies soil analysis in order to detect Ra-226. A soil sample is held in a sealed container for not less than 20 days. The number of pulses n1 from photons with energy of 0.6093 MeV of the Bi-214 gamma-ray line picked up by the detector from the soil sample in a time t1 in the used measurement geometry is measured. The same detector and the same measurement geometry are used to determine the number of pulses n2 from photons with energy of 1.46 MeV of the K-40 gamma-ray line from a potassium chloride salt sample, picked up in a time t2. Specific activity of Ra-226 in the sample is calculated using a formula.
EFFECT: less expenses on monitoring content of Ra-226 in soil.
SUBSTANCE: device has at least one radiation detector in a protective metal housing with a window for passing the radiation to the detector covered by a screen which serves to isolate the detector from the surrounding medium. The device is made such that, the screen consists of three tightly joined layers of material. The first and third layers are metallic and the second middle layer is made from shock resistant plastic. The first and third layers are electrically connected to each other and to the protective metal housing. The first layer, which faces the detector, is made from a low-atomic number metal and the third - outer layer - is made from a high-atomic number metal.
EFFECT: increased reliability of detecting radioactive sources with low energy of gamma-radiation and sources without their own ramma-radiation.
2 dwg, 4 ex
FIELD: nuclear physics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear and radiation physics and can be used for detecting gamma- or deceleration radiation of powerful pulsed sources, for example a linear induction accelerator. In the proposed method responses are generated by converting radiation to obtain secondary radiations of different physical nature and detecting the secondary radiations transmitted over different physical communication channels to form responses with different spectral characteristics. The obtained responses are combined until their conversion to electrical analogues.
EFFECT: increased accuracy (without changing accuracy of determining absolute amplitude) of measuring relative amplitude of electrical analogues of responses generated from effect of pulses streams of gamma-quanta or deceleration radiation on the measuring system, including during change of radiation streams from a pulsed source in the range of several orders and during prolonged operation with the circuit, as well as achieving virtual independence of measurement accuracy on time for heating the device and simultaneous long-term stability of the measuring circuit.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to measurement equipment and may find application for measurement and monitoring of main parameters that characterise condition of atmospheric processes, and also to solve a row of ecological problems (reduced risk of NPP operation and other objects of nuclear fuel cycle and prediction of radiological situation around NPP and at a large distance from it). In order to achieve this result, they perform express measurement directly on site of performed investigation. At the same time they identify concentrations of radioactive inertial gases in atmosphere at the level of low background inertial gases in atmosphere at the level of low background values of these investigated isotopes concentrations. They carry out measurement of radioactive inertial gases in atmosphere with the help of gamma-spectrometric analysis. They define concentrations of inertial gases with the help of spectrometric device. Detector body represents cuvette, where liquefied gases are placed. At the same time investigated air components are previously changed over to liquid state by means of cryogenic method.
EFFECT: expansion of functional resources.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises sealed work chamber, stand, baths, pans, work table accommodating stations with bath positioning devices, pans, movable stand drive equipped with gripper, lifting mechanism and drive, and control unit. Automatic device incorporates also sealed work chamber with sealing side, drying chamber, driven rotation mechanism, stand with "П"-shape handle, stand base is rounded and skewed at 20÷70°. Stand sidewall inner surface supports separators made up of a comb with ledge thickness of 1÷4 and spacing width of 1.1÷2.0 of microscope slide thickness. Movable stand drive incorporates gripper made up of rectangular-section bucket. Note here that gripper moves along circular arc within 0÷40°. Baths and pans are provided with eyelets. Stations are equipped with positioning devices made up of cone pairs with truncated apex and cylindrical location flange, its diameter making 0.80÷0.95 of eyelet diameter. Aforesaid "П"-shape handle has length making 1.1÷1.2 of relation between gripping height and drive arm lifting angle cosine. Bath wall skew makes 5÷20°, wall facing stand drive.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability, ruled out fouling.
1 tbl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for stationary collection of water in the ocean bottom layer has a ballast weight on which a water collection chamber is mounted, a pipe made in form of a reinforced hose and connected with the water collection chamber, a buoy to which the top end of the pipe is attached through a sleeve nut, floats and a flexible hose which freely passes through the opening in the float and connected to the buoy. An annular magnet is mounted in the float, and inside the flexible hose there is a cylindrical magnet which is tightly fit to the walls of the house, where the axial magnetic field of the cylindrical magnet is opposite the field of the annular magnet.
