Tunnel driving method in complicated mine geological and hydrogeological conditions

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves pre-planning of tunnel route as per the data of engineering geology and topography and tunnel driving. First, according to the route of the future tunnel there determined are underground water courses, their width, depth, specific yield, distance between them and direction of water movement. Tunnel driving is performed; at that, first, infiltration tunnel of small section is drilled, and then, parallel to it there drilled is the main tunnel with some delay; pillar is left between tunnels, which through the distance determined by technological necessity is cleaved by breaking off, or the main tunnel is driven after infiltration tunnel with absorption of its section. Along the route of infiltration tunnel there arranged are recesses in its wall, into which filters for water interception and reduction of hydraulic pressure are drilled from the surface. Drilling frequency of filters are chosen depending on the number of underground water courses, their thickness and considering water abundance of confined aquifers. At top and bottom of infiltration tunnel there also arranged are upward and downward filters; at that, the water supplied from all filters is collected in water diversion terrace of infiltration tunnel and diverted to safe place on the surface.

EFFECT: reducing construction cost, controlling big water flows, reducing hydraulic water pressure, providing reliable safe and dry driving of the main tunnel and non-overhaul operation in the future.

5 dwg

 

The invention relates to the construction of transport and main tunnels in the mountains through mountain ranges with large voodoobilly and high hydraulic atmospheric pressure.

The prior art method of protection tunnels from breakthrough groundwater (see USSR author's certificate No. 727160 published 05.04.1980), including detection vodonasosa horizon, the diversion of water by drainage, diversion of water outside the tunnel.

The present invention is to reduce the cost of construction, the regulation of large inflows of water, reducing the hydraulic pressure of the water to drain it in a safe place, ensuring reliable, safe and dry excavation of the main tunnel and basipetally operation in the future.

This problem is solved by pre-planning the route of the tunnel according to engineering Geology and topography and tunneling, and initially on the highway of the future tunnel define underground watercourses, their width, depth, specific flow rate, the distance between them and the direction of water movement, then carry out the driving of the tunnel, and initially pass through the drainage tunnel of small cross section, and then parallel with the gap are the main tunnel, between tunnels leave the rear sight, which is a distance defined, it is logical necessity, cut the linkage, or the main tunnel are following drainage tunnel with absorption cross-section, while on the highway drainage tunnel in the walls satisfied with niches, in which the surface of the Buryat through filters to trap water and reduce hydraulic pressure, and the frequency of drilling through the filters chosen depending on the number of underground watercourses, their power and taking into account voodoobilly artesian aquifers, in addition, the top and bottom of the drainage tunnel also arrange the filters up and down, with water coming from all filters, collected in the drainage ditch drainage tunnel and go in a safe place on the surface.

The invention is illustrated by the following drawings: figure 1 is a plan of the route of the tunnel for the first implementation variant, figa - plan the route of the tunnel for the second implementation variant, figure 2 - section along the route of the tunnel, figure 3 - cross section of the tunnel on the first implementation variant, figa - plan the route of the tunnel on the second version of the implementation.

According to preliminary data, topography, and engineering Geology plan of carrying out of the tunnel 1. After that are the dowsing research on future highway tunnel in order to identify underground watercourses 5 with their characteristics (width, depth, specific flow rate, distance is e between the streams and the direction of water movement). Then the decision on the tunnel excavation. The tunnel excavation is one of the options.

