Method of substrate processing

FIELD: paper industry.

SUBSTANCE: paper product comprises a substrate selected from paper or cardboard, and a coating on the substrate with voids in it. The coating on the substrate comprises a water soluble polymer. The water-soluble polymer is selected from a group consisting of starch, waxy corn starch, protein, polyvinyl alcohol, casein, gelatin, soybean protein, and alginates. The coating additionally comprises a crosslinking agent. The paper product is substantially free of an elastomeric material. A method of processing a substrate for the paper product comprises coating an aqueous solution of the polymer on the film substrate, fixation of an aqueous solution of the polymer by contacting of the aqueous solution of the polymer with a heated surface up to formation of voids in the film. The phase of fixation comprises at least a partial drying of aqueous polymer solution.

EFFECT: obtained paper product is characterised with improved smoothness with no increase in density and has excellent printability.

27 cl, 3 ex, 1 tbl, 17 dwg

 

Inventors: Gary P. Fugitt, Scott E.Ginther, John W. Stolarz, Robert W. Carlson, Stanley H. ScGrew, Steven P. Metzler, Terrell J. Green

REFERENCES TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims priority priority with respect to 35 U.S.C. §119(e) of provisional application No. 60/776114, registered on February 23, 2006, which are hereby incorporated by reference in full.

The prior art INVENTIONS

This invention relates to a method of processing substrate composition, forming a polymer film. More specifically, the invention relates to a method of making paper or paperboard to which the stages of applying to the substrate the coating, forming a polymer film, and contacting the polymer coating with the heated surface when the polymer coating is still wet. The resulting polymer layer has a smooth surface with voids (e.g., bubbles) directly under the surface. In some embodiments, the implementation of the polymeric coating may consist of stitched hydrogel and polymer coating on the surface of the substrate can be applied cross-linking solution for the formation of at least partially cross-linked polymer coating, which is then in contact with the heated surface. This invention relates also to a product, which is processed substra is.

Paper get mainly a continuous production method, in which the dilute aqueous suspension of cellulose fibre flows in the wet part of the paper machine, and hardened dried fabric of indefinite length is continuously released from the dry end of the paper machine. The wet part of the paper machine has one or more headboxes, the drainage section and the pressure zone. The dry part of the modern paper machine consists of a set of heated water vapor rotating roll shell, distributed in the direction of serpentine canvas under cover, holding in the heat. Although there are many configuration options for each partition specified paper machine, commercially the most important option is a long-net paper machine, in which the headbox delivers a wide stream of slurry on a moving sieve with extremely thin words.

Sieve is designed and moves as the endless belt is moved over the supporting rollers or mounting films. The pressure drop across the screen from the side in contact with the suspension to the opposite side, pull the water from the suspension through the sieve, while the section of the sieve moves along a part of the concentration table path C is A. When water, diluting the suspension is extracted, the fibrous suspension components accumulate on the surface of the sieve in the form of raw, but the compacted cushion. After reaching the end of the segment concentration table cushion accumulates enough mass and tensile strength to withstand a short gap between the sieve and the first pressure roller. The first clamping roller transfers the pillow in the first clip, in which the main volume of water remaining in the pillow, remove the crimping rollers. (Below) can be followed by one or more pressing jaws.

From the first section of the pressure cushion continuously, now usually characterized as wet, enters into the drying section of the papermaking machine to thermodynamically remove the remaining water.

Generally speaking, the most important fiber for making paper produced from softwood and hardwood three varieties. However, in some cases, can be used fibers from straw or squeezed sugar cane. To separate fibers for paper production from the composition of natural vegetation using both chemical and mechanical methods of separation of the fibers, the well-known state of the art. Fiber for paper production, obtained by chemical methods and partitioning methods is as fiber, usually referred to as cellulose, whereas fiber for paper production, obtained by mechanical methods of separation of the fibre can be named woody mass. There are also combined processes, such as Poluchenie, thermo-chemical or thermo-mechanical. Any of the three varieties can be divided into fibers by any of the chemical or mechanical methods. However, some types and methods of separation of the fibers are more economical or functional than others.

An important difference between cellulose and wood mass is that the wood pulp may be filed on paper machine directly from the stage of splitting into fibres. On the other hand, cellulose after chemical pulping must be at least mechanically split into fibres, washed and sifted. Typically, the pulp is also mechanically cleaned after screening and before (filing) on the paper machine. Further, the average fiber length pulp, usually shorter than the (fiber) cellulose. However, fiber length also depends on the type of wood from which the fiber is made. Fiber softwood is typically three times longer than the fibers of solid wood.

Critical properties of a particular bond are determined mostly by the type of feedstock and the way that is handled is specified with the Riez papermaking machine and is formed paper web. Important influencing factors in the formation of the paper web are headbox and a sieve.

Paper and paperboard coated, used for printing and packaging, usually require a high level of gloss, excellent smoothness and excellent suitability for printing, as well as specific strength and stiffness characteristics.

If the paper or cardboard with a coating has high hardness, they can easily pass through the high-speed print or packaging machine with less jamming of the feed. Paper higher rigidity can be advantageously used in books, magazines and catalogs, as it provides a touch of hardness or severity, like the book in hardcover. For packaging high rigidity necessary to maintain the structural integrity of the carton of the product during filling and subsequent use.

Stiffness is closely associated with a number of foundations and density of paper. There is a General trend of increasing stiffness with increasing mass basis and decrease with increasing density of the paper. The stiffness and other properties can be improved by increasing the mass basis. However, this may lead to the use of products of a larger number of fibers, which increases the price and weight. Therefore, the desired paper or paperboard coated with a high jetcost the Yu, but with moderate weight basis. Paper with reasonable mass backing is also more economical because it uses less raw material (fiber). In addition, the transportation cost depending on the weight, lower the paper with a low weight basis.

In addition to high rigidity of paper or paperboard coated, which should be suitable for printing, often require a high gloss and smoothness. For paper or paperboard coated with the specified quality characteristics density can usually be increased to such an extent as to become suitable for use as a surface suitable for printing. Smoothness usually reach calandrinia. However, calendering may cause a decrease in thickness, which usually leads to a reduction of stiffness. The calendering process affects the rigidity of the paper is the result of a significant decrease in thickness and increase the density. A standard sheet of plain cardboard with a coating, as a rule, harder compacted when celandroni to provide surface roughness sufficient to obtain the final smoothness of the coating is acceptable in the industry. These methods calendering, including the handling of wet weight, can increase the density up to 20% to 25%.

Thus, the relationship between gloss and rigidity and between smoothness and hardness usually is about the opposite of each other for a given number of fibers per unit surface area. Varieties of packaging trade, based on the thickness, so that the production methods, which reduce the thickness (increasing the density of cardboard), increase the sales price. Methods that cause less reduction in thickness, save material cost. The thickness is measured in "points", where item = 0.001 inch. For example, a conventional method of manufacturing the 10 point cardstock requires the use of paperboard weighing more than 12 points before calandrinia. It is desirable to be able to get the final cardboard approximately the same density as the original substrate.

Improvements in the method of calendering, including calendering with a gradient of humidity, hot calendering, soft calendering and tape calendering, slightly improve rigidity for a given thickness, but do not change the basic relationship between the thickness, stiffness, smoothness and suitability for printing.

Many suggestions were made to improve the rigidity of paper or paperboard coated for printing without calendering. For example, some proposals include a high content of coniferous wood in the raw mix, the addition of specially processed fibers in the raw material mixture, the addition of highly branched polymers in the raw material mixture and a large quantity of starch or a copolymer latex with a high glass transition temperature (about what a rule referred to as "Tg") in the coating composition.

However, the potential disadvantages of these methods to improve the rigidity consist in the fact that although they are applicable to improve the rigidity of the paper, they can impair the smoothness, gloss and/or suitability for printing the obtained coated paper.

For the above reasons it is very difficult to obtain a satisfactorily smooth paper without increasing density. To change the ratio of the density/smoothness in the grades of paper and cardboard can be used other ways. The coating of paper is a very common way to improve the surface properties of the paper without causing a sharp increase in the density of the paper, usually associated with levels calendering required for obtaining a certain level of smoothness. Preferably the final coated surface must be uniform to ensure an acceptable appearance and suitability for printing.

It was therefore desirable to develop a paper or cardboard with the desired properties, while maintaining the initial density of the sheet or minimizing the increase in density. Moreover, it was desirable to develop a paper or cardboard that is different superior smoothness, without an accompanying increase in density associated with the conventional ways to create smoothness. To obtain a very smooth surface, there are coating methods, but Azania methods usually occur at speeds production smaller than the speed of many paper machines.

