Method to erect foundation on heaving soils
SUBSTANCE: method to erect a foundation on heaving soils includes installation of a foundation slab and heat insulation material onto a levelled base. A sliding layer is laid on the prepared base, and a multi-layer spatial foundation platform, comprising heat insulation material, is erected in a monolithic manner. The lower reinforced concrete slab is formed with vertical reinforcement rods protruding into crossing ribs along the entire height of the platform. Heat insulation material is laid onto the lower reinforced concrete slab with the possibility to arrange a system of crossing ribs. Crossing ribs are formed. An intermediate reinforced concrete slab is formed, the second layer of heat insulation material is set on it. Cross ribs are formed, and the upper reinforced concrete slab is formed, besides, the vertical reinforcement rods are connected to reinforcement of all slab layers.
EFFECT: reduced labour costs, provision of heat insulation material durability against potential damage, higher spatial stiffness of the foundation slab and its distributing capacity, provision of protection against frost swelling.
3 cl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to the construction, namely the construction of foundations for heaving soils.
There is a method by which concrete or reinforced concrete element is placed on a pad or filling of narcisista material to reduce movement of the Foundation in the period of soil freezing and thawing (all-Union construction standards VSN 29-85. Projecting slightly foundations of low-rise rural buildings for heaving soils).
The disadvantage of this method is the increased labor costs associated with the use of bedding from narcisista material, which typically use coarse sand or gravel, which when used in winter conditions should be laid without inclusions of ice and snow and carefully sealed.
There is a method of installation of a base plate, taken as a prototype, which is spread and compacted soil with a covering of coarse-grained sand, set in the ground layer of insulation, such as penostirol, on which is mounted a plate thickness of 20 cm (Yakovlev R.N. New methods of construction. Technology "the war". Moscow, Adelant. 2006. p.83, prototype)
The disadvantage of the prototype is the low efficiency of the Foundation for heaving soils due to the fact that the established ground insulation must possess is the substance of great strength, because it is transferred to the load from the plate and buildings, and create uneven deformation due to sediment base. Due to the fact that this construction can prevent blagoveshenie, measures are required to protect the insulation from soaking to ensure its durability. Considering all factors, the work of the Foundation plate must possess great rigidity that is not explicitly provided in its small thickness, and the cost of construction in connection with the specified requirements insulation is quite high due to its high cost.
Object of the invention is the reduction of costs and creating an efficient method of Foundation construction for heaving soils by minimizing earthwork and works to protect the insulation from moisture and possible destruction, ensuring the longevity of the insulation, extend range, increase the rigidity of the base plate, and means effective protection of the soil from frost heaving by the erection of a multilayer base platform sliding layer containing a heater and having a large spatial rigidity, distribution capacity and, consequently, low sensitivity to uneven movements of the soil.
To solve the problem in the method of construction of Foundation for heaving soils, vklyuchayuschego base plate and the insulation on the aligned based, according to the invention onto the prepared substrate is placed a sliding layer and implement a monolithic multilayer construction of the spatial Foundation of the platform that contains the heater, when it is formed into the bottom of a reinforced concrete slab with vertical reinforcement bars in the cross-ribs on the entire height of the platform on the bottom of a reinforced concrete slab placed insulation with the ability to perform cross-ribs formed into the cross-ribs are molded intermediate reinforced concrete slab, install a second layer of insulation is formed into a cross-ribs and perform the formation of the top concrete slab and vertical reinforcement bars connected with the valve all the layers of plates.
According to the invention absorbent insulation cover waterproof tape, and a sliding layer performs at least two layers of polymer film.
The method of construction of Foundation for heaving soils is illustrated by a drawing, which schematically shows the Foundation built by the present method.
