Method to produce single-crystal films and layers of tellurium

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: films and layers of tellurium with single-crystal structure are produced on crystal faces by means of tellurium conversion into a monatomic steam and growth of single-structure specimens from it, at the same time the process of deposition is carried out in atmosphere of hydrogen at PH2=1.8 atm, temperature of initial tellurium T2=600°C and temperature of substrate zone T1=400°C.

EFFECT: production of films and layers of tellurium of single-crystal structure at orienting substrates.

4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of electronic technology and can be used in the manufacture of microelectronic devices.

A method of obtaining films of tellurium by vacuum deposition [1, 2].

The study of the structure and properties of the films obtained by this method showed that they are very defective. The cause of defect managed to install after research of the composition of the gas phase for mass spectrometric analysis, the resulting thermal heating of tellurium in vacuum [3]. It was predominant diatomic molecules Te2and there are tellurium atoms and atomic associates The3Those5the concentration of which depends on the temperature of the evaporator.

Thus, the gas phase tellurium obtained by thermal heating it in a vacuum, heterogeneous in composition. Therefore, from such a heterogeneous gas phase, according to the modern kinetic theory of oriented growth substances on substrates with a fixed temperature T1<450°C, it is impossible to obtain perfect structure film of tellurium with reproducible physical properties.

Another significant drawback of the method of thermal vacuum deposition is the presence in the system of oxygen in the composition of the residual gases and gas leakage. Such oxygen with tellurium forms a heat-resistant soybean is inania - paratellurite (TeO2), which is included in the growing film of tellurium. This process can be written as a conditional response:

The objective of the invention is the improvement of the structure of the films and layers of tellurium.

The technical result in the development of a method of producing films and layers of tellurium single crystal structure for orienting the substrates.

Conducted by the applicant's analysis of the prior art, including searching by the patent and scientific and technical information sources, and identify sources that contain information about the equivalents of the claimed invention, has allowed to establish that the applicant had not discovered similar, characterized by signs, identical with all the essential features of the claimed invention.

The essence of the invention that get film and layers of tellurium single crystal patterns on the faces of the crystals by transferring tellurium in monatomic vapor and growth of the examples monocrystalline structure when the deposition process is carried out in an atmosphere of hydrogen atthe temperature of the source of tellurium T2=600°C and the temperature zone of the substrate T1=400°C.

Accounting thermochemical laws can prevent the process described by reaction (1), assuming the presence in the system of hydrogen. In this case, nabludaetsa.pri oxygen in a less active state with respect to the tellurium in the reaction:

The main technological value of the presence of hydrogen in the system with tellurium is not limited to the possibility of reaction (2). He, with significant value of the electronegativity of 2.1 on a scale of Pauling and small ionic radius N+=10-5Å on the surface and near-surface volume of solid and liquid tellurium with a relatively loose structure, forms complexes of the type (N - Te), which significantly weaken the atom - atom coupling strength within the spiral chains and van der Vaal's forces communication between chains that are apart from each other at a distance 3,74 Å, Packed in hexagons within the unit cell structure of tellurium. The above complexes in tellurium cannot be stored at the temperature zone of the crucible T2go into the gas phase in the form of separate elements, as at T2(more normal temperature) compound H2Those not formed (the warmth of his education is negative). Thus, this stage of the interaction of hydrogen with tellurium at T2you can write the reaction:

Reaction (3) reflects the initial stage of interaction of hydrogen with tellurium, and the final stage output of the complexes (N-Te), we can say, is described by the reaction:

Tellurium formed according to reaction (4) in the atomic state in the area of the crucible temperature T2in the field of temperature gradient, is transferred into the region of the substrate temperature T1and then deposited on a substrate.

The typical surface morphology of growth shown in figure 1 and 2.

Figure 1 shows the surface morphology of the films of tellurium obtained when the substrates temperature T1=663 K (×600).

Figure 2 presents a three-dimensional (3D) AFM image of the surface of the film obtained at T1=405°C on a substrate of mica - Muscovite. The square surface area of 1×1 µm. On the film surface are clearly visible figures of the growth height of ~6 nm.

Micrographs of the surfaces of the film growth tellurium obtained under different conditions in the plane of the mica surface are given in figure 3 and 4.

Example 1. During the process of deposition of films of tellurium under pressure of hydrogen in the systemT2=625°C and T1=375°C, the rate of tellurium atoms on the substrate exceeds the rate of their diffusion on the substrate surface. Therefore, the growing film is composed of large crystals that are misoriented relative to each other (Fig 3)

Example 2. The process of applying films of tellurium on the substrate at the hydrogen pressure in the systemT2=625°C and T1=420°C is accompanied by reapartie tel the cheers from the surface of the substrate, when T1=420°C, the activation energy of resperine atoms ΔGIPmore energy their diffusion on the substrate surface. In this case, on the surface of the substrate detected by a separate dome-shaped Islands of tellurium, which until cooling was in the liquid state (figure 4).

Monotonnosti and strong razbavleniem vapor phase tellurium allows you to manage the process of forming a single crystalline structure growing his films for orienting the substrates (mica, CdTe, ZnTe, CaF, Al2O3and others), as the change in T2and - T1, at a known pressure of hydrogen in the system. Termoactivation process in the system (N2+Te) with the aim of obtaining a single crystal structure for orienting the substrates proposed for the first time and allows to obtain samples of tellurium with reproducible electrical and physical properties that are close to the properties of single crystals. This method of producing tellurium in a single crystal state, it is proposed to use in the field of electronic engineering. In the practical implementation of this method is the most perfect patterns, the growth of the films is observed at T2=600°C, ΔT=T2-T1=190-200°C and the hydrogen pressure in the system.

Thus, the proposed method allowed us to obtain films and layers of single-crystal tellurium is tructure on orienting substrates with reproducible physical properties.

Sources of information

1. Vigdorovich V.N., Uhlikova GA, Cibotaru NN. Structure and electrical properties of condensed films of tellurium. "Izv. THE USSR ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. Inorganic materials. 1979. T.15, No. 1. 49-55

2. Bondarchuk NF, Vigdorovich V.N., Uhlikova GA Structure of condensed films of tellurium and their properties. "Izv. THE USSR ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. Inorganic materials. 1989. V.25, No. 2. P.189-194.

3. Kudryavtsev A.A. Chemistry and technology of selenium and tellurium. M: Metallurgy. 1968. 340 S.

The method of producing films and layers of tellurium single crystal patterns on the faces of the crystals by transferring tellurium in monatomic vapor and growth of the examples monocrystalline structure when the deposition process is carried out in an atmosphere of hydrogen atthe temperature of the source of tellurium T2=600°C and the temperature zone of the substrate T1=400°C.



 

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