Prior to the excavation of the main tunnel is traversed drainage tunnel 2 small cross section and parallel to it, with a lag of penetration, the main tunnel 1. Between the tunnels left pillar 4 of the components of rocks, through which a certain distance is dissected by a linkage 13 for connection of the tunnels on technological need, or initially begins to operate drainage tunnel 2 small cross section. With some delay, after he passed the main tunnel 1 larger cross section absorption cross section of the small tunnel, without separation of the pillar 4 or dividing wall between them. Along the drainage tunnel 2 are arranged niche 3, and with the surface in a niche drainage tunnel 2 is drilled through the filter 10 to intercept the water, reducing its hydraulic pressure and draining the future route of the main tunnel. The frequency of drilling through the filters depends on the number of underground watercourses 5, their power and voodoobilly given aquifer artesian aquifers. By working through the filters removed high hydraulic pressure in aquifers and dried the future route of the main tunnel. In addition, to remove the remaining % of the water in the cones between end-to-end filters and hydraulic is anyone pressure of the aquifer, below the soles of the tunnel, drilled and fixed filters from the drainage tunnel up and down 12 (i.e. in the top and bottom of the tunnel). Water from all the filters is collected in a drainage ditch 11 drainage tunnel and discharged to the surface in a safe place. In addition, in the drawings: 6 - mark surfaces (horizontal); 7 - ventilation hole; 8 - drawdown curve; 9 - aquifer.

The construction of the tunnel on this method provides: catch up to 90-95% of the water flow; a decrease in hydraulic head (pressure) of water in aquifers; the excavation of the main tunnel in dry comfort; reduced construction costs; increase the rate of penetration of the primary tunnel; ensuring high reliability of the sinking of the main tunnel safety from flood into him.

When using this method, the construction of the North Muya tunnel on the East of the country could save 15-20% of the construction cost.

Method of tunneling in complex geological and hydrogeological conditions, including pre-planning the route of the tunnel according to engineering Geology and topography and tunneling, characterized by the fact that early on the highway of the future tunnel define underground watercourses, their width, depth, specific flow rate, the measure length between them and the direction of water movement, next, perform the driving of the tunnel, and initially pass through the drainage tunnel of small cross section, and then parallel with the gap are the main tunnel, between tunnels leave the rear sight, which is a distance defined by technological necessity, is dissected by the linkage, or the main tunnel are following drainage tunnel with absorption cross-section, while on the highway drainage tunnel in the walls satisfied with niches, in which the surface of the Buryat through filters to trap water and reduce hydraulic pressure, and the frequency of drilling through the filters chosen depending on the number of underground watercourses their power and taking into account voodoobilly artesian aquifers, in addition, the top and bottom of the drainage tunnel also arrange the filters up and down, with water coming from all filters, collected in the drainage ditch drainage tunnel and go in a safe place on the surface.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of wall, prior reinforcement of rock massif along extraction track by drilling longitudinal and slanting wells and forcing reinforcing cementing solutions into these wells, destruction and cleaning of rocks under protection of cementing cover, erection of permanent support, following reinforcement of contour-adjacent massif by cementation solutions through wells, drilled perpendicularly to mine axis. Draining wells are additionally drilled with delay through cementing layer having length greater than thickness of reinforced rocks zone, to form a draining layer around reinforced cover.

EFFECT: higher effectiveness.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: tunnelling header unit comprises serially arranged head and tail sections. The head section comprises a helical blade on the external surface, an actuator and an auger mechanism for broken mass discharge, besides, a rotation mechanism is also located in the head section. The tail section comprises longitudinal support elements, aligned along the longitudinal axis of the unit, a drive of the rotation mechanism. The sections are connected to each other with the possibility of the head section rotation relatively to its longitudinal axis. The rotation mechanism is arranged in the form of a hollow shaft, where two wave generators are installed, being arranged with eccentricity relative to the axis of the driving shaft, a geared crown arranged on the inner surface of the head section, a separator connected to the end section and intermediate solids of revolution. Number of teeth in the geared crown is more than the number of intermediate solids of revolution by one. The sections have a rigid kinematic link in the axial direction, which consists of two touching circular ledges, one ledge is located on the separator, the second ledge is arranged on the inner surface of the head section. The driving shaft is installed in rolling bearings, with one bearing installed in the head section, and the other one - in the end section. The driving shaft at the side of the stripped area has a driving gear arranged with the possibility of rotation from motors via a motor gear, and the motors are fixed at the inner surface of the end section.

EFFECT: improved reliability of the unit operation, loading capacity of the unit drive and efficiency of tunnelling, expanded area of the unit application.