The method of construction of Foundation for heaving soils is as follows. Level and compacted soil base. On an aligned basis apply two layers of the polymer film to create a sliding layer 1. On the prepared base with sliding with the OEM 1 erect monolithic multilayer spatial base platform 2, containing the bottom 3, the intermediate 4 and upper 5 concrete slabs, integrally United by cross ribs 6 and fittings. The bottom concrete plate 3 is formed with vertical reinforcement bars 7 in the cross-ribs 6 on the entire height of the platform 3. On the bottom of the concrete slab 3 set any, such as rigid insulation 8, which are used as permanent formwork, and molded cross ribs 6. Next, carry out the forming of the intermediate concrete slabs 4 to provide greater rigidity, mounted on her second insulating layer 8 similar to the first and molded cross ribs 6, and then the upper reinforced-concrete slab 5 and before forming the intermediate and top plates of the vertical reinforcement bars 7 connected with the fittings of these plates.
The method can be used as bulk insulation. In this case, for forming cross ribs 6 may be used formwork and absorbent insulation cover waterproof tape before forming the intermediate and upper concrete slabs.
The advantage of the proposed method of erection of the Foundation for heaving soils lies in the effectiveness of the design, due to the durability, reliability and efficiency, which is achieved due to the fact that:
earthworks information which are to a minimum, does not require the device of sandy;
the insulation is protected from moisture and possible destruction, i.e. ensured its durability and thus protection of the soil from frost heaving;
it is possible to install any insulation, as it has no load and not subject to mechanical stress;
plate design, insulation and floor works;
the base platform through intermediate concrete slabs and cross-ribs has a large spatial rigidity and distribution capacity, and therefore low sensitivity to uneven movement of soil under the influence of natural factors.
1. The method of construction of Foundation for heaving soils, including the installation of a base plate and insulation aligned on the base, characterized in that the prepared Foundation laid sliding layer and implement a monolithic multilayer construction of the spatial Foundation of the platform that contains the heater, when it is formed into the bottom of a reinforced concrete slab with vertical reinforcement bars in the cross-ribs on the entire height of the platform on the bottom of a reinforced concrete slab placed insulation with the ability to perform cross-ribs formed into the cross-ribs are molded intermediate concrete slabs, us is enableval a second layer of insulation, molded cross-ribs and perform the formation of the top concrete slab and vertical reinforcement bars connected with the valve all the layers of plates.
2. The method of construction of Foundation for heaving soils according to claim 1, characterized in that the absorbent insulation cover waterproof tape.
3. The method of construction of Foundation for heaving soils according to claim 1, characterized in that the sliding layer performs at least two layers of polymer film.
SUBSTANCE: heat-insulation foundation comprises wall, foot, insulator of wall, additional insulator of foundation connected to insulators of foot and blind area. Lower edge of foundation insulator is below the level of freezing of soil, and external moistureproof gasket is arranged at the edge of blind area insulator. Additional moistureproof gasket is also located under foot, connected to external moistureproof gasket, and fill is provided between foundation insulator and external moistureproof gasket.
EFFECT: improved operational properties of heat insulation foundation, simplified design, saving of energy resources.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: foundation comprises artificial bed with curvilinear surface, bearing elements and shell arranged on bed. Bearing elements are arranged in the form of radial and circular tapes for shells with positive Gauss curvature or transverse and longitudinal tapes for shells with zero Gauss curvature, forming meshy shell and laid through gaskets made of two layers of material, which slide relative to each other, onto concrete surface formed on curvilinear surface of artificial bed arranged in pit and inverted upwards with its convexity. Radial or transverse tapes are fixed by their edges to support contour in the form of support ring or a system of cross beams, which is deepened into natural bed, and gasket of elastic material is located between concrete of shell and support contour.
EFFECT: reduced settling of foundation, lower material intensity, provision of efficient and reliable protection of above-foundation structure.
SUBSTANCE: foundation comprises support part, vertical stiffening ribs installed in it, which form square metal frame, under-column part arranged on vertical stiffening ribs - metal frame and equipped with elements of column structure connection. Support part is equipped with lower and upper reinforcement grids, and stiffening ribs are arranged in the form of at least three beams coming out of a single centre located on vertical axis of foundation, are arranged in the form of bent profiles and equipped with stiffening elements. Stiffening ribs are installed between lower and upper reinforcement grids, and elements of column structure connection to support part are arranged in the form of reinforcement leads.
