Eccentric-cycloidal engagement of tooth profiles (versions)

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: one of the profiles of eccentric-cycloidal engagement of tooth profiles represents wheel with one helical tooth. Working part of tooth in the main sections is outlined with arcs of circle eccentrically offset relative to wheel rotation axis. Conjugated working surface of teeth of the second profile in the main sections is outlined with sections of fronts (14, 15) of cycloidal curve (16). Tops (17) and cavities of cycloidal teeth are outlined with arcs of coaxial circles (19 and 21).

EFFECT: reducing the surface requiring accurate processing.

3 cl, 18 dwg

 

The invention relates to a mechanical transmission to convert rotational motion into a rotary or reciprocating, using toothed profiles, and may find application in a cylindrical, conical or planetary gears, and a rack and pinion gear, high gear ratio, small dimensions and high load capacity.

Widely used in gears involute toothing wheels with all its advantages has a low bearing capacity, which is determined by the size of the teeth, and also has restrictions on the size ratio to the same degree. In practice gear ratio single-stage gearbox rarely exceeds 7. To increase the load capacity of involute gearing is necessary to increase the module of the teeth, which leads to unnecessary increase in the size of the transfer.

Known Cam-cycloidal gearing wheels with curved teeth (see Stanowski CENTURIES, Kazakevicius S.M. and other New type of gear wheels with curved teeth. The Handbook. Engineering journal, No. 9, 2008. P.34-39). The jagged profile of a smaller wheel in the front section is circular, eccentrically offset from the axis of rotation of the wheel. That is, the wheel has one tooth having fo the mu eccentric circle. Curved helical profile of the wheel is formed of a consistent and continuous shift of the circle along the axis of the wheel while turning it around this same axis. This engages the smaller wheel has a single helical teeth formed continuous rotation and simultaneously offset along the axis eccentrically offset from the axis of the wheel circumference. I.e. in each end section of the wheel its jagged profile has the shape of an eccentric offset of the circle.

The profile of the tooth of the larger sprocket in the front section interlocks with an eccentric offset circumference of a smaller wheel. The profile is constructed as the envelope of a family of eccentric circles in different phases of the engagement and is a cycloidal curve, which equidistantly epitrochoid. Spiral curved surface of the teeth of the second wheel is formed similarly consistent and continuous rotation of the cycloidal mechanical sections around the axis of the wheel. The profiles of the teeth of wheels mated in each end section and have multiple points of contact. These points form a continuous helical line of contact.

If we consider separately any mechanical engagement section, it is obvious that in each of them the power contact profiles will be implemented at the site, less than half of the turnover of vintovok the eccentric. Accordingly, for a cycloidal curve in the vicinity of its vertices do not attach the rotation. Workers are the only areas on the rising fronts of the cycloid.

Known Cam-cycloidal gearing (EC n.) a compound of the wheels (see Fig.8). These wheels gearing composed of several identical crowns, rotated relative to each other at the same angle. A smaller wheel in mesh has only one tooth, the profile of which in the end section of each crown is described by a circle eccentric offset from the wheel axis. A larger wheel is made up of crowns cycloidal profile, rotated relative to each other by an angle equal to the angular step of the crown, divided by the number of crowns. Each of the crowns of larger wheels mated with a corresponding smaller crown odnoperogo wheels. Such engagement provides a gear ratio equal to the number of periods of a cycloidal curve, i.e. the number of teeth of the larger sprocket. The mesh lets in one step to provide a gear ratio of 40-50. In addition, with equal-sized wheels, the gearing has a high load capacity compared to involute, and under the same load capacity is considerably smaller.

It is also known the use of this same system Cam-cycloidal hook is placed in a rack and pinion transmission (see RF patent №2362925). Moreover, in the transmission can be used as engagement with the curved teeth and the meshing composite profiles. Gear rack with eccentric-cycloidal gearing differs from similar gear wheels only because of a cycloidal profile is made on the rail.

Manufacturer eccentric-cycloidal gearing profiles requires the use of modern machining centers. And engagement with the curved teeth has a very large area of the workpiece and costly machine time. Toothing for engagement compound gear profiles are manufactured separately and then bonded together, which also adds cost and complexity to the manufacturing technology, but also reduces the accuracy of the profile as a whole.

Thus, the object of the invention is to provide a Cam-cycloidal gearing, having a simplified manufacturing technology.

The technical result of the invention is the reduction in surface area, requiring precision machining. An additional result for engagement composite profiles is to improve the accuracy and productivity of their manufacturing manufacturing composite profile from a single workpiece in the form of a single detail.

