Detection method of misprints on printing base in process of its treatment in printing machine

FIELD: printing industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of quality control of printing base. An expert system for detecting misprints on printing basis in the process of treatment of printing base in printing machine contains a number of sensors connected with functional components of the printing machine, to observe the behavior of the printing machine during processing the printing base, and a processing system connected with these sensors to perform current analysis of the printing machine behaviour, at that the said processing system is adapted to implement the claimed method.

EFFECT: invention enables to improve quality control of printing bases undergoing treatment in printing machines due to taking into account factors other than the criterion of optical quality.

24 cl, 13 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention generally relates to quality control of printing basics undergoing processing in the printing machine. In particular, the present invention relates to current control of printing basics, such as printed sheets or rolls, i.e. ways to detect print defects on print substrates in the process of undergoing processing in the printing machine. The present invention is particularly directed to the detection of printing defects on print substrates in the manufacture of security documents, especially banknotes.

The level of technology

In the process of manufacturing printed products are usually taken measures to ensure a certain level of print quality. This is especially justified in the field of printing secure documents, where the quality standards that must be met for the final products, i.e. banknotes, protected documents, etc. is very high. The quality control of printed products traditionally limited to optical inspection of printed products. Such optical control can be performed as an independent process, i.e. after the printed product has been produced on a printing press, or more frequently as the current process, i.e. on the printing machine where you execute the printing operation.

The optical system control, which is, in principle, adapted for full control of printed products already available on the market. These control systems typically operate in the RGB color space, based on what is now called classical control methods based on boundary values. Such methods of control are disclosed, for example, in patents US 5,384,859 and US 5,317,390. In these documents disclosed the so-called methods of control of the difference image pixels or the monitoring of limit values, i.e. the control methods based on the analysis of differences in the density of pixels between the test images printed products and reference images. Boundary parameters are normally set on the basis of a comparison of several reference images, which are determined by the mean values or standard deviations in separate areas of the image and linked to the respective limits or tolerances. These values and tolerances are then compared with the values of the real image, measured on the test images of the monitored material.

The above methods of control of boundary values have a number of disadvantages, as described in detail below. These control methods can be adapted to control the protected documents, but under certain conditions. The control methods based on the boundary values directly applicable to con the control of protected documents as protected documents are printed using a special printing processes (such as, for example, gravure printing)that are not normally used in commercial printing. Traditional methods of control based on the boundary values must be appropriately adapted to the specific details print secure documents.

According to the modern level of technology, commonly used technologies image processing based on the boundary values (as described in the aforementioned documents US 5,384,859 and US 5,317,390) due to high performance. However, these methods have the disadvantage associated with the fact that large, but, nevertheless, permitted deviations in the manufacturing process can lead to the discovery of alleged defects in areas controlled images, where there is a sharp change in contrast. In order to prevent the occurrence of such alleged defects specified region, characterized by a sharp change in contrast, usually do not contribute to the detection of defects (i.e. by assigning large tolerances these areas), so that the control can be stabilized. Thus, the detection of defects in areas with sharp changes of contrast becomes almost impossible.

In the art known to other optical controllaw European patents EP 0730959 and EP 0985531, for example, the disclosed methods of control, based on the "flexible" models, to account for possible deformation of the printing basics. Perceptual control methods, in the elemental form simulating perception (perception) of human vision, is known from international application WO 2004/017034 and of German application DE 10208285. Statistical methods based on a statistical analysis of image structures, also known in the art, but they have not demonstrated sufficiently satisfactory efficiency.

The above optical control by definition is limited to the control of the optical quality of printed products, for example, whether applied too much or too little ink on the printed material, whether allowable density of the applied paint is the correct spatial distribution of the applied paint, etc.

Although these systems can detect such printing defects efficiently, the known control system, however, unable to carry out early detection of gradually accumulated print defects. Such printing defects not occur abruptly, but rather gradually and increasingly.

These print defects are generally caused by gradual deterioration or deflection characteristics of the printing machine. Because of the protected areas in the economic control of the inevitable order to determine the tolerance in the control print defects will be detected only after a certain period of time, when the tolerances of the optical system of control will be exceeded.

Experienced operators printing machine can determine the deterioration or variation in the characteristics of the printing machine, which can cause print defects, based on, for example, by a characteristic noise produced by a printing machine. This ability, however, to a large extent depends on actual experience, knowledge of case and care of the technical staff operating the printing machine. Moreover, the ability to detect such changes in the characteristics of the printing machine, in fact, depends on personnel changes, such as reorganization of staff, dismissal or retirement of key personnel, etc. moreover, because these technical skills depends on the person, there is a great risk that this knowledge will eventually be lost, and the only available solution is to ensure the conservation in one form or another relevant technical knowledge and appropriate training of technical personnel.

Disclosure of inventions

Thus, there is a need for an improved control system is not limited only by the optical control of the final printed product, and methods for the Noah to take into account other factors, in addition to the criterion of optical quality.

