Method for vacuum drying of bacterial starters or preparations

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: method envisages preparation of an initial suspension represented by a bacterial starter for production of cheese or cultured milk products. The produced initial suspension is placed into a vacuum drier and dried in a mode of pressure modification from atmospheric level to a vacuum amount no less than 4.5 mm Hg during the first quarter of the whole drying process.

EFFECT: invention allows to enhance quality of the end product and reduce the period of its drying.

2 tbl, 2 dwg, 3 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of biotechnology.

The known method of vacuum drying a mixture containing enzymes and yeast to 100°C until the moisture content in the range of 8-10% (EN 2086144, 1997).

A known method of drying the bacterial preparation, including pre-freezing and drying (see SU 1521769, C12N 1/20, AS 9/12, 1989). Frozen concentrate propionate acid bacteria were subjected to freeze-drying. The initial drying temperature of the frozen biomass of bacteria was minus 18°C, the final drying was carried out at a temperature (37-38)°C. In the drying process, the residual pressure in the system was maintained at a level of 0.13 to 1.3) PA. Duration was controlled by a residual moisture content of the bacterial preparation.

Known methods of vacuum freeze-drying of cultures, bacterial or ferment-containing drugs, which directly before drying are liquid-viscous suspension. Before freezing the suspension in her always add cryoprotectants (protective environment), then the process of freeze-drying and receiving the finished product, such as a method of vacuum freeze-drying according to the patent RU 2157640 to obtain a concentrate of lactic acid bacteria for the production of cheese.

The main difference from the known ways will be to replace the freeze the ears on vacuum drying and the what is the solution technology for dry preparations eliminates the use of cryoprotectants and improve the quality of the final product.

The technical result - the reduction of the time of vacuum drying and improving the quality of the final product.

The technical result is achieved by the method of vacuum drying of bacterial starter cultures or preparations, which serves the original suspension not containing cryoprotectant, and in the drying process provide the change in pressure from atmospheric to the amount of vacuum of not less than 4,5 mm RT. Art. for the first quarter of the whole drying process. In this case, because of the heat supply to the dried suspension prevents the possibility of a phase transition of the liquid in the ice.

The equipment on which the research was conducted, includes a vacuum chamber (with a possible change in pressure from atmospheric up to 0.06 mm Hg) placed in her heated shelves, equipped with a heat exchanger with temperature changes from minus 20°C to + 50°C, desublimator (heat exchanger-condenser), equipped with a two-stage refrigerating machine with cooling to -100°C, and devices for automatic monitoring and recording temperature changes in the product and on the surface of the shelves.

The principle of freeze drying OS is IAOD for the removal of moisture from the frozen product in a vacuum.

When freezing a suspension of bacterial cells is the loss of part of the population. The cause of cell death by freezing is destruction, deformation, rupture of the cell membrane, as in the freezing of ice crystals are formed. To reduce cell death using different cryoprotectants, the use of which contributes to the formation of smaller ice crystals and prevents damage to the cell membrane.

Example 1 (for option of drying the bacterial concentrate)

Obtained by centrifugation of the bacterial mass of mesophilic lactic acid Bacillus Lactobacillus casei was mixed with a neutralizing substance (cryoprotectant) to enhance active pH to 5.5 to 6.0 pH optimum for the given bacterial species. The addition of neutralizing substances increases the active acidity bacterial mass and prevents cell death by freezing, which occurs at the level of the active acidity below of 3.8-4.1 pH to lactic acid Bacillus.

The obtained cell suspension was poured in the cell layer 5-10 mm, were placed in a vacuum dryer and lowered the pressure, so that during the "active dehumidification pressure from atmospheric never dropped below 4.5 mm Hg

The period of "active dehumidification is the phase vacuum drying, which is the intensive evaporation of moisture from the dried material. Usually the duration of this phase is 1/4 the total duration of the whole process of vacuum drying. During this period, when sudden pressure drop may be known physical phenomenon "samozatachivanie". In order to avoid this phenomenon, and restrictions were placed on pressure and temperature (which are the main parameters for the organization and conduct of the process of vacuum drying): NOT less than 4,5 mm RT. Art. in the first quarter of the whole drying process, while Diplopoda to the dried suspension is organized in such a way as to completely exclude the possibility of a phase transition of moisture in the ice.