The INVENTION

In one of the embodiments of the invention proposed product that includes a substrate with a coating on the substrate. The coating includes a water-soluble polymer and a release agent. Inside the cover there is the void.

In another embodiment, the invention proposed a product that includes a substrate with a coating on the substrate. The coating includes a water-soluble polymer and essentially does not contain an elastomeric material. Inside the cover there is the void.

In another embodiment, the invention proposed a product that includes a substrate with a coating on the substrate. The coating includes a surface, and the surface has a smoothness in Sheffield Smoothness) of less than about 300 units. Under the surface there are formed voids.

In another embodiment, the invention proposed a product that includes a substrate with a coating on the substrate. The coating includes a water-soluble polymer release agent and essentially does not contain an elastomeric material. The coating includes a surface, and the surface has a smoothness in Sheffield is less than approximately 300 units. Under the surface there are formed voids.

In another embodiment, and is gaining a method for processing substrate. Wet film of an aqueous solution of polymer applied to the substrate. An aqueous solution of the polymer is fixed by contact with the heated surface in order to cause boiling of the aqueous solution of the polymer and at least partial drying of the aqueous polymer solution.

In another embodiment of the invention, a method for processing substrate. Wet film of an aqueous solution of polymer applied to the substrate. An aqueous solution of the polymer is fixed by contact with the heated surface in order to cause boiling of the aqueous solution of the polymer and the formation of voids that remain in the aqueous solution of the polymer, and at least partial drying of the aqueous polymer solution.

In another embodiment of the invention, a method for processing substrate. A coating of an aqueous solution of polymer applied to the substrate in the form of a wet film. The coating includes a water-soluble polymer and a release agent. The film is fixed contacts within less than about 3 seconds with the heated surface with a temperature above about 150°C. so as to cause boiling of the aqueous solution of the polymer and the formation of voids in the film and at least partial drying of the film.

In another embodiment of the invention, a method for processing substrate. A coating of an aqueous solution of polymer applied to the substrate in view of the wet film. The coating includes a water-soluble polymer and essentially (not contains) an elastomeric material. The film is fixed contacts within less than about 3 seconds with the heated surface with a temperature above about 150°C. so as to cause boiling of the aqueous solution of the polymer and the formation of voids in the film, and at least partial drying of the film.

In another embodiment of the invention, a method for processing substrate. A coating of an aqueous solution of polymer applied to the substrate in the form of a wet film. The coating includes a water-soluble polymer and essentially (not contains) an elastomeric material. The film is fixed contacts within less than about 3 seconds with the heated surface with a temperature above about 150°C. so as to cause boiling of the aqueous solution of the polymer and the formation of voids in the film, and at least partial drying of the film. The surface of the coating after drying has a smoothness in Sheffield is less than approximately 300 units.

In another embodiment of the invention, a method for processing substrate. A coating of an aqueous solution of polymer applied to the substrate in the form of a wet film. The coating includes a water-soluble polymer release agent and essentially does not contain an elastomeric material. The film is fixed contacts within less PR is about 3 seconds with the heated surface with a temperature above about 150°C. thus, to cause boiling of the aqueous solution of the polymer and the formation of voids in the film, and at least partial drying of the film. The surface of the coating after drying has a smoothness in Sheffield is less than approximately 300 units.

In another embodiment of the invention, a method for processing cellulose substrate. Wet film of an aqueous solution of polymer applied to the substrate. An aqueous solution of the polymer includes in the calculation of the dry weight of at least about 60 wt.% water-soluble polymer and up to 10 wt.% antiadhesive in dry weight. An aqueous solution of the polymer is fixed contacts within less than about 3 seconds with the heated surface with a temperature above about 150°C. so as to cause boiling of the aqueous solution of the polymer and the formation of voids in an aqueous solution of the polymer, and at least partial drying of the aqueous polymer solution.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

FIGURE 1 is a schematic view of an apparatus for processing a substrate with a polymer coating in accordance with one embodiments of the present invention.

FIGURE 2-9 are a cross-section of Miroshnikov showing the morphology of the samples made in accordance with one embodiments of the invention and having the top floor.

FIGURE 10-12 represent the Pope is acnee section Miroshnikov, showing the morphology of the samples made in accordance with one embodiments of the invention.

Fig-14 represent microsemi surface, obtained by scanning electron microscope, showing the morphology of the samples made in accordance with one embodiments of the invention.

FIG-16 represent microsemi surface, obtained by scanning electron microscope with a back-scattering, showing the morphology of the samples made in accordance with one embodiments of the invention.

Fig is a graph showing the size distribution of voids in the samples made in accordance with one embodiments of the invention.

DETAILED description of the INVENTION

For clarity in the description of the preferred embodiments will use certain terminology. Have in mind that this terminology includes not only the listed options, but all technical equivalents which operate in a similar manner for a similar purpose, to achieve similar results. The citation of any document should be understood as a recognition that it represents the preceding material in relation to this invention. If not specified is the beginning or if the context indicates otherwise, all weight percentages and ratios are given by weight.

This invention relates to a method of processing substrate polymeric film-forming coating. More specifically, the invention relates to a method of making paper or paperboard to which the stages of applying to the substrate a polymeric coating, and contacting the polymer coating with the heated surface, while the polymer coating is still wet. Boiling water in the polymer coating causes the formation of voids beneath the surface, but the surface of the film remains smooth. Paper or cardboard, obtained in accordance with some variations of this invention exhibit desirable levels of opacity and smoothness of the surface without significant compaction of the base paper. In some embodiments, the implementation of the polymeric coating may include a substance which is capable of formation of bridging ties (stitched), and a polymer coating on the surface of the substrate can be applied cross-linking solution, forming at least partially cross-linked polymer film-forming composition. In these cases, usually on the paper web may first be applied to the polymer coating, and then a crosslinking solution prior to contacting the treated sheet with the heated surface. In the case of weak sshi is Denmark polymers, cross-linking solution may be provided in the floor.

One of the advantages of processing the substrate polymeric film-forming coating in accordance with this invention relates to an improvement in the smoothness and/or Mat, which can be obtained without significantly increasing density or decreasing the thickness of the layer. Heavy calendering of pulp and paper associated with the conventional technology, does not require the paper having the properties suitability for printing, compared with the conventional coated paper. Moreover, even if the pulp and paper canvas smooth, to achieve similar properties suitability for printing on paper with increased rigidity can be applied much less pressure. In accordance with some of the options for implementation of the present invention the pulp and paper cloth level so that the thickness decreases not more than about 7%, and typically, the reduction is from about 2% to 5%. Compared with the conventional coated paper typical calendering before coating is carried out at a higher pressure, which causes an increase in density from about 20 to 25%. In accordance with one aspect of the invention cellulosic paper web can be calandrino to smoothness by Parker Print Surf from about 2 to 6 microns prior to application of the polymer film. However, there may be the used substrates with higher values Parker Print Surf. For example, there may be used a substrate with a smoothness by Parker Print Surf approximately 9 microns. Smoothness by Parker Print Surf is determined in accordance with TAPPI standard T om-99.

FIGURE 1 illustrates the apparatus 10, are applicable in the practice of some embodiments of the invention. The substrate 12 is subjected to processing on the surface of stitched polymer coating 14 with the formation of a layer of polymer coating 16 on the substrate 12. While the polymer coating is still wet, a layer of polymer coating 16 can be applied cross-linking solution 18, thus forming on the substrate 12 cross-linked polymer coating 20. Polymer coating 20 is usually custom made, at least partially. Polymer coating prior to contacting with hot polished drum 22 by pressing the blade 12 to the surface of the drum clamping rollers 24, is still in the wet state. The heat from the drum surface causes boiling within the moist polymer coating, so that the polymer below the surface voids. Cross-linking solution is the stitching and gilotinirovaniya polymer coating with the formation of essentially continuous layer or film. Usually, the obtained film exhibits improved durability in comparison with the layer-by basis. The treated polymer sheet can be dried completely, so that it can be passed through the WTO is the second heater 26. Can be used any type of the second heating device is capable of lowering the processed sheet without adversely affecting the properties of the sheet. The processed sheet comes out of the second heater 26 in the form of processed polymer film substrate 28, a different superior opacity and smoothness. To obtain a product with a coating 32 can be also used additional processes coating 30 (and other processes, such as coating, gloss calendering etc).