5 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: during development of arrangement diagram of bore pits the location points of bottoms of bore pits are arranged on explosion plane on bottom-hole of set of bore pits. Programme product of design of arrangement diagram of bore pits determines absent parametres of bore pits considered from bottom-hole of set of bore pits to navigation plane. Programme product is capable of determining initial location point of bore pit and direction of bottom-hole. Programme product also makes explosion technical calculation of arranged bore pits.

EFFECT: method and programme product for development of arrangement diagram of bore pits is improved.

25 cl, 20 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas production.

SUBSTANCE: procedure for development of layout of blast holes placement for rock cavity driving consists in: working out computer layout for blast holes placement by means of software for layout of blast holes, determination of at least points of charging and angles of direction of blast holes in coordinate system of layout of blast holes placement for set of blast holes drilled in rock, and determination of location of at least one group of blast holes in layout of blast holes placement and of several blast holes in group of blast holes. The procedure also consists in: determination of at least one master blast hole for at least one group of blast holes in the layout for blast holes placement; determination of at least one dominating parametre for the master blast hole; on base of the dominating parametre of the master blast hole determination of the parametre of at least one another blast hole; and in using the master blast hole, parametres of which can be later corrected, added or deleted and dominating parametres of which can be altered.

EFFECT: fast development of layout of blast holes placement, easy and fact correction of this layout and cut time for design work.

22 cl, 18 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas production.

SUBSTANCE: axial line of driven tunnel is determined with, for example, curve fitting. Data on location of drill platform on axial line of the tunnel are transmitted to the control panel; navigation plane of the blast holes placement layout is arranged on axial line of the tunnel. The initial point of set of the blast holes is positioned on the axial line of the tunnel considering length (L) of the blast holes set. Additionally, the final point of the blast holes set is arranged at distance corresponding to length of blast holes set from the initial point; the coordinate system of blast holes placement layout is directed to facilitate one of its axes running from the initial point to the final point. Finally, various systems of coordinates are utilised.

EFFECT: new and improved procedure for directing layout of blast holes placement in curvilinear tunnel, also development of soft ware for implementation of procedure and drill rig.

19 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: modification method of arrangement scheme of bore pits in drilling installation consists of the following stages: initial location points of bore pits are displayed on display device of control unit according to arrangement scheme of bore pits, arrangement scheme of bore pits in drilling installation is modified prior to its execution and arrangement scheme of bore pits is updated as per the performed modifications. At that, there chosen is at least one bore pit in bore pit arrangement scheme and initial location point of the chosen bore pit with location of drilling block; then, drilling block is moved manually to the chosen place at the drilling site and arrangement scheme of bore pits is modified by moving the initial location point of the chosen bore pit to a new location point specified with drilling block. The proposed method is implemented by means of drilling installation containing moving transport vehicle, at least one drilling manipulator and at least one drilling block containing guide beam installed on drilling manipulator, drilling machine moved with supply device, and the tool connected to drilling machine; at least, one control unit equipped with bore pit arrangement scheme, display device of control unit to provide the display of bore pit arrangement scheme; at least, one control element for manual control of drilling block and at least one sensor for determination of location and direction of drilling block. At that, to the control unit there loaded is programme product providing the selection by the operator at least of one bore pit in arrangement scheme of bore pits and connection of initial location point of chosen bore pit with location of drilling block; modification in arrangement scheme of bore pits of initial point of the selected bore pit from initial location point to new point in response to displacement with manual control of drilling block, and update of arrangement scheme of bore pits as per the performed modifications.

EFFECT: group of inventions allows determining arrangement schemes of bore pits for improvement of efficiency of driving of mine workings depending on mountain conditions immediately in the place where drilling works are performed.

10 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: device for determining borehole direction has a handle made in the form of a gun and includes a guide with goniometric scale in the form of semi-circle with plumb equipped with fixture in the form of trigger, and light source is installed inside the guide. At that, device is equipped with Z-shaped frame on upper platform of which there arranged is azimuth circle with magnetic needle and needle lock, and counter weight is fixed on lower platform of the frame. At that, the frame is connected to the guide by means of a pin with possibility of being turned relative to its axis, and the pin is enveloped with the rod connected to the needle lock and to the plumb locking device. Azimuth circle plane is perpendicular to plane of goniometric scale. All the device elements except magnetic needle are made from non-magnetic material.

