Filling mass formation method
SUBSTANCE: method involves arrangement of reinforcing elements made in the form of mesh in filling chamber at the boundary with rock ore to be developed. Reinforcing elements are arranged at distance of 0.05b from each other, where b - chamber width. After installation of reinforcing elements the worked out space is filled with filling mass of various strength. Lower, central and upper part of chamber is filled at 1/10 of its height with curing mixture, and space between them with hydraulic fluid from fine material without binding agent.
EFFECT: reducing the costs; improving manufacturing capabilities.
The invention relates to the field of mining and can be used for bookmarks treatment space in underground mining.
Known methods bookmarks waste space with differentiated by placing them in stowing mixtures with different content of binders . The bottom layer bookmarks height up to 1.5 m contains up to 20% of cement, and a layer above it contains 9% of cement.
The disadvantage of this method is the high consumption of binders.
There is a method of bookmarks exhaust chambers, comprising feeding into the chamber backfill mixes with different binder content . Bookmark cameras mixtures containing binders, produced in its lower part to the upper boundary of the underlying aquifer testing, next to the level of the soil horizon drilling implement a bookmark mixtures without binding. After shrinkage embedded array, filtration and evaporation of water around the perimeter of the camera in shrinking the gap place of the reinforcing structure. In the mortgaged array along the walls of the chamber are drilling wells to the level below the top of the glass layer bookmarks at the bottom of the camera. The portion of the array between the chamber walls and destroy the walls of the wells. In well insert reinforcing bars above their above the level of the embedded array. And then wells and shrink the gap salivation, containing binder, after which the upper part of the chamber fill with a mixture of astringent.
The disadvantage is the large volume of work, the uncertainty in the magnitude of the strength of the formed array and the number of binding agents, high consumption of expensive fittings.
The closest is the method of hardening backfill array including placing of reinforcing elements in hardening filling the array camera on the border with the subject development ore array in which the reinforcing elements are in the form of nets made of basalt fiber, they place them in two rows, and the second row is placed at a distance of 0,05b inside the camera, where b is the width of the chamber, m . After installation of the reinforcing elements in a goaf camera or layer serves hardening filling mixture.
The drawback is the large consumption of expensive cement achieved when the strength of artificial array (170 kg tensile-compression 6,47 MPa at the age of 90 days), which reduces the technological capabilities of the method.
Object of the invention is the reduction of costs for the construction of artificial array by reducing the proportion of cement and increase the technological capabilities of ways bookmarks exhaust chambers while maintaining the strength of the array.
To solve this problem, a method forming the Oia backfill array including the placement of reinforcing elements made in the form of a grid, filling the chamber at the boundary with the subject development ore array, and reinforcing elements are placed at a distance from each other 0,05b, where b is the width of the camera. After installing reinforcing elements goaf stowing the camera fill raznoobraznoi backfill mixture, the lower, Central and upper part of the chamber to about 1/10 of its height lay hardening the mixture, and the space between them slurry of fine material without binder.
The technical result is to reduce the consumption of expensive cement while maintaining the strength of the constructed array.
The method is as follows.
In the waste, but not yet laid the camera space or layer placed at ore array of reinforcing elements, such as a mesh made of basalt fiber, placed in two rows at a distance from each other 0,05b, where b is the width of the camera. After installation of the reinforcing elements in a goaf camera serves hardening filling mixture, filling it to the bottom layer of the camera to 1/10 of its height. Further, approximately 35% of the volume of the chamber, a bookmark, perform the mixtures without binding. After shrinkage laid layer, filtration and evaporation of water again on 1/10 form a layer of hardening zakladach the th mixture, at 35% of the chamber volume tab perform mixtures without binding. After shrinkage laid layer, filtration and evaporation of water at 1/10 form the top layer of hardening filling mixture.