As shown in figure 1, the cloth covers a significant part of the hot polished drum 22. The size of the girth may depend on the conditions of operation, such as blade speed, the moisture content in the polymeric film forming composition 20, the cylinder temperature and other process factors. It is possible that sufficient can be a short contact time with hot polished drum 22. Along with submission of the substrate in the form of cloth, it can be submitted in the form of a sheet.

Cover stitched polymer and possibly a crosslinking solution can be applied to any of a variety of technologies, such as coating, dipping, coating, removing the excess with trims, coating the rod, the coating roller for gravure printing, coating, reverse roller coating with doses is included in the pressure coating smooth, roller coating, extrusion, coating, spray, coating, spraying method and the like. Cover stitched polymer and a crosslinking solution can be applied in the same way, or for each of them can be used in different ways.

One of the embodiments in accordance with this invention is based on the coagulation or gilotinirovaniya that come (in the interaction between polyvinyl alcohol and brown. In accordance with the specified system type polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) is an example stitched polymer and a solution of borax represent an example of a suitable linker. Once the solution is applied PVOH 14 at approximately 25% solids and the degree of coating (surface) of about 5 g/m2dry matter), put a solution of the linker 16 with the speed of solidification of the solution, forming a coating of borax with coverage of at least 0.1 g/m2dry (substances). Found on wet, cross-linked polymer film 20 is then in contact with a hot polished drum 22 by pinning the fabric 12 to the surface of the drum pressure roller 24. The surface temperature of the drum is equal to at least 150°C., or, in accordance with some of the options for the implementation of at least 190°C., so that pok is the eve ENT can be dried and separated from the drum surface. The contact time of the polymer film with the drum could be up to approximately 3,0 seconds, more specifically from about 0.5 to 2.0 seconds. The specified time is sufficient for fixation and solidification of the polymer film, giving the surface of the polymer film is a flat smooth outer layer, the reflective surface of the drum. Fixation of the polymer film includes at least partial drying of the film. The coating does not have to be completely dry when it leaves the drum, so that it may be necessary to further drying 26. The paper web then continue to process until the winder it may take an additional coating layers, for example, conventional coatings. The polymer coating may be applied as a single layer or as two or more layers. Limited experiments also show that the polymer film can be fixed or overiden in almost immediate contact with the heated drum, which can be achieved by using a pressure roller 24 for compression of the paper web 12 to a hot drum 22 without any additional wrap or cloth around the hot drum. However, consider that, in practice, can be used some wrappers hot drum to facilitate contacting the paper web with a hot b is the Mishnah can be used the felt 23. If to facilitate contacting the paper web with a hot dryer use the felt 23, the felt can be held between the pressure roller 24 and the heated drum 22.

The contact between the polymer film and the hot drum causes the spread of boiling in the polymer film, making the film voids or bubbles. Should be adjusted such conditions of pressure that could come boiling. Satisfactory laboratory results were obtained with an elastic pressure roller, the width of the paper web 9 and a clamping load from about 2 to about 15 pounds per linear inch. Conditions can be adjusted depending on the hardness of the pressure roller and the diameter of the hot drum and the pressure roller.

Specific examples of stitched polymers applicable in some embodiments of this invention include stitched hydrogels. In particular, the applicable following link hydrogels: starch, waxy corn, protein, polyvinyl alcohol, casein, gelatin, soybean protein, and alginates. Can be used one or more polymers selected from the above. Stitched polymer is usually applied in the form of a solution and, as a rule, in the form of an aqueous solution. The concentration of polymer in the solution is not specifically limited, but may be easily determined Spa is malestom in the art. For example, there may be used a solution of about 20% starch, as described below. Stitched polymer may be applied to ensure the degree of surface coverage (based on dry weight) from about 3 to about 15 g/m2more specifically, from about 4 to about 8 g/m2. In accordance with the specific variants of implementation of the present invention can be stapled polymer can be used in an amount of from about 60 wt.% to about 100 wt.% based on the weight of dry matter.

Specific examples of crosslinking agents include borates, aldehydes, ammonium salts, calcium and their derivatives. If using a crosslinking agent, usually it can be applied in the form of a solution and, as a rule, in the form of an aqueous solution. The concentration of crosslinking agent in solution, in particular, is not limited, but may be easily determined by a person skilled in the art. A crosslinking agent may be applied in such a way to ensure that the degree of surface coverage (based on dry matter) from about 0.1 to about 0.5 g/m2more specifically, from about 0.2 to about 0.3 g/m2.

The temperature of the heated surface above typically used for injection molding of the cover. The higher temperature allows a higher speed of rotation. Expect paper or cardboard, obtained in accordance with some is that variants of implementation of the present invention, can be made at speeds in the range of from about 750 to 3000 feet per minute, more specifically from about 1500 to 1800 feet per minute Although not the desired connection with theory, the higher the temperature and time are chosen so that the composition of the coating was heated to boiling point, and it was found that, when the floor was in full swing, this increased contact area between the coating and the drum. Increased contact leads to the heated surface of the polymer film exhibits improved smoothness and gloss. Moreover, the treated surface is receptive to the ink. Boiling coverage, because it is smooth on the polished surface of the drum, leads to a significant improvement in gloss and smoothness of the final substrate, the treated polymer film.

The polymer coating on the substrate is usually pressed against the heated surface for a period of time sufficient to provide coverage opportunities to boil, and it eventually becomes smooth, shiny. In accordance with the specific variant of implementation, the contact time of the resulting polymer film with the drum is in the range of about to 3.0 seconds, more specifically - about to 2.0 seconds, and most specifically up to about 0.5 seconds.

The polymer coating may also soda is to press one or more pigments. Examples of applicable pigments include, but are not limited to, kaolin, talc, calcium carbonate, calcium acetate, titanium dioxide, clay, zinc oxide, aluminum oxide, aluminum hydroxide and synthetic silicon dioxide, examples of which are non-crystalline silica, amorphous silica or finely ground silica. Can also be used organic pigments.

Stitched polymeric coating and/or a crosslinking solution can optionally contain one or more antiadhesive. Specific examples of antiadhesive applicable here include, but are not limited to, waxes such as petroleum, vegetable, animal and synthetic waxes, metal Soaps of fatty acids, such as metallic stearates, long-chain alkyl derivatives, such as esters of fatty acids, amides of fatty acids, fatty amines and fatty alcohols, polymers, such as polyolefins, silicone polymers, fluorocarbon polymers and natural polymers, fluorinated compounds, such as fluorinated fatty acids, and combinations thereof. Specialist in the art can easily determine the number of antiadhesive for use in a particular application. Typically, the coating may contain from about 0.3 to 10 percent of antiadhesive, more specifically from about 2 to 5 weight percent. Instead of the fact, or in addition to antiadhesive in coating of release agent may be sprayed onto the coated surface or deposited on the heated surface of the drum. If heated, the drum may be provided with a non-stick surface, using antiadhesive or other means, the use of antiadhesive in the coating or covering the surface may not be necessary.

Polymer coating used in some embodiments of this invention, which contains at least the above-mentioned polymer, usually obtained in the form of aqueous compositions. The corresponding ratio of ingredients varies, depending on the polymer composition, conditions of application and so forth, but it has no specific limitation, as soon as the treated paper can meet the quality required for its further application. In addition, the polymer coating according to some variants of this invention may also contain additives such as dispersing agents, water-retaining agent, a thickener, a preservative, a dye, a waterproof agent, a wetting agent, a desiccant, an initiator, a plasticizer, a fluorescent dye, absorbent of ultraviolet radiation, release agent, lubricant and cationic polyelectrolyte.

In accordance with a specific embodiment of the present invention, the substrate is treated with a polymer coating near the Central region of the paper machine, t is coy as position size press. Moreover, the apparatus for applying a polymer coating on the substrate can be positioned relative to the papermaking machine so as to apply a polymer film on any surface of the formed paper web. For the deposition of polymer films on each side of the formed paper web can be used more than one device.

These advantages allow the use of easily calandrino paper or cardboard, while maintaining rigidity and providing a good suitability for printing.

The layer is usually formed from fibers commonly used for such purposes, in accordance with the specific options for implementation, including unbleached and bleached Kraft pulp. The pulp can be hardwood or softwood or from their combination. The bulk of the layer of cellulose fibers may be in the range of from about 30 to about 500 g/m2and more specifically from about 150 to about 350 g/m2. Layer-the base may also contain organic or inorganic fillers, a sizing tool, the retaining agents and other excipients known in the art. The final paper product may contain one or more layers of cellulose fibers, the layers of polymer film and, in accordance with some variations is Tami implementation other functional layers.