EFFECT: device allows measuring borehole location angles not only in vertical plane, but also in horizontal plane.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: birotating tunnel shield unit consists of three sections. Two front sections, starting from bottomhole, are mounted on diaphragm by means of ball runnings with toothed collars of conical gear, engaged at diametral opposite sides with master conical gears of section rotation drives arranged on diaphragm, which is mounted at front end of beam with drive by means of Hooke joint and hydraulic cylinders with stems, fixed on beam and diaphragm by means of journals. Beam with drive is mounted in guides of back section, at the same time auger with a separate drive is mounted inside beam. On external surface of back section there are elements of conrotation arranged in the form of plates aligned along longitudinal axis of section, at the same time on external surfaces of front rotary sections there are helical blades arranged with opposite direction of winding. Besides, small actuating elements with individual drives and sleeves with augers are mounted upstream each blade and element of conrotation. Hollow beam is mounted in the centre of diaphragm, inside which there is an auger with drive fixed, at the same time outside - at bottomhole of beam there is a socket and loading rotor with drive mounted, connected to the main actuating element.

EFFECT: unloading of back section from torque and from longitudinal braking force.

6 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: system consists of an optical direction selector, a photodetector unit, as well as: a unit for controlling the direction selector, a signal matching unit, a microcontroller, a decoder, a matrix background polling module, bus-type conditioners, an interrupt signal generating unit, a switch, electric drives, a unit for monitoring and controlling electric drives, an optical transmitter control unit, an optical transmitter, a photodetector. All of these elements are interconnected.

EFFECT: determination of spatial coordinates of a mini-shield with high accuracy, which enables real-time communication with apparatus fitted on the mini-shield through a laser beam, endowing this system with noise-immunity and high speed of operation.

1 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: drive device for rotary tool, which operates with oscillation loading, has drive housing, load-carrying sleeve installed with possibility of being rotated in drive housing, drive shaft installed with possibility of being rotated in load-carrying sleeve, carrier of the tool for receiving processing tools, and oscillation excitation device for creating oscillation loading of carrier of the tool. Oscillation excitation device for each carrier of the tool has at least two intermediate shafts which by means of eccentric parts are attached to carriers of the tools and made with possibility of synchronous actuation.

EFFECT: improving support and sealing of drive shaft and load-carrying sleeve, increasing service life of drive devices.

25 cl, 21 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of mining, namely, to devices for collection of broken rock from tunneling machine in process of underground mining. Device for removal of broken rock from tunneling machine comprises pipe fixed on partition, conveyor installed inside pipe, holes arranged in pipe for supply of rock and hardener, mechanism of mixing rock and hardener in moulds and opening with gate for rock discharge, which are arranged in the same plane that is transverse to pipe axis at its back end, where a double-arm lever is also installed with compaction mechanisms, being connected to gates. Besides device is also equipped with pump for supply of binder into moulds. Moreover, in order to start and stop a mentioned pump, at each yoke of double-arm lever there are levers fixed, being installed with the possibility of closing and opening of limit switches contacts installed at the back wall of pipe.

EFFECT: increased reliability of operation in device for removal of broken rock from tunnelling machine, improved quality of finished products manufacturing.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has frontal, two side and two conical working tools with rock-destroying tools on outer surfaces, drives, rigidly connected to axes of each working tool, and displacement mechanism, connected to guides, placed at angle relatively to each other, which angle is determined from mathematical expression. Frontal and each of side working tools are made in form of two rotation bodies, having arced forming lines with given value of convexity. Axes of frontal working tool and axes of two conical working tools are rigidly connected to guides, axes of upper rotation body of frontal working tool being displaced relatively to axis of its lower rotation body towards pit-face, and axes of each pair of side working tools are jointly connected to each other and to guides. Frontal working tool may be made in form of several modules.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes expanding guiding pipeline by extracting soil from around it by driving shield with rotor working implement. Soil is extracted to value, surpassing needed outer diameter of shield cover. Forming ring-shaped space inside tunnel mine is compacted from back side and continuously filled with liquid. Concurrently sedimentation of extracted soil is drained from lower portion of face. Displacement of driving equipment relatively to guiding pipeline is performed along soft trajectory. Device has means for driving guiding pipeline and driving shield with rotor working implement. Rotor working implement is mounted on body of driving shield. Front surface of working implement with cutters extends beyond outer contour of shield cover, provided with back end compaction. Device is provided with fluid pump device. Force hose of pump is outputted from upward portion beyond outer contour of shield cover. Device for transporting extracted soil from face is made in form of suck-in hose connected to pump device and to lower portion of ring space beyond rotor working implement.