For gear profiles with curved teeth p the set task is solved as follows. As in the prototype, one of the Cam profiles-cycloidal gearing is made with one screw tooth. Unlike the prototype, the working portion of the tooth in the main sections of the profile outlined arcs eccentric offset from the axis of rotation of the circle, and coupled with the working surface of the teeth of the second profile in the mechanical sections delineated areas of the fronts of a cycloidal curve. The remaining sections of the teeth of both profiles can be of any shape with the only condition they are no intersections during operation. This form of profiles requires high-precision processing only working areas, which significantly reduces the time required for the manufacture of profiles.

The specified link can be implemented in the links of different types (internal and external), for wheels of various shapes (cylindrical and conical), as well as rack-and-pinion gearing.

To lock the cylindrical wheel main sections wheels are their mechanical section. For rack and pinion gearing of the main section is the cross-section plane perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to the rail. For engagement of conical wheels main sections are section additional cone.

But for bevel gearing and other possible modification of the gearing when the teeth are of the above form in the loft area with the goals of the center at the point of intersection of the axes of the wheels. I.e. the working part of the tooth of the smaller sprocket in this spherical section defined arcs eccentric offset of the circle, and coupled with the working surface of the teeth of the second profile in a spherical section defined by parts of the fronts of a cycloidal curve. Or, in other words, the profile of the teeth in the main section of the wheels are lots of eccentric circles, performed on the sphere, and the spherical sections of the cycloid.

For the composite gear profiles, the problem is solved as follows. As in the prototype, each Cam profile-cycloidal gearing is made in the form of a package of at least three teeth, crowns, rigidly connected and rotated at equal angles relative to each other. The crowns of one of the profiles made with one tooth. Unlike the prototype, the working portion of the tooth that profile in the mechanical section defined arcs eccentric offset from the axis of the wheel circumference, and associated working surface of the teeth of the second profile in the mechanical section of the delineated areas of the fronts of a cycloidal curve. The tops of the teeth and the spaces between them at the mating profiles can have any non-intersecting shape. This form of profiles not only reduces the area of precision machining, but also, as will be shown below, allows you to make each of the profiles in the form of a single part of the od of the second workpiece.

The invention is illustrated in the drawings. Figures 1-5 illustrate the external toothed cylindrical gears. Figure 1 shows a General view of the smaller wheels of the gearing, figure 2 - front view of the same wheel, and figure 3 shows the mechanical or the main section of this wheel. Figure 4 presents a General view of the larger wheels of the same mesh, and figure 5 is given its main section.

Fig.6-11 illustrates a variation of the engagement of conical wheels. Here at 6, 7 and 8 presents a General view, a top view and a main section of a smaller conical wheels. In figures 9 and 10 are different kinds of larger bevel wheel of the gearing, and figure 11 shows a plot of the profile of the wheel in the additional section of the cone.

On Fig is a diagram of the education profiles of the teeth of the second bevel gearing wheels.

Fig-17 illustrate the engagement of a composite wheels made in accordance with the invention. On Fig, 14 and 15 shows a General view, a top view and an end cross-section smaller wheels of the gearing. Fig and 17 show the General appearance and the mechanical section of a larger wheel. On Fig shows the mechanical section of the interacting wheels.

Consider the proposed engagement on the example of the external gearing of the cylindrical wheels, which are depicted in figure 1-5. A smaller wheel 1 has one helical tooth 2, which has a top formed helical surface 3, and two lateral working helical tooth surfaces 4 and 5. In any mechanical section (see figure 3) working areas of the tooth defined arcs 6 and 7 of a circle, which figure 3 shows dashed lines. The center of the circle offset from the rotation axis OO1 wheel 1 by the amount of eccentricity E. the Arc 6 and 7, the helical tooth form screw working surfaces 4 and 5. Sections of 8 circle in the area of maximum distance from the axis of rotation is removed and the tooth tip in cross section forms an arc of a circle 9, in which the helical tooth 2 forms the top 3 of the screw tooth. The depression at the foot of the tooth in cross section forms a circle 10, coaxially with the axis of the wheel and forming in the wheel of the cylindrical surface 11. The surface 11 is both a body of the wheel 1. The radius of the cylindrical surface 11 is chosen for reasons of strength.