Figure 1 shows the real temperature changes of the bacterial concentrate and the pressure change in the chamber during vacuum drying.

The quality of the dry concentrate was assessed by the number of viable cells of lactic acid Bacillus. The indicators obtained dried bacterial concentrate is presented in table 1.

Table 1
Name of indicatorResponse (value)
Appearancehomogeneous powder light brown color)
Mac is UNIX proportion 4,7%
The number of viable cells675×109
lactic acid Bacillus, CFU in 1 g
concentrate
The number of yeast and mold, CFU/g2
BGK (coliforms)Not detected in 1 g
S. aureusNot detected in 1 g
SalmonellaNot detected in 10 g
Microscopic medicationSticks with rounded edges, arranged singly, in pairs and in short chains

Example 2 (for option drying bacterial fermentation)

Grown on sterile milk culture of lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris, Lactococcus lactis subsp diacetilactis) was mixed with a neutralizing substance (cryoprotectant) to enhance active pH to 6.0-6.5 pH optimum for the given bacterial species. The addition of neutralizing substances increases the active acidity of fermented milk and prevents killed the al cells after freezing, which occurs at the level of the active acidity below pH of 4.75 for lactococcal.

The obtained neutralized milk clot poured into the cuvette and dried similarly to the variant described above.

Figure 2 presents the actual temperature changes of bacterial fermentation and the pressure change in the chamber during vacuum drying.

Quality dry starter bacteria {or dry culture) was assessed by the number of viable cells of lactic acid bacteria and the activity of souring milk. The indicators obtained dry bacterial fermentation are presented in table 2.

Table 2
Name of indicatorResponse (value)
AppearanceHomogeneous powder cream-coloured
Mass fraction of moisture5,0%
The number of viable cells9×109
lactic acid Bacillus, CFU in 1 g
The number of yeast and mold, CFU/gNot detected in 1 g
BGK (coliforms)Not detected in 1 g
S. aureusNot detected in 1 g
SalmonellaNot detected in 10 g
Microscopic medicationCocci, United in pairs and in chains
different length
Activity souring of milk, h10h
Titratable acidity, "Turner90°T

When implementing the known method of freeze-drying the obtained yeast, bacterial or ferment-containing suspension first add cryoprotectants (protective environment, protecting viable microorganisms from the negative influence of the phase transition of water into ice by freezing), then poured in a special cuvette (being the thickness of the layer of suspension of not more than 20 mm), frozen at temperatures below 18°C, then placed in the freeze-drying chamber and dried to a residual moisture content of the drug is not more than 7%.

The proposed method does not involve the adding cryoprotectant, as well as does not assume and conduct the process of freezing starters, bacterial or ferment-containing suspensions. The original suspension directly after receiving it spreads in the same way (as described above) and immediately placed in a vacuum chamber and dried to the desired residual moisture content, the drying process provide the change in pressure from atmospheric to the amount of vacuum of not less than 4,5 mm RT. Art. and Diplopoda to the dried suspension is organized in such a way as to completely exclude the possibility of a phase transition of moisture in the ice.

The key indicator for determining the quality of the dried product is the number of viable and aromatherapeutic microorganisms. Below are the comparative results of the dried drug for these parameters.

Example 3. Cheese starter:

- The total number of viable microorganisms (cells) during freeze-drying ranged from 1.4 to 6 billion CFU/g,

and when the vacuum is from 2.4 to 9 billion CFU/g

The number aromatherapeutic cells during freeze-drying ranged from 1.1 to 3.5 billion CFU/g,

and when the vacuum is from 1.6 to 5 billion CFU/g

The time of vacuum drying averaged 4-6 hours depending on the thickness of the layer in the same layer during freeze-drying 1.5 times longer.

Example 4. Fermentati the Naya activity (lactic starter):

- The total number of viable microorganisms (viable bacteria) during freeze-drying was 1.0×107CFU/g

and when a vacuum of 1.0×109CFU/g

During the process took on average 3.5-4 hours

Method of vacuum drying of bacterial starter cultures or preparations, characterized in that the cell suspension is subjected to drying in edit mode pressure from atmospheric to the amount of vacuum of not less than 4,5 mm Hg during the first quarter of the whole drying process.



 

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