This invention, in accordance with some of the options for the implementation of the network is covered with one or two sides of paper or cardboard for printing or packaging, the value of smoothness which Parker Print Surf after coating and finishing processes is less than 2-3 microns, as measured by method No. 5A according to the test paper and cardboard TAPPI.

Described here is paper and cardboard can be further provided with one or more additional layers. The upper floor, containing standard components, can be made to improve certain properties of the paper or cardboard. Examples of these standard components include pigments, binders, fillers and other additives. Top coating, if present, may be applied to a much smaller mass than the standard coverage and still give similar suitability for printing. Accordingly, the weight of the top coating may be from about 4 to 9 g/m2the coating of the aqueous solution in the case of a single-layer coating or from about 8 to 18 g/m2in the case of two-layer coating. In contrast, standard coated paper is usually to ensure comparable surface properties needs (weight) from about 10 to 20 g/m2in the case of a single-layer coating or from 18 to 30 g/m 2in the case of two-layer coating. Paper or cardboard can also be covered by a layer having a rough surface.

The foregoing will be further illustrated by specific examples, which in no way should be construed as limiting the scope of the claims.

The sheet, having a thickness of about 10 points, the value of a Parker Print Surf (PPS) about 9 microns (10 kg pressure with soft base) and smoothness in Sheffield about 310 may be processed in accordance with some of the options for implementation of the present invention, to obtain a processed sheet with improved smoothness, and with only minimal reduction in thickness. Sheet-basis can be processed by applying a solution of PVOH containing approximately 25% solids on a sheet basis to ensure coverage density of about 5 g/m2dry matter. Can then be applied to the solution of a crosslinking agent with so many solid substances, to obtain the density of the brown coating of at least about 0.1 g/m2dry matter. Wet film of cross-linked polymer can be skontaktiruem with hot polished drum by pressing the sheet to the drum surface. The temperature of the drum surface may be at least about 190°C. the Coating should be dried and separated from the Ergneti drum. The contact time of the polymer film with the drum should normally be in the range of about 0.5 to 2.0 seconds. The processed sheet should have a thickness of from about 9.6 to 10.0 points, the PPS value of from about 2.4 to 3.0 and smoothness in Sheffield about 140-170.

In the preferred embodiment, as the polymer material in the polymer coating can be used in the starch solution.

One aspect of the invention relates to a method for manufacturing paper or paperboard. In accordance with one variant of the invention, the method involves the application of the polymer coating, consisting of stitched hydrogel to the substrate, applying a cross-linking solution of polymer coating on the surface of the substrate, the formation of a film-forming coating at least partially cross-linked polymer and contacting the polymeric film-forming coatings with the heated surface, while the film-forming polymer coating is still wet. The heated surface may be a hot polished drum with a flat, smooth surface. The temperature of the heated surface is typically in the range of from about 150°to about 240°C. Can be used in higher temperature, for example, about 300°C. the temperature of the heated surface in accordance with some VA is Yantai embodiment of the invention is in the range from 180°C to about 200°C. in accordance with some of the options for implementing it is equal to at least about 190°C.

According to a particular variant embodiment of the invention stitched polymer may be selected from the group consisting of starch, waxy corn, protein, polyvinyl alcohol, casein, gelatin, soybean protein and alginates. In accordance with some aspects of the present invention can be stapled polymer may be used in amounts in the range of from about 60 to about 100% by weight of dry matter.

In some ways crosslinking agent may be a borate or derivative borate such as borax, sodium tetraborate, boric acid, phenylboronic acid or butylboronic acid. A crosslinking agent may be used in amounts in the range of from about 1 to about 12%, based on the stitching polymer.

This invention also relates to a paper obtained in accordance with the method described here. The treated paper is characterized by improved smoothness in combination with a relatively small increase in density compared with the primary sheet.

Since it is desirable in contact with the heated drum to be coated in the wet state, the coating can be wetted, for example, by the application of water. One way involves NAPA is giving water on the floor before contacting it with the hot drum. However, in some embodiments of the invention can also be operated without additional moisture.

In some embodiments of the invention as soluble polymer can be used starch. In some embodiments of the invention the coating on the basis of starch can be successfully used without crosslinking agent, and good results can be obtained without gilotinirovaniya (also called coagulation).

The starch solution containing 2-5% antiadhesive, in contact with the heated drum in the above-described conditions. In some embodiments, the implementation, if it is desirable wetting coating can be used only water in aerosol form, giving a good reproduction of the polished surface. If the coating is not sufficiently solid, the process is conducted without dampening water spray. On paper, the canvas was applied starch coating with 20% solids and kontaktierung with the heated drum, which gave good playing.

Experienced also starch coating with 25% and 30% solids. Both of these coatings were separated from the drum without sticking, but without a good playing surface. Coverage with 25% solids gives moderate play, but coating with 30% solids was not very smooth. It seems, is that a certain amount of water, present at the surface, can help spread the boiling through the floor. Below a certain amount of surface water, some parts of the surface, can still have sufficient boiling to give a good reproduction of the surface of the drum, but other surface area can not. Thus, without wetting the surface of the water spray when the solids greater than 20%, the percentage of space that reproduces the smooth surface of the drum decreases with increasing covering solids, while about 30% covering solids reaches small or no playback smoothness of the surface. If the surface coating with 30% solids is sprayed with sufficient water prior to contacting with the heated drum, can be obtained a complete reproduction of the surface. We expect this ratio, as a result of absorption of raw materials, pulp capping layer, the viscosity of the coating and the speed of the process. Should be (provided) establishing the effect of these parameters by additional experiments.

The examples described above were conducted with chrome surface of the heated drum. The examples described below were carried out after replacing the cover drum for coating tungsten carbide. In each the of these examples for data collection were produced several series of experiments. A series of experiments consists of heating the drum to approximately 190°C. the determination of the level of aerosol deposition on the paper web coating method of applying a rod metering valve may further hydration spray (which may optionally contain a crosslinking agent and then contacting the fabric with a drum at 35 feet per minute. The temperature of the drum during a series of experiments varied from 180°C to 190°. The only variables that changed during the series of experiments, was the mass of the coating rod metering valve. In different series of experiments on the equipment changed the type of coating solids coating or the degree of atomization. The coating weight was measured by differential weights and described as absolutely dry. Some experiments were performed with crosslinking agents in the coating, for example, when used such material as starch, which is loosely stitched.

Example 1

As a substrate, on which inflicted and (where) processed sample of the coating composition, used minimally compressed sheet basis weight 111 lbs/3000 ft2. The first floor consisted of 95 wt.% CELVOL 203s vehicles polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and 5% Emtal 50VCS, as antiadhesive used the triglyceride. Solids coating was 20 wt%. The coating was applied by rod dozer the existing valve. Table 1 lists the samples and test conditions. Sample 1.1 was produced by spray coating with cross-linking solution containing 3 wt.% borax and 1 wt.% sulfonated castor oil as antiadhesive. Spraying speed was 48 milliliters per minute. The sample was well reproduced the drum and separated from the drum without sticking. There was obtained a significant improvement in smoothness with minimal thickness. Conditions of experience 1.2 were the same, except that the sprayed solution was not used borax. In the absence of borax for crosslinking polyvinyl alcohol coating was not separated from the drum surface, and a part of the film remained on the surface of the drum. The specified experience clearly showed the advantage of crosslinking polyvinyl alcohol.