Thus, the General purpose of the present invention is to improve the known control technologies and the presentation of the principles of control, which can provide a comprehensive quality control of the printing basics undergoing processing in printing machines, in particular in printing machines for processing bases used in the production of banknotes, security documents, etc.

In addition, the present invention is to provide a method which is suitable for implementation as an expert system designed to facilitate the operation of the printing machine. In this context, it is particularly desirable to provide a set of methods that can be implemented in an expert system implemented with the ability to predict the occurrence of print defects and/or provide explanations of likely causes print defects, if any.

These goals are achieved by methods and expert systems, described in the accompanying claims. Also said printing machine, equipped with an expert system.

Accordingly, a method for detecting printing defects on print substrates in the process of printing in the printing machine, comprising the following steps: provision of a range of sensors for f the purpose ground receiving stations components of the printing machine to monitor the behavior of the printing machine processing printing basics and implementation of the current analysis of the behaviour of the printing machine to determine the occurrence of the characteristic behavior of the printing machine, which leads, or is likely to cause print defects on print substrates, either leading or likely to lead to a good quality print on print substrates.

In the present invention, the expert system mainly contains a number of sensors associated with the functional components of the printing machine, to monitor the behavior of printing machines during print processing, and a processing system associated with these sensors, to perform the current analysis of the behaviour of the printing machine, and a processing system configured to implement the above method.

Preferably, the above method involves combining the current analysis of the behaviour of the printing machine with the current optical inspection of printed basics. Current optical control includes (i) optical images of the printing basics processed in the printing machine, and (ii) processing the received image printing basics in order to detect possible defects print on print substrates.

According to one of embodiments, the current analysis of the behaviour of the printing machine is connected with the current optical inspection of printed basics to give p is nee warning about the probable occurrence of print defects when determining improper or abnormal behaviour of the printing machine, while on the resulting images are still determined by the absence of print defects. In other words, the observed behavior of the printing machine while printing basics optically monitored to check the print quality to them, and, in the case determination is incorrect or abnormal behavior, provides an early indication of likely future occurrence of print defects. Thanks to this implementation, an early warning of the possible occurrence of print defects gives the operator of the printing machine the ability to make the appropriate changes in the printing machine so as to prevent print defects or to limit as much as possible, the interval of time between the actual occurrence of print defects and fixes in the printing machine.

According to another variant implementation, the current analysis of the behaviour of the printing machine is connected with the current optical inspection of printed basics to give an indication of the probable cause of the occurrence of print defects. In other words, in case of detection of defects in the printing system of the optical control can be given one or more explanations of possible causes print defects on the basis of the analysis of the behavior of the printing machine processing printing basics.

Behavior analysis printed Masha is s preferably is carried out by simulating the characteristic behaviors of the printing machine with the use of appropriately located sensors for registering the operational parameters of the function components of the printing machine, used as characteristic parameters of these characteristic behaviors. These typical behaviours include:

- improper or abnormal behaviour of the printing machine, leading or likely to lead to print defects; and/or

- defined behavior (or normal behavior) of the printing machine, leading or likely to lead to a good quality print.

Next, the characteristic behavior of the printing machine can be modeled with the aim of reducing the number of false defects or alleged defects, i.e. defects that are detected by the optical inspection system is false, as stated above, and to optimize the so-called alpha and beta errors. Under alpha error refers to the possibility of finding a bad sheets in the stack of good sheets, whereas beta-error refers to the possibility of finding a good sheet bundle in a bad sheets. According to the invention, using the system from a number of sensors (i.e. recording system with multiple measurement channels) can effectively reduce the number of specified alpha and beta errors.

In this case, determining whether the registered operating parameters of the functional components of the printing machine on the wrong or abnormal behaviour of the printing machine, the production is carried out by monitoring operating parameters of the functional components of the printing machine when the print processing in the printing machine, and definitions indicate whether the monitored operational parameters on any of the simulated characteristic behaviors of the printing machine.

Modeling of irregular or abnormal behaviour of the printing machine preferably includes:

- define several classes of printing defects that may occur in the printing machine;

the definition for each class print defects operational parameters characterizing irregular or abnormal behaviour of the printing machine, which leads, or is likely to cause print defects; and

- a job for each class print defects associated model is wrong or abnormal behaviour of the printing machine, on the basis of operating parameters for which it is determined that they are characterized by irregular or abnormal behavior.

In this latter case, the determination of whether the registered operating parameters of the functional components of the printing machine on the wrong or abnormal behaviour of the printing machine, is by definition, demonstrate whether the observed operating parameters according to any one of the specified models of improper or abnormal behaviour of the printing machine.

For the implementation of behavior analysis machine predpochtitel what about the use of fuzzy pattern classification. In other words, the set of fuzzy logic rules are used to characterize the behaviors of the printing machine and to model various classes of printing defects, usually appearing in the printing machine. Once these fuzzy logic rules are set, they can be used to monitor the behavior of the printing machine and to determine compliance with any behavior of the printing machine, which is leading or likely to lead to the occurrence of print defects.

Preferred embodiments of the invention are characterized in the dependent claims.