EFFECT: reduced metal intensity and increased bearing capacity of foundation, simplified design.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: monolithic foundation for column erected on natural or manmade basement, for instance rammed in the form of truncated cone, comprises support part with metal frame and under-column part installed on metal frame and equipped with elements of column structure connection. Support part is equipped with lower and upper reinforcement grids, and metal frame is made in the form of rigid inserts, which are symmetrically arranged versus vertical axis of foundation and are installed between lower and upper reinforcement grids. Elements of column structure connection to support part are arranged in the form of reinforcement leads.
EFFECT: simplified design, reduced metal intensity and increased bearing capacity of foundation erected under column.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: foundation includes natural base with curved surface, load-carrying members and cover located on base. Load-carrying members are made in the form of orthogonal bands forming a meshed cover and laid on system of blocks installed on natural curved base located in ditch and the bulge of which is directed upwards; at that, ends of bands are attached to support outline made in the form of two-way beam system, which is embedded in natural base.
EFFECT: effective and reliable protection of the construction above foundation, reducing material consumption.
SUBSTANCE: method for erection of foundation slab of framed structure includes foundation preparation, arrangement of curb onto prepared foundation, installation of reinforcing grid, its fixation, concreting. Foundation is prepared by filling of gravel layer and a layer of sand over it and laying of hydraulic insulation, for instance PVC film, afterwards lower part of foundation slab of framed structure is shaped by installation of enclosing curb made of concrete, for instance onto hydraulic insulation, arrangement of reinforcing grid limited by enclosing curb along perimetre, fixation of reinforcing grid, for instance by means of welding, transverse and longitudinal axial marking of reinforcing grid into squares, for instance 2.0×2.0 m, in angles of which, perpendicularly to reinforcing grid, reinforcement is installed and fixed, for instance, by means of welding, with length equal to design thickness of foundation slab of framed structure. Concreting of reinforcing grid down to required thickness, with further installation of multiuse curb blocks onto concreted surface in centre of marked squares in number sufficient to fill three first rows perpendicularly to longitudinal axis of foundation slab of framed structure, concreting is performed in two stages, at the first stage space is concreted between enclosing curb, the first and partially second rows of blocks, afterwards concrete should mature to state, when its surface still is adhesive enough for connection with the following portion of concrete to form monolithic structure. At the second stage remaining part of the second and partially third rows of multiuse curb blocks is concreted, after hardness is achieved that excludes concrete breakage, when multiuse curb blocks are withdrawn. The first row of blocks is withdrawn and installed in the fourth row, concreting is continued till final formation of framed structure area. Cells, which are not filled with concrete, produced by blocks of multiuse curb, are closed with reinforced concrete covers, and upper part of foundation slab of framed structure is arranged by laying of reinforcing grid onto produced surface limited along perimetre by enclosing curb, fixation of reinforcing grid, its connection, by means of welding, with outlets of reinforcement of lower part of foundation slab of framed structure and concreting down to required thickness.
EFFECT: reduced material intensity and labour intensity, improved strength and reliability of design.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns construction, particularly building basements for industrial and civil facilities. Basement includes external shell widening in bottom part and holding filler material of varying material durability grade. Filler material of varying durability is laid in layers in horizontal and vertical directions.
EFFECT: reduced material cost of basement, enhanced reliability.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to construction, namely to erection of buildings and structures on freezing heaving soils. Foundation on freezing soil includes rigid body comprising foot and wall, with gasket from the side of foot inverted to soil and made of heat insulation material, for instance from foam polystyrene, and also additional heat insulation material installed outside foundation limits. Upper edge of additional heat insulation material is pulled from the side of foundation external edge in the form of broken inserts via rigid body of foundation and is connected to additional heat insulator of opposite external edge of foundation. Pressure on soil in foundation foot is accepted as not higher than value of design resistance of heat insulation material to compression, and relative area of broken inserts (β=Abr ins/A0) is defined from ratio β≤1-σmax/R, where Abr.ins is area of broken inserts section, m2, A0 is gross area of foundation section in place of inserts installation, m2, σmax is maximum tension in foundation material from external loads, MPa, R is design resistance of foundation material, MPa. Additional heat insulation material installed on external side of foundation foot is connected to heat insulation material of foundation external wall. Additional heat insulation material installed on internal side of foundation foot is connected to heat insulation material of foundation internal wall. Inserts of additional heat insulation material of foundation are connected to ceiling heat insulation material above foundation. Heat insulation material installed from external side of foundation wall is connected to heat insulation material of blind area. Heat insulation material installed on internal side of foundation wall is connected to heat insulation material of ceiling above foundation.