TABLE
Samples and test conditions
SampleThe covering materialSolids coatingMoisturizing
aerosol
Spraying speedImprintSeparation from the drum
1.195 wt.% PVOH, 5 triglycerides 20 wt.%1 wt.% castor oil, 3 wt.% borax48 ml/minGoodYes
1.295 wt.% PVOH, 5% triglycerides20 wt.%1 wt.% castor oil48 ml/minNoNo
1.3-1.495 wt.% SMS, 5% triglycerides7 wt.%1 wt.% castor oil, 3 wt.% borax48 ml/minNot as good as PVOH (1/1)Yes
1.595 wt.% SMS, 5% triglycerides7 wt.%1 wt.% castor oil48 ml/minBetter than brown (1.3,1.4)Yes
2.195 wt.% starch 5% triglycerides20 wt.%1 wt.% castor oil, 3 wt.% borax46 ml/minGood Yes
2.2-2.595 wt.% starch
5% triglycerides
20 wt.%1 wt.% castor oil46 ml/minGoodYes
2.6-2.795 wt.% starch 5% triglycerides20 wt.%Without aerosol0Not as good as with the aerosol (2.2-2.5)Yes
3.1-3.295 wt.% starch 5% triglycerides23 wt.%Without aerosol0goodYes
3.3-3.495 wt.% starch 5% triglyceridesof 25.7 wt.%Without aerosol090-95%Yes
3.5-3.695 wt.% starch 5% triglyceridesof 25.7 wt.%1 wt.% castor oil48 ml/min00% Yes
3.795 wt.% starch 5% triglycerides30 wt.%Without aerosol0poorYes
3.895 wt.% starch 5% triglycerides30 wt.%1 wt.% castor oil48 ml/minspeckledYes
3.9-3.1295 wt.% starch 5% triglycerides30 wt.%1 wt.% castor oil98 ml/min100%Yes
3.13-3.1495 wt.% starch 5% triglycerides17.5 wt.%Without aerosol0100%Yes
3.1595 wt.% starch 5% triglycerides10 wt.%Without aerosol0Poor

In another series of experiments to compare the characteristics of the polymer of polyvinyl alcohol was replaced by carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Carboxymethycellulose was a FINFIXX 30, which could be used only at 7% solids due to the viscosity of the coating. The floor was composed of 95% of the polymer and 5% Emtal. Samples 1.3 and 1.4 are two different mass coating, sprayed with a speed of 48 ml/min emulsion borax. Floor well reproduces the drum surface and is completely separated from the drum. The smoothness was improved with minimal loss of thickness, but the smoothness was not as good as in the case of polyvinyl alcohol. For a series of experiments, which formed example 1.5, the emulsion did not use borax. The floor was well reproduced the surface of the drum and is completely separated from the drum. Removing the Boers smoothness was improved. This shows that seamless coverage can play (surface) and to separate from the drum, which suggests that the above process can be used, in addition to stitched, and other materials.

Example 2

As a substrate, on which inflicted and (where) processed sample of the coating composition, used minimally compressed sheet is based on a working weight 111 lbs/3000 ft2. The first is the freight consisted of 95 wt.% in the dry weight of starch CLEER-COTE 625 (starch, waxy corn with modified viscosity) and 5% Emtal 50 VCS, the triglyceride used as antiadhesive. The dry matter of the coating was 20 wt%. The coating was applied using a rod metering valve. A sample of 2.1 was obtained by spray coating with cross-linking solution containing 3 wt.% borax and 1 wt.% sulfonated castor oil as antiadhesive. Spraying speed was 46 milliliters per minute. The sample was well reproduced the surface of the drum and separated from the drum without sticking. Got a noticeable improvement in the smoothness with minimal loss of thickness. Samples 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5 were obtained with different masses coatings of the same composition, but the emulsion did not contain borax. All samples were well reproduced the surface and completely separated from the drum. Samples 2.6 and 2.7 are generally received without aerosol. The samples were well reproduced the surface and completely separated. Values of smoothness were not very good, but still had significantly improved smoothness with minimum reduction in thickness. This shows that the method can work without moisturizing spray.

Example 3

The specified experience was a continuation of example 2, which studied the effect of solid-phase coating. Samples 3.1 and 3.2 was carried out at 23% solid coatings without wetting spray. Got good play and the Department. For examples 3.3 and 3.4 solid-phase coating increasing the whether to 25.7% and again inflicted without wetting spray. Received a complete separation, but it achieved a partial reproduction of the surface. Based on visual inspection was reproduced only 90-95% of the surface. For samples 3.5. and 3.6 took the same specified 25,7% solid coatings and produced moisturizing spray at a speed of 48 ml/min Playing surface was full and values of smoothness is greatly improved. For samples with a 3.7 through 3.12 used 30% solid coating. If you did not use moisturizing spray (3.7)achieved a complete separation, but it was played only a small percentage of the surface. If used moisturizing spray at a speed of 48 ml/min (3.8), the play was greatly improved, but the surface was still spotted with patches of bad play. If hydration spray was increased to a speed of 98 ml/min (3.9, 3.10, 3.11 and 3.12), the playback was full and smoothness was significantly improved with minimal reduction in thickness. Then solid-phase coating reduced. A good Department and a complete reproduction was obtained by 17.5 percent solid coatings (3.13, 3.14) without the use of moisturizing spray. At 10% solid coatings (3.15) in the absence of moisture by spraying low viscosity coating resulted in reduced coating weight and increased absorption of the coating to the sheet, so toimela weak play.

Samples of smooth products obtained with the use of starch as a polymer coating, with 20% solid coating, covered the usual pigmented clay (about two-thirds loam and one-third of the carbonate with a latex binder applied in a single coating of about 10 lbs/3000 ft2), applied over a smooth polymer layer. These samples are then cut in cross section to test the morphology of the coating layer. The cross-section was done by freezing the samples in liquid nitrogen and then by splitting the samples in half (destruction by freezing). Edges with transverse cracks samples (e.g., cross section) and then studied under a microscope.

On the micrograph was found that the polymer coating exist cavity, as shown in figure 2 through 9, which includes a ruler to determine the scale. For 2-5 magnification of the microscope was 1000 and gauge were 20 microns in length. In figure 2, as an example, the structure, as shown, contains a cardboard substrate 110. The thickness of the substrate is typically extends below the square mikronika. Because of the way destruction by freezing the substrate 110, as shown in micronance, sometimes separated or partially separated from the polymer layer 120. Therefore, the upper boundary of the substrate 10 may be shown only approximately using the bracketed distance, denoting the substrate.

In these samples the polymer coating 120 has been deposited on the substrate 110 and dried on a heated drum, as described above. Then was applied and dried the top cover 130. The term "polymer coating" is used here to describe that layer applied as described above, then contact in the wet state with the heated drum. The term "upper floor" is used to denote the outer layer, which was deposited as a single layer. Obviously, the "upper floor" may be caused by more than one layer and may be a coating material that is different from the one used here.

The polymer coating 120 are visible voids 121, as shown in figure 2-9. In figure 2, for example, shows some of the cavities 121, the polymer coating 120 with voids is from about 5 to 20 microns in lateral dimension. Assume that the size of them going "in" cracked sample, approximately the same value. Voids are usually considered to some extent aligned in the vertical direction, that is going in the thickness of the sample. Emptiness also seem to have a "wall", which are relatively smooth and thin. These thin walls are the most obvious, as is visible between adjacent voids. When the wall of the void is adjacent to the upper surface 130, the thickness of which may be poorly visible, but the conclusion that its presence can be made due to the path less smoothness of the upper surface 130 adjacent to the void.

FIGURE 3 is an example of microneme showing several cavities 121 in the polymer coating. Voids seem to be spreading over an area equivalent to more than half of the area covered surface. The layer of polymer coating on the specified micronance poorly defined.

FIGURE 4 is an example of microneme showing several cavities 121 in the polymer coating 120. Wall voids seem to be relatively thin, as is evident from the appearance of some translucency in the walls of the two cavities.

For 5-9 magnification of the microscope was 500 and the measuring line had a length of 50 microns. Figure 5 shows several cavities 121 in the polymer layer 120 with the individual measuring lines, showing dimensions of the selected cavities, for example, moving from left to right, measuring 10.5 microns in the vertical direction, 36 μm in the transverse direction, 10.6 microns in the vertical direction, 36.3 μm in the transverse direction. And in this case, the voids seem to be spreading over the surface, equivalent to about half of the surface area coated.

Figure 6 shows another sample with the same measuring rulers; for example, Vegas usually from left to right, (get) measurement 8,66 microns in the vertical direction, 32,1 μm in the transverse direction, 11.8 microns in the vertical direction and 22,7 μm in the transverse direction. Dimensions such as figure 5 and 6, were selected for use in the chart, discussed further FIG.

7 shows voids 121 in the polymer layer 120, including several that reflect generally aligned aspect. Voids seem to be spreading over an area equivalent to almost the entire surface area coated. On FIG shows another sample with similar common cavities 121. There are some parts of the walls of the voids. Figure 9 shows another example in which voids 121 seem to be spreading over the space equivalent to almost the entire surface area.

Other samples of smooth products obtained with the use of starch as a polymer coating, at 20% dry matter, not covered above. These samples were cut transversely to study the morphology of the coating layer. Cross-cutting produced by freezing the sample in liquid nitrogen with subsequent breaking of the sample in half (cracking freezing). Cracked edges of the samples (e.g., cross section) and then examined under a microscope, as shown in FIG. 10 and 12, which contain a measuring line and to determine their scope. The magnification was 1000, and the measuring line had a length of 20 microns. Figure 10 shows the polymer layer 120, which contains a cavity 121 and has a very smooth outer surface. The polymer layer is on a cardboard substrate 110 and marked one of the cellulose fibers 112. The thickness of the substrate is typically extends below the square mikronika.