More wheel 12 of this engagement (see figure 4 and 5) has helical teeth 13. The working parts of the teeth 13 in the mechanical section is formed by parts of the fronts 14 and 15 of 16 cycloid, shown in figure 5 by the dashed line. The top of the cycloid 16 removed, and the top of the teeth in cross section to form a circular arc 17, which in curvilinear teeth 13 formed screw sections 18, lying on the cylindrical surface 19 (figure 5 this surface is shown by the dotted line). The legs of the teeth 13 formed not hollow helical cycloidal surface, the screw sections 20 of the cylindrical surface 21 (figure 5 are shown by the dotted line). This surface 21 forms the body of the wheel 12. Naturally, for normal operation of the gearing of the top 18 of the screw teeth of the larger sprocket 12 should be smaller than the corresponding depression at the foot of the tooth of the smaller sprocket 1. Similarly, the top 3 of the spiral tooth of the wheel 1 must be smaller than the corresponding cavity 20 cycloidal wheel 12. In this case, the form and quality of these surfaces will not have any impact on the parameters of the engagement.

Such a change in the profile of the teeth of the wheels became possible due to some peculiarities of the eccentric-cycloidal gearing. As shown by computer modeling of gearing, the power contact is in engagement with the gap only occurs in areas of the fronts of a cycloidal curve. However, changing a center-to-center distances of the wheels have very little effect on the position of the contact point on the plot of this front. Hence it was concluded that the remaining parts of the wheel profiles can have any disjoint with each other form. This fact allows us to simplify and reduce the cost of manufacturing technology of wheels as accurate processing should be subject only to small areas.

We have considered the example of the invention for external gearing wheels. It should be noted that the same way the m is formed and the internal toothed cylindrical gears. The smaller the wheel of this engagement will be exactly the same as in figure 1, and the larger wheels corresponding profiles will be based on the internal cylindrical surface. All the above considerations are valid for rack and pinion, wheel which is designed as a smaller wheel, and the second interactive profile will be the teeth on the rail, with the possibility of reciprocating motion in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the wheel. This engagement can be seen as a special case of gear wheels, the larger of which has an infinitely large radius.

For consideration of the engagement of conical wheels refer to Fig.6-11. Smaller bevel wheel 22 has one helical tooth 23. The tooth has a top formed helical surface 24, and two side working surfaces 25 and 26. These surfaces are constructed as follows. Any main section of the cone wheel 22 is a cross-section of an additional cone 27. In this section (see Fig) working parts of the tooth defined arcs 28, 29 of the circle 30. The centre of the D circle 30 are offset from the center of rotation of the wheel About the value of eccentricity that is, In different sections of the cone wheel 22 eccentric circle will have a different radius and eccentricity. Arc 28 and 29 form a helical surfaces 25 and 26 of the conical wheel 22. Arc 3 circle 30 in the area of the greatest removal of the circumference from the center of rotation of the wheel About the cut, and the tooth tip in these sections forms an arc 32 of the circle, pine with the center of rotation of the wheel. Naturally, in the different main sections of the wheel 22 this circle will have a different radius, forming in the axial direction of the conical surface. These arcs 32 and form the top of the tooth 23 - screw conical surface 24. The leg of the tooth 23 forms a conical surface 33. On Fig the circumference of the cross section of this surface more cone indicated by the numeral 34. Larger bevel wheel 35 of the gearing shown in figures 9 and 10. Its helical teeth have top 36 in the form of a helical sections of the conical surface, and the side screw locations 37 and 38. These areas in the cross section of the wheel more cone are in the form of fronts 39 and 40 of a cycloidal curve 41 (see scan figure 11). The peaks and troughs of a cycloidal curve is replaced by arcs of circles 42 and 43, which in space form a helical conical surface 36 and 44, respectively.

Here, we examined the engagement of bevel wheels, where the timing profiles are in the form of arcs of circles and fronts a cycloidal curve in sections wheels additional cones. However, there is another method of constructing siteplease profiles. Diagram illustrating another method of formation of the mating profiles of conical wheels shown in Fig. Here the teeth of Maine is our wheel 1 have working parts, educated arcs 45 and 46 of the circle 47 lying in the cross-section of the wheel area 48 with the center in the point of intersection of the wheels. Similar work sections of the teeth of the larger sprocket is formed by parts of the fronts 49 and 50 of a cycloidal curve 51, which lie on the same sphere 48.

The above types of gears have helical teeth, and engagement are the axial components of the forces. This drawback is devoid of mesh composite wheels, which consider the example of the external gear wheel of which is shown in Fig-17. A smaller wheel 52 is composed of five rotated relative to each other at equal angles crowns 53, 54, 55, 56 and 57. Each crown in the mechanical section (see Fig) has one tooth, the working parts of which are formed of circular arcs 58 and 59 of the circle 60 (Fig the circle shown by the dashed lines). The center of the circle 60 offset from the center Of rotation of the wheel 52 on the value of eccentricity that is Most remote from the axis of rotation of the wheel part 61 of this circle is removed, and the tooth tip forms an arc 62 of the larger circle. The depression at the foot of the tooth forms an arc of a circle 63, in which the volume forms a cylindrical surface 64, which is the body of the wheel 52.