EFFECT: lower transverse loads on guiding pipeline.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has two asynchronous electric engines, connected via reducers to drive sprockets of continuous traction chain, provided with plane carriages with their possible displacement along the guide, and hydraulic cylinders for displacing guide on pit-face. To windings of stators of first and second electric engines connected respectively are outputs of first and second frequency converters, inputs of which are connected to power grid and control inputs of which are connected respectively to outputs of first and second frequency adjusters. To frequency adjusters also connected are inputs of load detectors, to outputs of which load balancing block is connected, outputs of which are connected to inputs of first frequency adjuster. To inputs of both frequency adjusters output of load adjuster is connected, inputs of which are connected to load-setting block and load sensor for second engine. To output of second frequency converter connected are input of control block, other input of which is connected to signal block of base plant, and stator winding of third asynchronous engine, which via mechanical link is connected to first and second hydraulic pumps, having constant working volumes. Output of first hydraulic pump is connected to force hydro-main and input of second preventing hydraulic valve and to first inputs of two-position hydraulic distributors with electromagnetic control, to electromagnets of which outputs of control block are connected. Second inputs of two-positional hydraulic distributors with electromagnetic control are connected to control chambers of hydro-controlled two-positional hydro-distributors, which are part of hydro-blocks. Outputs of hydro-controlled two-positional distributors are connected to opposite hollows of volumetric dosing device of each hydro-block, and their inputs are connected respectively to outputs of hydro-distributors for controlling hydro-cylinder for moving the guide on pit-face, inputs of each of which are connected to force and drain hydro-mains, and outputs are connected to piston and rod hollows of appropriate hydro-cylinder.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of wall, prior reinforcement of rock massif along extraction track by drilling longitudinal and slanting wells and forcing reinforcing cementing solutions into these wells, destruction and cleaning of rocks under protection of cementing cover, erection of permanent support, following reinforcement of contour-adjacent massif by cementation solutions through wells, drilled perpendicularly to mine axis. Draining wells are additionally drilled with delay through cementing layer having length greater than thickness of reinforced rocks zone, to form a draining layer around reinforced cover.

EFFECT: higher effectiveness.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: rotor is made in form of cylindrical body, on working surface of which cutter holders are radially placed, each of which is made in form of shaft, freely placed in cylindrical groove of rotor body. Along whole length of each cutter holder cutting elements are mounted with hard-alloy inserts. Between cutter holders cutting elements are placed, made in form of rectangular prisms with hard-alloy inserts.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

3 dwg

Tunnel // 2250962

FIELD: building, particularly underground structures erected in difficult mining and geological conditions, namely in soft watered ground bedded under tunnel scoop and forming tunnel base.

SUBSTANCE: tunnel has composite lining including hollow metal members driven in ground and forming screen, load-bearing frames and grouting concrete. Metal members are connected one to another through interlocks. At least some of metal members have rigidity varying along length thereof and increasing in direction opposite to metal member driving direction. Metal members have constant outer diameters.

EFFECT: increased tunnel reliability and operational safety due to prevention of original ground deformation during tunnel building and operation; reduced ground settlement at base of tunnel built under motor road without traffic interruption, reduced building time, power and labor inputs, material consumption due to optimal material distribution along driven member in accordance with load distribution among member parts.