EFFECT: provision of possibility to install foundation above design depth of heaving soil freezing, increased level of soil protection under foundation against freezing.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to foundation construction technologies, and particularly, to reinforcing technology used for compressible foundation sections of detached or standard foundations in buildings and structures being erected under severe engineering and geological and hydro-geological conditions. Method of foundation bed construction by horizontal reinforcing with solid concrete components includes foundation pit mining and installation of horizontal stiff lengthy elements such as crossties. As soon as the foundation pit is developed to the designed depth, which is equal to the sum of foundation bed depth of installation and buffer layer thickness, and is bladed, foundation pit bottom is leveled. After that, foundation axes are broken down and longitudinal axes of future solid crossties are broken down against the established construction layout of the longitudinal axes of future solid crossties regarding foundation axes. The chaps for solid crossties are made mechanically or manually on foundation pit bottom along the marked longitudinal axis of the future solid crossties. Besides, the chap depth is equal to the cross section of the future solid crosstie. The chap bottom is cleaned and reinforced frameworks are laid down in the chaps. The chaps are then cemented together with the reinforced frameworks by means of concrete mix B15 with further compacting. To install horizontal reinforced solid elements in the chaps such as solid crossties are located on the foundation pit level. So, the crosstie distributing element is formed in the compressible section of the built structure foundation bed. In addition, the length of each solid crosstie must not exceed the distance between the external shapes of the utmost foundation edges of the building. The chaps for solid crossties installation are made in parallel to each other and at design distance from each other so that the area of crosstie distributing element overlaps foundations area completely. As soon as the concrete mix in the chaps will achieve the strength no less than 50% from the design strength, the buffer layer is laid down, leveled and compacted. The buffer layer is laid down to the level of built structure foundation bed. The buffer layer consists of sand, crushed stone from solid rocks or crushed stone from ferrous metallurgy wastes. The buffer layer thickness must not be less than 1/3 of solid crosstie width or cross section diameter. The maximum size of crushed stones must not exceed 1/5 solid crosstie width or cross section diameter.
EFFECT: improvement of soft ground foundations bearing capacity and reduction of material consumption.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to foundation construction technologies, and particularly, to reinforcing technology used for compressible foundation sections of detached or slab-shaped foundations in building and structures being erected under severe engineering and geological and hydro-geological conditions. Method of foundation bottom construction by horizontal reinforcing with precast concrete components includes foundation pit mining and installation of horizontal stiff lengthy elements such as crossties. As soon as the foundation pit is developed to the designed depth and is bladed, the foundation pit bottom is leveled and filled with sand or crushed stone generating underlying layer with the designed thickness being no less than 0.05 m. Then this layer is leveled and compacted. After that, foundation axes and longitudinal axes of crossties are broken down regarding foundation axes and against the established construction layout depending on the foundation type of the structure being built. The crossties are laid down above the underlying layer in such a way to produce crosstie distribution element in the compressible section in accordance with the designed construction layout of longitudinal crosstie axes with regard to foundation axes. The crossties are installed so that their beds coincide with the level of underlying layer of foundation pit. In addition, crossties are installed butt to each other so that total length of each crosstie exceeds the distance between the external shapes of the utmost foundation edges of the building. The crossties are laid parallel to each other at the design distance so that the area of crosstie distributing element overlaps foundations area completely. Then, inter-crosstie space is filled with sand and buffer layer is laid from above to the level of foundation bed installation with sand, crushed stone from solid rocks or crushed stone from ferrous metallurgy wastes. The buffer layer thickness must not be less than 1/3 of crosstie width or cross section diameter. Maximum size of crushed stones must not exceed 1/5 of crosstie width or cross section diameter. The foundation pit is mined to the design depth, which is equal to sum of future foundation bed depth, buffer layer thickness, crosstie cross section height or diameter and underlying layer thickness.