More composite wheel 65 (see Fig and 17) also composed of five crowns 66, 67, 68, 69 and 70 are rotated relative to each other at equal angles. The teeth of each of these Venza is in the front section have working parts 71 and 72, which are the parts of the fronts of a cycloidal curve 73. The peaks and troughs of a cycloidal curve 73 replaced by arcs of circles 74 and 75, forming the top of the tooth 76 and the cavity between the teeth 77. It is clear that depression 77 between the teeth of the wheel size should correspond to the top 62 of the smaller wheel 52, so that when the work was not of their contact. Accordingly, the top 76 cycloidal teeth of the larger sprocket 65 must conform to the cavity 63 at the foot of the tooth of the smaller sprocket 52.

With an integral toothed profiles according to the invention can be performed and gear rack, not shown. Wheel rack and pinion will be identical to the smaller wheel on Fig and rail can be represented as a larger wheel infinitely large radius. The principles of its jagged profile will remain the same.

As you can see, all the variants of this invention differ from the design type only in a modified form of the teeth. This modification is crucial for a larger wheel with a cycloidal teeth. Cycloidal form now have only the lateral locations of the teeth, the peaks and troughs between the teeth can be of any shape. This greatly simplifies the technology and reduces the complexity of cutting teeth, as it dramatically decreases the surface, requiring precision and quality is processing.

Particularly evident simplifying technology for composite gears. Wheel with compound cycloidal teeth of the prototype can be made in two ways. One of them each crown separately, and then the crowns are rotated relative to each other and rigidly fastened. This manufacturing technology has a low accuracy, because in the process of bonding crowns can happen their shift and deformation. In the second method all crowns are made from a single steel billet, however, in this case between the crowns formed the technological gap, which increases the axial dimension of the transmission. When performing a wheel according to the invention, you can do all the crowns from one solid piece without technological gaps one finger cutter.

The proposed engagement is completely analogous to the prototype. Consider the work on the example of the external gearing of the cylindrical wheels 1 and 4. The end section of the interacting wheels shown in Fig. The designation of this figure is the same as in figure 1-5. During the rotation of the smaller wheel 1 about the axis OO1 arc 7 eccentric circle 8 in the mechanical section is in contact with the area of a cycloidal larger front wheels 12. Let the wheel 1 rotates counterclockwise, as shown in the figure. An arc of a circle 8 PR is the rotation around the center O begins to put pressure on the tooth, causing rotation of the larger wheel 12 in the opposite direction. Upon further rotation of the tooth wheel 1 in this section will come from the power of engagement. But if the angle of the axial overlap of the wheel 1 will be equal to or greater than 180 degrees, there will always be another section in which the tooth of the wheel 1 engages with a cycloidal section profile of the wheel 12. This means that the rotation of the wheel 12 is continuous and one revolution of the wheel 1 wheel 12 will be rotated one tooth. I.e. gear ratio of the gearing is equal to the number of teeth of the larger wheels and the rotation of the counter wheels.

1. Eccentric-cycloidal gearing gear profiles with curved teeth, one of which is executed with one screw tooth, characterized in that the working portion of the tooth in its main sections outlined arcs eccentric offset from the axis of rotation of the circle, and coupled with the working surface of the teeth of the second profile in the main sections delineated areas of the fronts of a cycloidal curve.

2. Eccentric-cycloidal gear-toothed bevel wheels with curved teeth, the lower of which is made with one screw tooth, characterized in that the working portion of the tooth in its cross sections of a sphere with the center at the point of intersection of the axes of the wheels are outlined arcs eccentric offset from the axis of rotation of the circle, and carries the traveler working surface of the teeth of the second profile in the cross sections of the same area delineated areas of the fronts of a cycloidal curve.

3. Eccentric-cycloidal gearing compound gear profiles, each of which is made in the form of a package of at least three teeth, crowns, interconnected and rotated by the same angle relative to each other, and the crowns of the first profile have one tooth, wherein the working portion of the tooth of the first profile in the mechanical section defined arcs eccentric offset from the axis of the wheel circumference, and associated working surface of the teeth of the second profile in the mechanical section of the delineated areas of the fronts of a cycloidal curve.



 

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