EFFECT: invention enables to regularly monitor physical and chemical properties of water at any depth at stationary points with constancy of all collection conditions with low expenses.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: sampling method of fluid from pipeline, at which sampling element with sampling hole is arranged in pipeline and sample is taken through the inlet with the specified flow. At that, passage of sampling hole is increased by the coefficient inversely proportional to 0.6-1, and sample is taken from the flow in the pipeline at average velocity proportional to average flow velocity in the pipeline with proportionality factor from interval of 0.6-1. Pipeline fluid sampling device includes sampling element installed diametrically in the pipeline with the sampling hole oriented towards the flow in the pipeline and made on side surface of sampling element; at that, passage of sampling hole is made in a certain way.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing representativity of the sample, improving the pump operation and reducing electric power consumption.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: mechanical ice drilling bit includes housing on the edge of which detachable cutters are fixed, which are located symmetrically in radial direction where the cutting edge of cutters is turned inward the bit, and core breaker. Cutting edges of cutters are offset relative to each other in radial direction without overlapping each other and equal to 1/n of the cutter width, where n - the number of the bit cutters.
EFFECT: increasing mechanical drilling speed, increasing run drilling, reducing the power consumption of the cutting process owing to decreasing the thickness of the cut layer with each cutter.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, particularly to cardiovascular surgery. To forecast late thrombotic reocclusions, biopsy of abdominal aorta portion from the area of proximal anastomosis is performed. Further histological research is performed with morphometric changes of the following parameters: macrophage presence, intima state, inclusion properties, muscular element state. Probability of late thrombotic reocclusions (W) is determined by the formula W=A×B×C×D×100 where A is probability of thrombotic reocclusions for patients with various macrophage presence levels; B is probability of thrombotic reocclusions for patients with various intima defect levels; C is probability of thrombotic reocclusions for patients with various inclusions in vascular walls; D is probability of thrombotic reocclusions for patients with various state of vascular wall muscle elements. For W within 1.1 to 5% high risk of late thrombotic reocclusions is diagnosed, for W within 0 to 1% low risk of late thrombotic reocclusions is diagnosed.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of late thrombotic reocclusion forecast in post-operation period due to involvement of morphological parameters characterising disease combativeness in operation area.
2 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: delimitation of a high-grade glioma invasion is ensured by imaging of an astroglial bank surrounding the high-grade glioma. An immunogenic recombinant human GFAP is prepared and used to immunise a Balb/C mouse; spleen B-lymphocyte of this mouse are recovered and fused with myeloma cells of Sp 2/0-Ag14 mice; hybridomas are produced. Supernatants of the prepared hybridomas are tested by immunochemical techniques for the presence of anti-GFAP antibodies used to select a hybrid cell clone producing the anti-GFAP antibodies able to distinguish GFAP in vivo. The anti-GFAP antibodies are cleaned from the supernatant of the selected clone and covalently bound with liposomal nanocontainers containing a diagnostic mark. The antibodies of the selected hybrid cell clone is modified by g-amino groups of lysine residues and incubated with the stelths-liposome solution. The prepared nanosystem is introduced in a patient's vascular bed, and the astroglial bank is imaged by the arrangement of the diagnostic mark in cerebral tissues.
EFFECT: method allows preventing relapses of high-grade gliomas after their surgical management by choosing an optimal extent of a pending surgery ensured by delimitation of a tumour invasion by means of imaging of the astroglial bank.
6 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: diagnostic technique for abnormal chromatin packing in male sterility is based on a quantitative estimation of chromatin hydrolysis depth in sperm nuclei immobilised on slides. Hydrolysis by micrococcal nuclease is followed by preparation washing from soluble chromatin. Chromatin DNA without hydrolysis by nuclease and after hydrolysis is stained by fluorochrome DAPI and examined for the distinctions in a degree of fluorescence of the initial and nuclease-processed samples. A check value is a nature of chromatin hydrolyzate of fertile donor sperm cells characterised by the spermogram values. The prepared images are analysed by comparing brightness of the sperm cell images, and the abnormal chromatin packaging is shown by DNA amount extracted by nuclease relatively to total DNA.
EFFECT: use of the declared technique allows simplifying diagnosing of male sterility within the therapies in extracorporeal fertilisation and homologous insemination programs.