24 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method includes making a mini-tunnel by serial pressing through, in soil with concurrent feeding of special solution, at least two hollow concrete sections connected with pressing, each of which is made with end portions open at ends, one of which is made on outer side with ring-shaped groove open from end portion, wherein metallic ring is mounted projecting beyond section end, with thickness not greater than groove depth, hollow of which together with inner hollow of end portion of section forms shelf-like cone, and other end portion of section is made stepped and narrowing towards end with forming of bushing portion with one shelf for ring of adjacent section cone and no less than with one shelf for ring compacting insert made of soft pressurizing gas and water impermeable material, tightly clinging by one side to surface of shelf, and by other - to inner surface of ring, while shelves of bushing portion are made within limits of section wall half thickness, which half is directed outwards. End portions of pipeline sections adjacent to mini-tunnel are made matching with adjacent mini-tunnel sections or transfer sections are used and/or inserts, while pipeline is connected to mini-tunnel after pressing through in soil and/or embankment of the last mini-tunnel section.

EFFECT: lower costs, higher reliability and durability.

8 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method includes cleaning pipes and wells and further maintenance while providing for continuous draining of sewage by liquidating breakdowns, liquidating random obstructions, and also launching new areas of network into operation, while at least one constructed network area is driven though soil or body of existing embankment by, micro-tunneling by means of serial pressing through in soil with concurrent feeding of special solution, at least two hollow concrete sections connected with pressing, each of which is made with end portions open at ends, one of which is made on outer side with ring-shaped groove open from end portion, wherein metallic ring is mounted projecting beyond section end, with thickness not greater than groove depth, hollow of which together with inner hollow of end portion of section forms shelf-like cone, and other end portion of section is made stepped and narrowing towards end with forming of bushing portion with one shelf for ring of adjacent section cone and no less than with one shelf for ring compacting insert made of soft pressurizing gas and water impermeable material, tightly clinging by one side to surface of shelf, and by other - to inner surface of ring, while shelves of bushing portion are made within limits of section wall half thickness, which half is directed outwards. After pressing through all sections of reconstructed network portion free ends of end sections are connected to existing network.

EFFECT: higher reliability and durability, lower costs.

8 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method includes continuous feeding of electric power having appropriate frequency and voltage to consumers due to maintenance operations, and also launching new areas of network into operation, while at least one of constructed network areas is driven in soil or in body of existing embankment by micro-tunneling by means of serial pressing in soil with concurrent feeding of special solution of at least two hollow concrete sections, connected to each other and to network with pressing, each section being made with open end portions, one of which is made on outer side with open circular groove at end portion, wherein metallic ring is mounted, projecting behind end piece, having thickness no greater than groove depth, hollow of which together with inner hollow of end portion of section forms shelf-like cone, and other end portion of section is made stepped and narrowing towards end with forming of bushing portion with one shelf for ring of adjacent section cone and no less, than with one shelf for ring compacting insert of soft pressurizing gas and water impermeable material, tightly clinging by one side to shelf surface, and by other side - to inner surface of ring, while shelves of bushing portion are made within limits of outward-directed half of thickness of section wall. After pressing through all sections of reconstructed network portion, free ends of end sections are attached to existing network.

EFFECT: lower laboriousness, lower costs, higher reliability and durability.

8 cl, 16 dwg

Tunnel // 2251610

FIELD: building, particularly underground structures built under difficult mining and geological conditions, namely in presence of soft watered grounds at tunnel base.

SUBSTANCE: tunnel comprises prefabricated lining including hollow metal members driven in ground and forming a screen, load-bearing frames and grouting concrete. Metal members are joined by means of locking means. At least some metal members driven in ground have constant outer diameters. At least part of above metal members are composed of sections having different lengths. Lengths of the metal members decrease in direction opposite to the driving direction.

EFFECT: increased reliability and operational safety due to prevention of original ground surface settlement during tunnel building and operation; prevention of ground settlement during tunnel building under traffic road without traffic interruption, reduced time of tunnel building, labor and power inputs, material consumption due to optimal material distribution along driven member in correspondence with loading of its sections.

21 cl, 12 dwg

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