Figure 11 and 12 shows more microsemi samples that were coated with polymer, but were not covered. And in this case, the apparent smoothness of the polymer layer 120, and the underlying cavities 121. Wall voids often coincide with the surface of the polymer coating.

On FIG (at 200-fold magnification) and FIG (at 500-fold magnification) shows the surface of the samples as they appear under the scanning electron microscope. These samples were not fitted with the top cover 130. Larger filamentous structures 112 are cellulose fibers of the substrate 110. Smaller klickpedale structure 122, which seem fine mesh or sieve, are separate cavities in the polymer layer 120. Polymer layer here seems to be essentially transparent except the walls of the cavities.

On FIG and 16 shows the surface of the samples as they appear under the scanning electron microscope with a reverse dispersion. These sample who were not provided with the upper surface 130. Larger filamentous structures 112 are cellulose fibers of the substrate 110. Smaller klickpedale structure 122, which seem fine mesh or sieve represent the walls of the individual cavities in the polymer layer 120. Polymer layer here seems to be essentially transparent except the walls of the voids. The voids appear to be distributed over the entire surface.

FIG is a graph showing the size distribution of voids on the basis of about 90 measurements of each void in the width (transverse dimension) and height (vertical size on the micrograph). Measurements show the average width of the void (measured in a direction parallel to the thickness of the sample) of about 19 microns with a standard deviation of about 9 microns. Measurements show the average height of the void (measured in the direction of going "inside" the specimen thickness about 10 microns with a standard deviation of about 4 microns.

The specified sizes of the voids seem to be characteristic for the samples studied here. However, they are not limiting, since changes in the materials or process conditions can produce different sizes.

There is a hypothesis that vapor bubbles create these voids in the time when the coating is in contact with the heated drum, and that the bubbles can provide power contributing to the retention of the coating in contact with the drum. The voids usually help to connect the gaps between the sometimes uneven layer of the substrate 110, and the smooth surface of a heated drum. Thus, the dried polymer coating has a smooth reproduced surface that is smoother than the substrate 110. Believe that many or most of the voids remain intact when put the top cover 130. Therefore, the upper floor can end up smoother because of the relatively smooth underlying polymer layer 120. It seems the advantage achieved by the invention. Along with the hypothetical influence of bubbles on help in creating a smooth reproduced the surface of the bubbles can also contribute to a lower density product.

Conditions in the gap between the pressure roller 24 and the hot drum 22 may influence the formation of voids in the polymer coating. Depending on the hardness of the pressure roller and the diameters of the pressure roller and the hot drum may be necessary to adjust the load in the gap (e.g., PLI is the coefficient of power loss on the gap)to achieve in the gap boiling, which creates a void.

Paper or cardboard with a polymer coating that is created in this way can be used in all cases where it is desired smooth substrate or end product. The paper is whether the cardboard with a polymer coating can be used as such (for example, as shown in FIGURE 10-16), or they can be used as a substrate for the application of additional coatings or other treatments (for example, the top cover 130, as shown in figure 2-9, or other coatings). Additional finishing materials or processes can be applied to the paper or cardboard with a polymer coating with or without additional coatings. For example, can be coated with one or more additional coatings, as is usually the case with the primary coating, the top coating and the third coating standard paper or paperboard substrates. May be applied to the processes of calendering, before or after any extra coating. For example, can be coated with one or more additional coatings with subsequent stage gloss calendering.

Methods of making and using materials with a polymer coating in accordance with the invention should be obvious from the mere description of material and process, as presented here. Therefore, further discussion or illustration of these materials or methods is not required.

Although described and illustrated preferred embodiments of the invention, it should be obvious that can be done many modifications of the embodiments and the execution of the invention without the otstuplenija from the essence and scope of the invention. Although the illustrated preferred embodiments of described in connection with a paper or cardboard substrate, the options for implementation may be easily performed in accordance with the invention on other substrates, including, but not limited to, textiles, non-woven products, fibrous materials, the substrates of the polylactic acid and the porous film.

Therefore, it is clear that the invention is not limited to a particular proposed (or apparent from proposed here variants of implementation, but it's limited to the above claims.

1. Paper product used for printing or packaging, including:
the substrate is selected from paper or cardboard; and
the coating on the substrate comprising a water-soluble polymer and a release agent, where the water-soluble polymer includes at least one of the following polymers: starch, starch, waxy corn, protein, polyvinyl alcohol, casein, gelatin, soybean protein and alginates, and
in which the inside of the cover is formed of emptiness.

2. Paper product used for printing or packaging, including:
the substrate is selected from paper or cardboard; and
the coating on the substrate comprising a water-soluble polymer and a release agent, where the water-soluble polymer includes at least one of the following polymers: Ajmal, starch is waxy maize, protein, polyvinyl alcohol, casein, gelatin, soybean protein and alginates, and essentially does not contain an elastomeric material,
in which the coating includes a surface that is smooth in Sheffield is less than approximately 300 units, and
in which the under surface is formed of emptiness.

3. Paper product used for printing or packaging, including:
the substrate is selected from paper or cardboard; and
the coating on the substrate comprising a water-soluble polymer containing at least one of the following polymers: starch, starch, waxy corn, protein, polyvinyl alcohol, casein, gelatin, soybean protein and alginates, and essentially does not contain an elastomeric material, and
in which the inside of the cover is formed of emptiness.

4. The product according to claim 1 or 3, optionally containing an additional coating on the specified floor.

5. The product according to claim 1 or 3, wherein the coating includes a surface, and at least 50% of the surface coating has a subsurface cavities with cross-sectional dimension of at least 5 microns.

6. The product according to claim 1 or 3, wherein the coating includes a surface smoothness in Sheffield in the range selected from the group having a smoothness of less than about 300, less than about 200 units and less than about 150 units.

7. Paper product used for printing or packaging, including:
the substrate is selected from paper or cardboard; and
the coating on the substrate comprising a water-soluble polymer containing at least one of the following polymers: starch, starch, waxy corn, protein, polyvinyl alcohol, casein, gelatin, soybean protein and alginates, and
in which the coating includes a surface that is smooth in Sheffield is less than approximately 300 units, and
which under the surface of the first coating is formed of emptiness.

8. The product according to claim 1 or 7, in which the coating essentially does not contain an elastomeric material.

9. Product according to one of claims 1, 2, 3, or 7, in which the coating further includes a crosslinking agent.

10. Product according to one of claims 1, 2, 3, or 7, in which the coating includes in the calculation of the dry weight of at least 60% of water-soluble polymer and up to 10% of antiadhesive.

11. The product according to claim 2 or 7, in which at least 50% of the surface coating has a subsurface cavities with cross-sectional dimension of at least 5 microns.

12. The product according to claim 2 or 7, in which the surface has a smoothness to Sheffield in the range selected from the group having a smoothness of less than about 200 units and less than about 150 units.

13. The method of processing a substrate for a paper product according to one of claims 1 to 12, comprising the stage of:
coating the substrate film of an aqueous solution of polymer, fixation of an aqueous solution of the polymer by
contacting an aqueous solution of the polymer with the heated surface so as to cause boiling of the aqueous solution of the polymer and the formation of voids that remain in the aqueous polymer solution,
where the stage of fixing includes at least partial drying of the aqueous polymer solution.

14. The method according to item 13, in which the film is in contact with the heated surface for a time interval selected in the range of less than about 3, less than about 2, or less than about 0.5 C.

15. The method according to item 13, in which a film of an aqueous solution of the polymer in contact with the heated surface within less than about 3, and in which the heated surface has a temperature above about 150°C.

16. The method of processing a substrate for a paper product according to one of claims 1 to 12, comprising the stage of:
applying to the substrate a coating of an aqueous solution of the polymer in film form,
in which the coating includes a water-soluble polymer and a release agent, the fixing film by contacting her within less than about 3 with the heated surface with a temperature above about 150°C. so as to cause boiling of the aqueous solution of the polymer and the formation of voids in the film,
where the stage of fixing includes at least partial drying of the film.

17. The method of processing a substrate for a paper product of the efforts of one of claims 1 to 12, incorporating the following stages:
applying to the substrate a coating of an aqueous solution of the polymer in film form,
in which the coating includes a water-soluble polymer and essentially does not contain an elastomeric material;
the fixing film by contacting her within less than about 3 with the heated surface with a temperature above about 150°C. so as to cause boiling of the aqueous solution of the polymer and the formation of voids in the film,
where the stage of fixing includes at least partial drying of the film.