In order to check the efficiency of the proposed method were investigated on the samples. The sample preparation was carried out as follows: in form to a height of 1 cm was laid hardening filling mix (ultimate compressive strength of not less than 12 MPa), consisting of 18,3% granulated blast slightly basic slag quality factor K=1,45, ground to a specific surface area of 310 m2/kg, 54,9% tailings wet magnetic separation (hereinafter - MMC), 4.9% Portland cement M400 D20 and 1% of the cement content of superplasticizer SP-1, with Vodochody attitude 0,281, which was vibrated for 1 sec. Then laid slurry tailings MMS to a height of 3.5 cm, the mold was vibrated with an additional 1, then a layer of the above-curing a mixture of 1 cm, laid on him the slurry tailings to a height of 3.5 cm and the top layer of hardening a mixture of 1 cm; the form was vibrirovanii to appear on the surface of a thin layer of water for the simulation of filtration processes and shrinkage. The samples were fabricated in the form of cubes of size 100×100×100 mm, Then the samples were placed in the climate chamber and felt the camping strength after 90 days. In the prototype, the average consumption of cement 200 kg/m3reduced by 30,36 kg and is 169,64=(200-30,36). Test data are shown in table 1.
From the table it follows that the task of reducing cement consumption while maintaining the strength of the synthetic array is achieved even without reinforcing elements, but on condition of formation of three layers with a hardening filling mixture: lower, middle and upper. The presence of reinforcing elements provides more strength and stability of the formed array. In the absence of the upper layer, the strength of the sample is cut in half.
|The nature of the construction of the array||The cement content at 1 m3constructed array kg||The limit of compressive strength at the age of 90 days, MPa|
|Interbeds hardening of the mixture in the middle, the top and the bottom sample||of 31.8||6,8|
|Interbeds hardening of the mixture in the middle, at the top, the sole specimen with reinforcement contact with the ore array layer||of 31.8||not less than 7.2|
|Interbeds hardening of the mixture in the middle and bottom sample||21.2||3,4|
Sources of information
1. Nonferrous metallurgy Sweden. Polyakov, V.I. Makarov, S.V. and other znii and Informatics nonferrous metallurgy. Issue 15, 1984, p.18.
2. Patent 2367797, publ. 20.09.2009.
3. Patent 2047780, publ. 10.11.1995.
The formation method of filling the array, including the placement of reinforcing elements made in the form of a grid, filling the chamber at the boundary with the subject development ore array, and reinforcing elements are placed at a distance from each other 0,05b, where b is the width of the chamber, characterized in that after the installation of reinforcing elements goaf stowing the camera fill raznoobraznoi backfill mixture, the lower, Central and upper part of the chamber to about 1/10 of its height lay hardening the mixture, and the space between them - a slurry of fine material without binder.
SUBSTANCE: method involves driving of mine workings of the first order at an angle of 5-7° to horizon through pillars with width equal to one bay, their further stowing with stowing mixture and its solidification, driving of entry ways of the second order with their further stowing with stowing mixture. Entry ways of the second order are driven with the height increased in relation to entry ways of the first order by 0.7-1.0 m. Cavities under roof of adjacent entry ways of the first order are filled with stowing mixture of entry ways of the second order, thus providing their stowing and contact of covering mining thickness with stowing mass.
EFFECT: increasing ore development safety.
SUBSTANCE: composition of a filling mixture, containing cement, a surfactant, a filler and water, as a binder it additionally contains a ground blast-furnace granulated acidulous slag, containing particles of less than 1 mcm of at least 4.3%, the surfactant is a superplasticiser SP-1, and the filler is a mixture of wastes of dressing of wet magnetic separation of ferric quartzites with slag crushed stone at the following ratio of components, wt %: cement - 4.85; specified slag - 12.1; specified crushed stone - 10; specified wastes - 55; superplasticiser SP-1 - 1.0% from cement; water - balance.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of cement, increased strength of massif, recycling of mining and metallurgical industry wastes and wastes of ferric quartzites dressing, reduced contamination of environment for considerable improvement of environment in the region.
1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: filling mixture compound contains the following, wt %: cement - 4.85, ground byproduct of vanadium production - 14.5, washery refuse of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites - 60.2, superplastising agent SP-1 - 1 of cement, and water is the rest.