EFFECT: improvement of soft ground foundations bearing capacity and reduction of material consumption.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly new building erection and existent building reconstruction under any engineering-geological circumstances.
SUBSTANCE: foundation structure comprises shallow foundation and reinforcement members. Reinforcement members are made as vertical bars of precast or cast-in-place piles having diameters less than 200 mm and arranged along foundation perimeter. The piles are spaced a distance from outer foundation faces. The distance is equal to 0.1-0.5 of reinforcement member diameter. Distance between neighboring piles is equal to 2-4 reinforcement member diameters and reinforcement member length is 15-20 diameters thereof.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity due to creating compressive operational conditions under different engineering-geological circumstances, increased dynamic rigidity of foundation base and reduced foundation deformation and vibrational amplitude.
FIELD: building, particularly panel foundations for multistory buildings and structures, which apply non-uniform loads to ground base.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming crossing slots in ground; reinforcing the slots with frames and concreting the slots. For panel foundation erection in clay ground pit is preliminarily dug in ground. Then crossing slots adapted for reinforcing frames receiving are created in pit ground, wherein the reinforcing frames have projected parts. Areas of reinforcing frames intersection are additionally reinforced along with connecting projected parts and concreting thereof to fill the slots.
EFFECT: increased operational effectiveness and reduced costs.
FIELD: building, particularly to erect bored cast-in-place foundations of increased load-bearing abilities including ones having bottom marks typical to shallow foundations.
SUBSTANCE: stepped foundation comprises bored cast-in-place sections formed with the use of auger. Lower foundation step includes four peripheral cylinders of Dp.l. diameters and heights equal to above diameters. Peripheral cylinder centers are located at apexes of square having side lengths equal to Dp.l.. Square center coincides with center of support. Central support abutting four peripheral cylinders of lower foundation step has four expanded parts with Dc.exp diameters determined as Dc.exp=(1.0-1.2)Dp.l. and cylindrical bore having diameter Dp.up determined as Dp.up=(0.6-0.8)Dp.l.. Foundation bottom is 0.7 m below ground surface. Foundation erection method involves forming drilled pile sections; serially drilling wells having daug.1 diameters as each peripheral cylinder having Dp.l. is forming; creating each peripheral cylinder having height equal to Dp.l. by supplying working material for above cylinder forming; filling remainder well section with ground material, particularly with ground excavated from above object. Auger having diameter, which provides necessary Dp.l. diameter is used. The auger provides usage of technological processes, which provides 1.05-1.1 increase of pile diameter in comparison with auger diameter daug.1 and 1.1-1.2 increase of ground pile diameter in comparison with daug.1 diameter. After four peripheral cylinders of lower foundation step creation well having daug.2 diameter is drilled by means of direct auger rotation and ground excavation to day surface. The well has center coinciding with central support center and depth selected so that the well reach tops pf peripheral lower step cylinders. Then lower expanded part of central support is formed, wherein the expanded part has expansion degree Bc.exp./daug.2 equal to 1.5-2.0. During cylindrical bore drilling the expanded part has expansion degree Dp.up/daug.2 equal to 1.2-1.5.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity per foundation volume unit, extended field of technical means.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect foundations in natural base.
SUBSTANCE: method involves driving pair of members pivotally connected with each other and provided with single bevels at lower ends thereof in ground; digging-out trench; installing guiding member on trench bottom; forcing plate members in ground up to plate members abutting upon guiding member and closing of beveled upper ends thereof; installing the similar pair of members having lengths exceeding that of the first pair in trench; driving above pair in ground up to upper beveled ends closing; concreting the trench.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity of the foundation due to inclined members embedding and ground compaction under foundation bottom.
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect multistory buildings on non-uniformly compressible clay base.
SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating crossing trenches in ground; filling the trenches with concrete and joining thereof with slab covering the trenches. Trenches are excavated from pit bottom for different depths. Lower trench parts are provided with widened abutment sections having reinforcement bars included therein. The reinforcement bars are used as non-stretched threads. Trenches and slab are reinforced with nettings. Cell centers of the slab are anchored.
EFFECT: increased rigidity of foundation slab due to provision of ribs in ground.
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect foundations on natural bases.
SUBSTANCE: shallow foundation comprises support mats and foundation building blocks. Support mats have through orifices along mat perimeters. Upper parts thereof have extensions shaped as truncated cones and adapted to immerse piles in ground as load increases during structure overbuilding.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing ability.
FIELD: construction, particularly to reconstruct buildings and building structures.
SUBSTANCE: foundation comprises supports, sheath freely formed in ground inside area defined by foundation so that convexity thereof faces upwards and connected to supports by means of flexible ties. Cement mix layer, metal arch trusses and reinforced concrete layer are serially arranged on ground inside area defined by foundation. Metal sheets are laid on arch trusses and connected with each other through welded joints to create flexible sheath. Pre-stressed flexible ties inserted in through support orifices and provided with fixing anchors are placed over the sheath. In the second embodiment foundation comprises support, sheath freely arranged in ground inside area defined by foundation so that convexity thereof faces upwards and connected to supports by means of flexible ties. Ground mix layer reinforced with cement mix, metal sheets and reinforced concrete layer are serially located on ground inside area defined by foundation. Metal sheets are bent along predetermined profile and connected with each other to create sheath. Relaxed flexible ties inserted in through support orifices and provided with fixing anchors are placed over the sheath.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: construction, surface mounted structures.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to construction and can be used when erecting buildings with considerable loading on a compressed clay bed. The technique for erecting a solid core foundation slab with closed vertical walls, directed downwards, involves designing a foundation pit, trenches, reinforcing them with frames and filling with concrete, and joining the surface with a slab. The trenches are dug from the bottom of the foundation with different depths. The trenches are then joined, thereby forming several closed contours, whose depth increases from the central part of the slab to the edges. The technical outcome is increase in strength of the foundation slab due to effect of the square shaped closed edges in the ground.
EFFECT: increased strength of the foundation slab.
FIELD: constructional engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to constructions on heaving soils. House footing based on freezing through soils includes a rigid body with flanges and indents from soil side, footing indent inserts made of heat-insulating material, e.g. polystyrene foam at such ratio of flange and footing indent areas that soil pressure from the lower flange surface is not less than standard pressure of frost soil heaving, soil pressure from the lower insert surface is not exceeding design compression resistance of insert material. Also, the said footing contains supplementary heat insulation laid outside of the footing. The upper edge of supplementary heat insulation is passed from external edge of the footing in the form of interrupted inserts through rigid body of the footing and connected to supplementary heat insulation of opposite external edge of the footing. Relative area of interrupted inserts (β=Aint.ins./A0) is given by the relation β≤1-σmax/R, where Aint.ins. is sectional area of interrupted inserts, m2, A0 is gross sectional area of the footing within inserts arrangement regions, m2, σmax is maximum external load pressure in footing material, MPa, R is design resistance of footing material, MPa. Indents and flanges of the footing from soil side are alternating along footing length. Indents centres from soil sides are provided under interrupted inserts centres of supplementary heat insulation from each external edge of the footing.
EFFECT: possibility to lay foundation above the design depth of heaving soil frost penetration level.
4 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction of the basements of buildings. The basement structure of a building includes heat - and waterproofing layer (17, 18, 40) which is laid on a flat horizontal surface (51) layer of the material breaking capillary action. The basement structure includes a frame (31) which surrounds specified heat - and waterproofing layer (17, 18, 40), at least, in its top part, thus fixing integrity of basement structure in a horizontal plane and which serves for punctiform bracing of the building supported by basement structure. The specified basement structure is encapsulated with foil (111) from a metal material.
EFFECT: prevention of smell penetration in a building and water-proofing maintenance; possibility of fast and energy conserving erection of the basement.
8 cl, 8 dwg