18. The method according to 17, in which the crosslinking agent included in the coating or applied to the floor before contacting the film with the heated surface.

19. The method according to item 16 or 17, in which the coating includes a surface and at least 50% of the surface coating has a subsurface cavities with cross-sectional dimension of at least 5 microns.

20. The method of processing a substrate for a paper product according to one of claims 1 to 12, comprising the stage of:
applying to the substrate a coating of an aqueous solution of the polymer in film form,
the fixing film by contacting her within less than about 3 with the heated surface with a temperature above about 150°C. so as to cause boiling of the aqueous solution of the polymer and the formation of voids in the film, where the stage of fixing includes at least partial drying of the film
in which the coating is cancel the surface,
which after drying has a smoothness in Sheffield is less than approximately 300 units.

21. The method according to claim 20, in which the film is in contact with the heated surface for a time selected within less than about 2, or less than about 0.5;
in which the substrate is a substrate in the form of
cloth or sheet and includes at least one of the following components: cellulose, paper, cardboard, cloth, fibrous material, porous material, a porous film or polylactic acid;
in which an aqueous solution of the polymer includes stitched polymer and essentially does not contain an elastomeric material;
in which a crosslinking agent is included in the floor or put on the floor before contacting the film with a heated surface;
where the crosslinking agent contains at least one of the following: borax, borates, aldehydes, ammonium salts, calcium and their derivatives;
in which the coating includes a dry weight basis, at least 60% of water-soluble polymer and up to 10% of antiadhesive; in which the release agent includes at least one of the following components: wax, petroleum wax, vegetable wax, animal wax, a synthetic wax, a metal soap, fatty acid, metallic stearates, long-chain alkyl derivatives, esters of fatty acids, amides of fatty acids, fatty amines stimulants, fat is acid, the fatty alcohols, polymers, polyolefins, silicone polymers, fluorocarbon polymers, natural polymers, fluorinated compounds, fluorinated fatty acids, and combinations thereof;
in which the coating includes at least one of the following polymers: starch, starch, waxy corn, protein, polyvinyl alcohol, casein, gelatin, soybean protein and alginates; in which at least 50% of the surface coating has a subsurface cavities with cross-sectional dimension of at least 5 microns; in which the surface has a smoothness in Sheffield, selected within less than about 200 units or less than about 150 units;
the method additionally providing stage application of additional coverage, after at least partial drying of the film, in which an additional coating includes at least one of the following components: pigments, binders and fillers.

22. The method of processing a substrate for a paper product according to one of claims 1 and 2, incorporating the following stages:
applying to the substrate a coating of an aqueous solution of the polymer in film form,
in which the coating includes a water-soluble polymer release agent and essentially does not contain an elastomeric material,
the fixing film by contacting her within less than about 3 with the heated surface temperature is above about 150°C. thus, to cause boiling of the aqueous solution of the polymer and the formation of voids in the film,
where the stage of fixing includes at least partial drying of the film in which the coating includes a surface, which after drying has a smoothness in Sheffield is less than approximately 300 units.

23. The method according to item 22, in which the film is in contact with the heated surface for a time selected within less than about 2, or less than about 0.5;
in which the substrate consists of a cloth or sheet, and includes
at least one of the following components: cellulose, paper, cardboard, cloth, fibrous material, porous material, a porous film or polylactic acid;
in which the water-soluble polymer includes stitched polymer;
in which a crosslinking agent is included in the floor or put on the floor before contacting the film with a heated surface;
in which the crosslinking agent contains at least one of the following: borax, borates, aldehydes, ammonium salts, calcium and their derivatives;
in which the coating includes a dry weight basis, at least 60% of water-soluble polymer and up to 10% of antiadhesive, which includes at least one of the following components: wax, petroleum wax, vegetable wax, animal wax, a synthetic wax, a metal soap of fatty acids, stearates is yellow, long-chain alkyl derivatives, esters of fatty acids, amides of fatty acids, fatty amines number, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, polymers, polyolefins, silicone polymers, fluorocarbon polymers, natural polymers, fluorinated compounds, fluorinated fatty acids, and combinations thereof;
in which the coating includes at least one of the following components: starch, starch, waxy corn, protein, polyvinyl alcohol, casein, gelatin, soybean protein and alginates;
in which at least 50% of the surface coating has a subsurface cavities with cross-sectional dimension of at least 5 microns;
in which the surface has a smoothness in Sheffield, selected within less than about 200 units or less than about 150 units;
the method further includes a step of applying an additional coating, after at least partial drying of the film, in which an additional coating includes at least one of the following components: pigments, binders and fillers.

24. The method of processing a substrate for a paper product according to one of claims 1 to 12, comprising the stage of:
providing a cellulosic substrate,
coating the substrate film of the aqueous polymer solution,
where an aqueous solution of the polymer contains at least about 60% of water-soluble polymer in which eschete on dry weight and up to 10% of antiadhesive per dry weight,
fixation of an aqueous solution of polymer contacts (film) within less than about 3 with the heated surface with a temperature above about 150°C. so as to cause boiling of the aqueous solution of the polymer and the formation of voids in an aqueous polymer solution,
where fixing includes at least partial drying of the aqueous polymer solution.

25. The method according to item 16 or 17, further comprising the stage of applying additional coating after at least partial drying of the film.

26. Paper product used for printing and packing, including:
the substrate is selected from paper or cardboard; and
the coating on the substrate comprising a water-soluble polymer that includes at least one of the following polymers: starch, starch, waxy corn, protein, polyvinyl alcohol, casein, gelatin, soybean protein and alginates, and
in which the coating includes a surface that is smooth in Sheffield is less than approximately 300 units in which the inside cover
formed voids,
in which the under surface is formed voids,
in which at least 50% of the surface of the first coating has a subsurface cavities with cross-sectional dimension of at least 5 microns.

27. Paper product used for printing and packing, including:
the substrate is selected from the boom and or paperboard; and
the coating on the substrate comprising a water-soluble polymer that includes at least one of the following polymers: starch, starch, waxy corn, protein, polyvinyl alcohol, casein, gelatin, soybean protein and alginates, and
in which the coating includes a surface,
in which the under surface is formed voids,
in which at least 50% of the surface coating has a subsurface cavities with cross-sectional dimension of at least 5 microns.



 

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7 cl, 4 dwg, 8 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: paper industry.

SUBSTANCE: paper with improved rigidity and bulk and method of its manufacturing may be used in pulp and paper industry and are intended for photocopier equipment. Paper comprises three-layer double-tee structure that forms a single web. It has central core layer manufactured mainly from cellulose, bulk of which is increased with the help of filler, such as hydrazine salt. Starch-based coating is applied on both sides of core layer, at the same time starch has high content of solid products. Coating forms three-layer paper having composite structure with outer layers of high strength that surround core of low density.

EFFECT: improved strength, rigidity and resistance to twisting of produced material.

32 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: textiles, paper.

SUBSTANCE: paper or cardboard of improved rigidity and bulk are meant for reproducing equipment and the method refers to production of the said paper and cardboard. The paper or cardboard has the core layer and starch-based layers applied by gluing-up on its both sides forming the uniform canvas of the double-T structure. The layers cover the upper and the lower surface of the central layer with minimal penetration to the central layer. The starch contains the filler spreading to the central layer. The starch has high content of solid products. The mass of the coating layers is 2-10 g/m2. Method for producing paper or cardboard includes the following stages: a) creation of composition containing cellulose fibers and the filler, b) formation of fibrous canvas, c) drying of the fibrous canvas, d) processing by gluing-up both sides of the dried canvas with the starch with filler and e) drying of the fibrous canvas with formation of the three-layer making the uniform canvas material with the double-T structure.

EFFECT: increased quality of paper or cardboard due to increased smoothness, decreased hygroscopic expansivity, improved fold resistance and paper rolling resistance.

30 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: textiles; paper.

SUBSTANCE: composition is designed for refining fibrous material, can be used in the production of enamelled cardboard and paper and relates to the cellulose-paper industry. The composition contains a modified pigment and a water soluble binding substance. The pigment is calcium sulfoaluminate, modified starch or polyvinyl alcohol with mass ratio content of 0.5-1.5. The water soluble binding substance is starch.

EFFECT: resistance to fluffing and whiteness of the coating with considerable lowering of consumption of the binding substance when making the composition.