EFFECT: reducing the consumption of cement at maintaining the accuracy of massif, utilisation of wastes.
2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: filling mixture compound includes ground granulated acid blast-furnace slag containing particles, %: less than 1 mcm - 4.3; less than 3 mcm - 12.6; less than 5 mcm - 17.2; as inert filler are processing wastes of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites, which contain particles, %: less than 1 mcm - 3.4; less than 3 mcm - 12.6; less than 5 mcm -17.2, water and in addition - composition of lime-gypsum byproduct of vanadium production and SP-1 superplasticising agent at the following component ratio, wt %: the above slag 16.1, the above composition 4.8, the above wastes 57.7, SP-1 superplasticising agent 0.0805 and water is the rest.
EFFECT: avoiding expensive cement, use of slag of lower grade, increasing the strength, enlarging and increasing volumes of utilised technogenic wastes for sufficient improvement of ecological environment of the region.
FIELD: mining engineering.
SUBSTANCE: according to the procedure mine working is filled with backfilling mixture layer by layer. Upon laying each layer of backfilling mixture is subjected to autoclave treatment; for this purpose an autoclave chamber is constructed in the vertical mine working by arranging an isolating bridge in it at distance for backfilled part of borehole equal to thickness of a backfilling layer. Thickness is multiple to a step of shaft furniture. The bridge is positioned under the tier of a divider. Upon autoclave treatment of the laid layer all furniture above it is dismantled by height of the backfilling layer.
EFFECT: reduced expenditures, facilitation of favourable ecology.
SUBSTANCE: method involves arrangement in worked out area of backfill material speed converter, supply to the well adjacent to the worked out area of subsequently loose and hardening backfill materials. Elastic closed cover with weight in its lower part and which is fixed on rope with hose is used as speed converter. The above cover is laid on dry backfill material layer; then, it is filled with compressed air till working pressure. Loose backfill material is supplied till the layer is filled with height not exceeding D diameter of cover. Then, hardening backfill material is supplied. Cover is lifted vertically through the height of new layer. Then, cycles for supplying of backfill materials and movement of cover are repeated till complete filling of the worked out area. Diameter D of cover in filled state is accepted equal to 0.2 B, where B is maximum linear size of the worked out area, m.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing distribution efficiency of fineness of backfill material and reducing the wear of speed converter.
SUBSTANCE: filling mixture compound including ground granulated blast-furnace slag, binding agent, inert filler and water contains the specified acid slag as binding agent with the following particle size distribution: less than 1 mcm - 4.3%, less than 3 mcm - 12.6%, less than 5 mcm - 17.2% and dolomite powder containing not less than 10% of particles with size of less than 1 mcm; wastes of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites as inert filler containing not less than 3.4% of particles with size of less than 1 mcm. In addition, composition includes surface active additive - superplasticising agent SP-1 at the following component ratio, wt %: the above slag 12, the above dolomite 10, the above wastes 60, water is the rest, and superplasticising agent SP-1 0.5% of slag.
EFFECT: larger volumes of utilised industrial wastes for sufficient improvement of environmental safety at maintaining the strength during 28 days.
1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: stowing connection strap includes pit and anchor props and filtering diaphragm. Pit props consist at least of two parts made from polymer materials and attached to each other. Anchor prop has the height which is less than the height of pit prop and is equipped with spacing screw and devices for attaching of pit prop to it in upper and lower parts, for example by means of articulated shoes. Connection strap is easily mounted, transportation of its modules is simplified; it is possible to use it for many times, and also in openings of various geometrical dimensions.
EFFECT: reducing costs for stowing operations and increasing their efficiency.
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: method includes installation of a manifold pipeline and supply of a filling mixture along it. Besides, the filling mixture is supplied along the manifold pipeline to the height of at least 1.7 m to the roof level. Afterwards the direction of the filling mixture flow movement from the vertical to the horizontal one by means of a device for additional filling of developed chambers, which makes it possible to save the energy of a mud torrent movement. The device for additional filling of developed chambers comprises a nozzle and is equipped with extension pipes. Supports with step-bearings are installed under extension pipes. Length of extension pipes does not exceed 1/5 of a developed chamber length. Height of supports is identified depending on the angle of the filling mixture spread α.