6 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medical equipment, namely to devices for analysis of live organism gases. Spectrometer contains mass-analyser, interface of transcutant gas with input surface, input diaphragm in it and system of electrodes, contact transmission line for switching electrodes to generators of electric signals, canal of gas mixture transportation to mass-analyser. To region between input diaphragm and transcutant gas interface electrodes via gate-regulator of inhaled gas switched is canal of gas mixture transportation, connected with device for collection of exhaled gas. In input diaphragm of transcurant gas interface installed is gas gate-regulator of transcutant gas with mechanism for regulation of incoming gas flow.
EFFECT: application of invention makes it possible to realise fast multifunctional diagnostics of live organism simultaneously in exhaled and transcutant gases in real time mode.
SUBSTANCE: holder includes housing with surface on which there arranged is investigated object and pressure sponge containing a set of parallel located needles. Housing is made so that surface on which the investigated object is located is made in the form of flat base with holes, along the perimetre of which a guide is fixed on the side opposite to investigated object. Inside the guide there arranged is pressure sponge protruding beyond its limits and copying the inner shape of the guide with possibility of coaxial movement of pressure sponge inside guide. At that, pressure sponge is made in the form of upper part connected as one piece to lower part. In upper part there rigidly fixed are needles protruding beyond the limits of upper part towards the housing so that needles can be arranged in holes of the housing. At that, needles are located along the perimetre of upper part of pressure sponge at equal distance between each other, and holes of housing coincide with axis of needles the protruding pointed tips of which have chamfer opposite direction of microtome blade stroke. In lower part of pressure sponge on the side of microtome blade stroke there is longitudinal slot and transverse cavity interconnected with it. Spring-loaded limit stop made in the form of plate having corrugation in upper part of the plate and equal to the length of the guide is installed in longitudinal slot. At that, corrugation is made on the plate side facing inner side of the housing guide with possibility of interaction of corrugation with corrugation made on surface of the guide adjacent to plate of spring-loaded limit stop. Plate has bent end arranged in transverse cavity. Besides, length of upper and lower parts of pressure sponge, which are connected as one piece, is equal to sum of length of the guide at the position of upper part when it is combined with flat base of housing, and protruding beyond the limits of the guide of length of pressure sponge, which is enough to ensure possible arrangement of handles on side surfaces of pressure sponge. Push-button having the possibility of sliding in groove of microtome rod is fixed on the level of arrangement of handles on outer surface of spring-loaded limit stop plate.
EFFECT: lower deformation degree of soft biological tissue during sampling.
SUBSTANCE: automated system comprises a station of seeds loading to separate seeds from multiple seeds and a system of seeds orientation to receive separated seeds from the station of seeds loading and orientation of the specified seeds. The system also comprises a station of sampling for removal of a seed material sample from the specified seeds. The automated system may also be made as comprising a treatment station to remove at least a part of seed shell material and a station of sampling to extract a sample of seed material with stripped shells. At the same time the system comprises a subsystem for collection and transportation of samples to grip an extracted sample into a collecting tube installed on a device for positioning of a collecting tube in the subsystem of collection and transportation of samples, and a subsystem to deposit samples for transportation of a sample from the subsystem of collection and transportation of samples to a selected nest in a tray for samples. The automated method includes a stage of separate seeds separation from the multiple seeds and to align separate seeds in the system of orientation. Afterwards the sample is removed from at least one of the oriented seeds in the sampling station, and separate seeds are transported into nests of the tray for seeds, and then the sample is transported into the nest of the tray for samples.
EFFECT: selected sample is not contaminated, improved validity of measurement results.
33 cl, 19 dwg
FIELD: automatical aids for sampling liquids.
SUBSTANCE: system for sampling and delivering filtrate has filter submerged into tested medium and connected with collecting tank and vacuum pressure source which is connected with top hole of collecting tank by means of pneumatic pipe. System has sample receiving tank connected with collecting tank and control unit which has first output to be connected with vacuum pressure source. Collecting tank has two separated chambers - washing chamber and dispatching chamber. Lower hole of washing chamber has to be lower hole of collecting tank and side hole of dispatching chamber has to be side hole of collecting tank. Floating valve is installed inside washing chamber to shut off lower and top holes. Filter is connected with lower hole of collecting tank through sampling pipe. Side hole of collecting tank is connected with lower hole of tank for receiving samples through sampling pipe. Flow-type sensor and check valve are installed inside transportation pipe. Output of flow-type sensor is connected with input of control unit; second output of control unit is connected with control input of analyzer.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement of sample ion composition; prolonged service life of filter.
1 cl, 1 dwg