1 tbl

FIELD: textiles, paper.

SUBSTANCE: solution is meant for rifining of fibrous material. It pertains to the field of paper manufacturing and cardboard during manufacturing of chalk-overlay types of cardboard and paper. The solution consists of water soluble binder. A mixture of calcium salfoaluminate and kaolin, modified starch or polyvinyl spirit is used as the pigment. The technical result is high stability to picking, whiteness, colour perception and smoothness. The solution enhances adhesion of the coating to the base (cardboard or paper), which makes it possible to use the refined coating as a sub-layer when dual or tri-coating cardboard or paper, with obtaining products with a given range of characteristics.

EFFECT: obtaining of a solution for refining material for production of paper and cardboard during production of chalk-overlay types of cardboard and paper.

1 tbl, 1 exr

FIELD: pulp and paper industry; methods of production of the pigment for manufacture of the cardboard and paper.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of the pigment for manufacture of the cardboard and paper and may be used in pulp and paper industry at production of the filled paper, the coated paper and the cardboard. Calcium carbonate is treated with aluminum sulfate in the aqueous medium. The treatment is conducted at aluminum sulfate consumption of 25-105 % to the mass of absolutely dry calcium carbonate at the temperature of 80-85°С during 90-180 minutes with production of the suspension containing 25-35 % dry substances in it. At that they use the aqueous medium containing the binding chosen from the group, which includes starch and polyvinyl alcohol in the amount of 0.5-3.0 mass % from the mass of the absolutely dry pigment, and-or the water soluble colorant in the amount of 0.1-0.5 mass % from the mass of the absolutely dry pigment. The suspension is additionally dried and grinded. The technical result of the invention is the improved quality of the pigment as well as expansion of its field of application.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the improved quality of the pigment as well as expansion of its field of application.

2 tbl

FIELD: pulp and paper industry; methods of production of the pigment for manufacture of the cardboard and paper.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of the pigment for manufacture of the cardboard and paper and may be used in pulp and paper industry at production of the filled paper, the coated paper and the cardboard. In the water at intense stirring feed powders of calcium hydrate and calcium carbonate at the ratio of the indicated components accordingly from 1.0:2.2 up to 1.0:12.9. The produced suspension is gradually added with aluminum sulfate at its ratio to the total mass of the calcium hydroxide and calcium carbonate from 1.0:0.85 up to 1.0:4.30. Then the temperature of the mixture is increased up to 8О-85°С and the produced reaction mixture is kept at stirring within 90-180 minutes with formation of the dispersion of the pigment with the share of the dry substances in it equal to 20-35 %. Then the dispersion is dried and grinded into the powder. The powder is dispersed in the water containing the given amount of the dissolved coolant and-or binding - starch or polyvinyl alcohol. The technical result of the invention production of the pigment with the new properties, that allow to expand the field of its application at manufacture of various types of the cardboard and the paper.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the pigment with the new properties, expansion of the field of its application at manufacture of various types of the cardboard and the paper.

2 tbl

FIELD: manufacture of a tub-sized paper or board sheet, applicable in wood-pulp and paper industry.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in application at least on one side of the sheet of an aqueous compound of adhesive substance in amounts not exceeding 5 g/cu.m. The content of the solid substance in the applied adhesive compound makes up at least 15%. The aqueous compound is applied on one side of the sheet after its drying in a drying section of the machine for manufacture of paper or board. After that the adhesive compound is embedded in the sheet surface.

EFFECT: reduced power of the drying section of the machine for manufacture of paper or board and provided reduction of investments and reduction of the length of the paper-making line.

9 cl

FIELD: paper-and-pulp industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pigment, which can be used in manufacture of paper with filler, coated paper, and cardboard. Calcium hydroxide and calcium carbonate powders taken in proportion between 1.0:2.2 and 1.0:23.5 are added to vigorously stirred water, after which temperature of mixture is raised to 80-85°C and resulting reaction mixture is kept being stirred for 90-180 min to form dispersion of pigment containing 20-35% solids.

EFFECT: improved quality of pigment at lower cost and extended application area.

3 tbl

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: paper base is designed to form a decorative material of a coating. It represents a non-processed paper containing a white pigment and/or fillers and is coated with a covering solution, containing at least one water-soluble modified starch with special distribution of molecules according to molecular weight. Also a decorative paper or decorative material is proposed to form coatings with application of the above-specified paper-base.

EFFECT: improved quality of a finished product due to increased inner strength of fixation with high non-transparency and other mechanical properties, improved stability of paper size stability and increased average size of its pores.

7 cl, 2 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: wallpapers have a base and a face and a reverse sides. A coating that contains an antibacterial agent is applied onto the face side of the base. The coating antibacterial agent is represented by silver nanoparticles. The coating is produced by mixing of a varnish and a carbon porous carrier with silver nanoparticles in specified amount. Silver nanoparticles size is 2-50 nm. The carbon porous carrier has specific density of 0.03-0.1 g/cm3, specific surface of 50-200 m2/g and pore size of 5-50 nm. The varnish is a water-based acrylic varnish or an alkyd varnish. The wallpaper base is made of paper or cloth. The face surface of wallpapers is made of paper, cloth, fabric fibres or polyvinyl chloride. The carbon porous carrier with silver nanoparticles is in powder form. Glue is applied onto the reserves side of wallpapers.

EFFECT: higher quality of wallpapers and simplified technology of their manufacturing.

14 cl

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: method includes formation of composition, containing water, raw starch and powder optical refining agent. Boiling of composition. Application of finished composition, at least on one surface of paper or cardboard base in coating press. Then base is dried. In another version of method composition is boiled at the temperature up to 299°F inclusive.

EFFECT: improved brightness of paper and cardboard.

7 cl, 4 dwg, 8 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: fabrics, paper.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to glossy chalk overlay universal paper for printing, which may be used in wide range of office equipment for printing, including jet and electrophotographic printing, to method of chalk overlay paper making. Chalk overlay paper contains paper web and pigment composition applied onto at least one surface of web. Specified composition of pigment coat comprises the first pigment with specific surface BET in the range from approximately 50 to 750 m2/g; the second pigment with specific surface BET in the range of approximately from 5 to 49 m2/g; and polymer binder. Besides specified chalk overlay paper has glossiness of coat equal to or more than approximately 30% at the angle of 75° and length of absorption Bristow less than approximately 180 mm.

EFFECT: paper has superb properties of ink absorption, toner fixation and provides for obtaining the imprint of high quality.

10 cl, 3 dwg, 15 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: textile fabrics, paper.

SUBSTANCE: method is related to production of coated paper or cardboard. Method includes application of pigment composition as coating on at least one side of paper or cardboard web. Specified pigment composition is water dispersion, which includes optionally aggregated colloidal particles of silicon dioxide or aluminium silicate as pigment particles, which are prepared from alkali metal silicate by ion exchange or pH reduction and having surface area of approximately from 30 m2/g to approximately 450 m2/g. Coating contains also at least one cationic component selected from group that consists of water-soluble aluminium salts and cationic polymers with molecular weight from approximately 2,000 to approximately 1,000,000 and charge density from approximately 0.2 mEq/g to approximately 12 mEq/g, in which at least approximately 0.4 g of pigment particles from pigment composition is applied on m2 of coated side of paper or cardboard web. Invention is also related to paper or cardboard produced by this method. It is also related to composition of above mentioned pigment in the form of water dispersion, which includes less than approximately 3 wt % of organic binders and to method of above mentioned pigment composition production, in which mixing is done to produce water dispersion in order to avoid gel formation and deposition.

EFFECT: improvement of printing and strength properties of coating, and also lower scuffing of paper.

26 cl, 5 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: textiles, paper.

SUBSTANCE: wear proof particles are treated with adhesion promoter based on silane or sylon and then deposited on paper, impregnated with resin, thereby obtaining coating. Fibre is electrically charged and put onto the coating. Drying is then carried out. The device for implementing the given method has a equipment for depositing wear proof particles on paper, equipment for charging fibre and putting the charged fibre onto the paper. The latter consists of a roller with depressions, made with provision for rotating, and a brush mounted near the roller for cleaning the depressions. The device also has apparatus for electrically charging the roller and/or the brush and the roller, which is made with provision for rotation and passing paper sheets under the roller with depressions. Paper, made using this technique, has a wear proof coating and electrically charged fibres on the wear proof coating. The charged fibres used can be made from polyester and/or cotton, and/or cotton linter.

EFFECT: obtaining wear proof paper with improved properties.

14 cl, 3 dwg

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