EFFECT: improved completeness and evenness of the developed space filling with the filling mixture along the whole perimetre of the chamber.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: filling mixture compound containing Portland cement, filler and water includes wet magnetic separation waste with specific surface area of 80 m2/kg as filler; Portland cement M 400 crushed in disintegrator together with wet magnetic separation waste of ferruginous quartzites (WMS) till composite binding agent with specific surface area of 500 m2/kg is obtained, at the following component ratio, wt %: portland cement M 400 5-10, wet magnetic separation waste 17-22, the above filler 68-71, and water is the rest.
EFFECT: environmental protection, filler material is obtained, which binds in its structure the contaminants and excludes their migration to environment.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes partial filling of extracted space of side and central mains by filling stripes from lava extracting shafts. At center of semi-lava on the side of massive, wherein next extractive column will be cut, filling shaft is additionally driven, wherefrom full filling of space between central fill stripe and fill stripe on the side of massive is performed. Preparation of next extraction column is performed under protection of erected fill stripes.
EFFECT: higher safety, higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of rows of main platforms along bed length in staggered order with length equal or divisible by step value for support displacement, and placing filling material thereon. Along length of main platforms between ceiling and bed soil post support is mounted, upon which filling material is fed. After that between main platforms additional platforms are erected with wedge supporting, and main platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support and it is displaced for one drive step. During that filling material, while lowering, unwedges wedge support between ceiling and bed soil and forms artificial supports. After that additional platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support. After movement of cleaning face for two drive steps operations for constructing artificial supports are repeated. Distance between main platforms along bed fall line are selected from mathematical expression.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation and well extraction of resources of chambers with partial backfill of extraction space. Blocks of upper level relatively to blocks of lower level are placed in staggered order, while blocks are made in form of a stretched upwards hexahedron. Resources of block within one hexahedron are separated on two chambers, one of which, placed along periphery of hexahedron, after extraction and removal of ore from it is filled by hardening backfill. Second order chamber is made of hexahedron-like shape, extracted and removed under protection from artificial block on all six sides of this chamber. Removal of ore from first order chambers is performed through one removal mine - end of level ort and cross-cut in lower portion of block and intermediate sub-level cross-cuts.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of deposit resources by chambers through one of them, construction of ice-rock backfill in extracted space of primary chambers and following extraction of inter-chamber blocks. In inter-chamber blocks wedge-shaped slits are formed immediately in ceiling of deposit, space of slits is filled with ice-rock backfill, while slits are formed of inter-chamber blocks for 1/3 of width.
EFFECT: higher durability, higher effectiveness.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has surface composed of upper section with wedges and lower section and backfill material placed on said surface. Upper section is made in form of a rectangle, composed of rectangular triangle and rectangular trapezoid with possible displacement of trapezoid along triangle hypotenuse. Lower section is made of two plates, mounted on holder, fixed to pipe for feeding compressed air. Plate, positioned above the trapezoid, is mounted with possible counter-clockwise rotation around holder. Value of greater base of trapezoid hδ is selected from relation hδ = m - 0.9k, where m - bed massiveness, m, k - size of backfill material, m.
EFFECT: simplified construction, lower laboriousness.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly to develop mineral deposit along with backfilling of worked-out areas.
SUBSTANCE: backfill mix comprises cement, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag, filler and water. The backfill mix additionally has shredded straw. Grinded diabase is used as the filler. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): cement - 2.9-5.07, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag - 15.21-16.91, grinded diabase - 52.24-53.22, shredded straw - 0.02-0.076, water - remainder.
EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in development of minerals with systems involving filling mined-out space with solidifying stowing mix. The latter is composed of broken lime-containing binder in the form of active aluminosilicate material (5.6-33.2%) and fired carbonate rocks (1.0-16.7%), tempering water with phlegmatizer (10.6-27.5%), and filler. Carbonate rocks are fired at 900-1200°C, contain active calcium-magnesium oxides CaO+MgO at least 40% and not more than 9.1% based on the total weight of mix, which are broken to screen residue 0.08 mm not more than 15%. Active aluminosilicate material is fired marl or fired clay, or fired kimberlite ore concentration tails, or granulated blast furnace slag. Tempering water contains phlegmatizer in amounts found from formula [Ph] = (0.005-0.021)*Cr/Cw, where [Ph] amount of water in 1 L tempering water, kg; (0.005-0.021) coefficient taking into account proportion between phlegmatizer and fired carbonate rocks in mix; Cr amount of carbonate rocks in mix, kg; and Cw experimentally found consumption of tempering water with mix, L. When indicated amount of CaO+MgO in mixture is exceeded, CaO and MgO are converted into hydroxides by spraying with water in amount not higher than 20% of the weight of fired carbonate rocks (on conversion to active CaO+MgO). As carbonate rocks, host rocks of kimberlite deposits are used; as filler, sand and/or concentration tails, and/or broken aluminosilicate rock; and, as phlegmatizer, industrial-grade lignosulfonate or superplasticizer.
EFFECT: improved workability of mix and reduced cost.
5 cl, 4 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: mining and underground building, particularly underground mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves double-stage mineral deposit development; erecting artificial rock-and-concrete supports of previously cut primary chamber roof rock in at least two adjacent primary chambers; extracting secondary chamber resources; filling space defined by cut rock with hardening material mix. Mines for drilling and/or filling operations performing are arranged in deposit roof over or inside ore pillars of secondary chambers. Primary chamber roof rock is cut by well undercharge method. Hardening material mix is supplied via cross headings located between mine and cavities and/or via undercharged well sections remained after rock cutting operation.
EFFECT: increased safety and economical efficiency due to reduced number of drilling and filling mines or accompanying mineral excavation, possibility to use drilling and filling mines at secondary chamber development stage for ore cutting, venting and roof condition control.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, particularly underground mineral mining with excavated space filling with hardening filling mix.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing grinded lime-containing binding agent, mixing water and filler; delivering the filling mix to area to be filled; filling mine space with the filling mix in several layers. The lime-containing binding agent is active silica-alumina material and burnt carbonate rock including at least 40% of active Cao+MgO. Above rock is grinded so that not more than 15% of grinded material remains on sieve having 0.08 orifice dimensions. Amount of the grinded burnt carbonate rock is selected so that active Cao+MgO is not more than 9.1% of filling mix mass. Water consumption for oxide Ca and Mg conversion in hydroxide is not more than 20% of burnt carbonate rock recalculated to active CaO+MgO. Retarder is added in mixing water in amount determined from R=(0.005-0.021)-Cr/Cw, where R is retarder content in 1 l of mixing water, kg; (0.005-0.021) is factor, which considers retarder-burnt carbonate rock ratio in the filling mix; Cr is burnt carbonate rock content in filling mix, kg; Cw is experimentally determined mixing water content in filling mix, l. Mine space filling rate is chosen from hardening time and self-heating degree of filing mass. The filling mix contains active silica-alumina material in amount of 5.6-33.2% by weight, carbonate rock burnt at 900-1200°C and containing active CaO+MgO of not less than 40% in amount of 1.0-16.7%, mixing water with retarder in amount of 10.6-27.5%, remainder is filler.
EFFECT: increased operational safety due to improved quality mine space filling, reduced costs and increased mine intensity.
6 cl, 4 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to develop valuable mineral deposits along with goaf filling.
SUBSTANCE: fill mix comprises quick lime, grinded blast furnace slag, filler, industrial lignosulphonate and water. The fill mix additionally comprises trisodiumphosphate. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): quick lime - 1.61-4.8, grinded blast furnace slag - 10.79-14.4, filler - 60.85-62.14, industrial lignosulphonate - 0.016-0.11, trisodiumphosphate - 0.124-0.35, remainder is water.
EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance of fill mix over the full fill body.