Brief description of drawings

Other characteristics and advantages of the present invention will become clearer after studying the subsequent detailed description of implementations of the invention, provided as non-limiting examples and illustrated in the accompanying drawings.

Figure 1 is a side view of the printing machine gravure printing when viewed from the leading side.

Figure 2 is an enlarged side view of the printing device gravure printing, depicted in figure 1.

Figure 3 is a system diagram of the fuzzy classification of the samples to run the current analysis of the behaviour of the printing machine.

Figure 4 is an illustrative image printing is on the sheet, captured by the camera during processing in the printing machine gravure printing, depicted in figure 1, and it is considered that the sheet satisfies the optical quality criterion (i.e. a good list).

Figa is a second illustrative image of a printed sheet captured by the camera during processing in the printing machine gravure printing, depicted in figure 1, and this sheet contains the print defects caused by inadequate pressure cleaning.

FIGU is a third illustrative image of a printed sheet captured by the camera during processing in the printing machine gravure printing, depicted in figure 1, and this sheet contains the print defects caused by the wet surface of the cleaning cylinder.

Figs is a fourth illustrative image of a printed sheet captured by the camera during processing in the printing machine gravure printing, depicted in figure 1, and this sheet contains the print defects caused by contaminated surface cleaning cylinder.

Figa and 5B represent two pictures of each side of the printing device of the printing machine gravure printing, shown in figures 1 and 2, showing the bearings of the cleaning cylinder and a sensor system for determining the noise/vibration generated by the printing machine, and the sensor system R is Solorina on each bearing cleaning cylinder.

6 is an example image of the so-called cepstra obtained by processing the signals measured on the same bearing cleaning cylinder.

Fig.7 is a diagram schematically showing how Castr depicted in Fig.6, can be further processed to identify a processed signal corresponding to the change with time of the amplitude of the selected values cepstra, it is the value of Castr on sheet" and values "Castr on turnover", as shown in Fig.6.

The implementation of the invention

The invention will be described in the context of a specific case for a sheet printing machine gravure printing. It should be understood that the invention characterized in the claims, is equally applicable to other types of printing machines, in particular to printing machines offset printing. Also it should be understood that, although described herein printing machine is designed to handle the basics in the form of successive sheets, the invention is also applicable to roll printing machines, where the basis on which a print is produced, form a continuous roll.

Figure 1 shows a sheet-fed printing machine in the printing machine 1 gravure printing, which includes, as is usual in the art, the device 2 sheet feeder is used to feed sheets, which will be pressed into Itsa print, printer 3 for printing sheets, in this case by means of gravure printing, and the receiving device 4 sheets for collecting shoutfactory leaves. Printing device 3 is designed for gravure and usually involves printing cylinder 7, the plate cylinder 8, bearing plate plate gravure printing (in this example, the plate cylinder 8 is a three-segment cylinder, bearing three of the plates 8A, 8b and 8C gravure - 2), the inking unit 9 for applying paint to the surface of the forming plates 8A, 8b and 8C gravure printing, located on the plate cylinder 8, and a cleaning device 10 for cleansing painted surface forming plates 8A, 8b and 8C gravure printing, located on the plate cylinder 8, before printing sheets. Similar examples of printing machinery gravure printing are disclosed, for example, in EP 0091709, EP 0406157 and in EP 0873866.

The sheets fed from the feeder 2 to the invoice table, and then onto the printing cylinder 7. Next, the sheets are transported through the printing cylinder 7 in the printed area of contact formed by the contact of the printing cylinder 7 and the plate cylinder 8, which is gravure printing. Printed sheets are moved from the printing cylinder 7 11 transporting sheets for delivery to the receiving device 4. The transportation system 11 sheets traditionally included the t of the endless conveyor with a pair of endless chains, leading the multitude of spaced rods with clamps to hold the front edges of sheets (shoutfactory side of the sheet is oriented downward in the process they are presented to the receiving device 4), the leaves while sequentially transferred from the printing cylinder 7 to the corresponding rod with hooks.

During their transport to the receiving device 4 shoutfactory sheets preferably are checked by the system 5 optical control. In the above example, the system 5 optical control preferably is in the way the transportation system 11 sheets, immediately after printing device 3. This system 5 optical control is already known in the art and needs no detailed description. Examples of optical inspection systems, adapted for use as system 5 optical control in the printing machine gravure printing, depicted in figure 1, are described, for example, in international applications WO 97/37329 and WO 03/070465. Other examples of optical inspection systems suitable for performing optical inspection of printed sheets can also be found in EP 0527453, EP 0543281, WO 97/48556, WO 99/41082, WO 02/102595, EP 0820864, EP 0820865, EP 1142712, EP 1167034, EP 1190855, EP 1231057 and EP 1323529.

System 5 optical inspection is performed with optical inspection of printed sheets and defect detection of the print is. As mentioned in the introductory part, the optical control may, for example, be performed according to the principles disclosed in the patents US 5,317,390 and US 5,384859 (see also EP 0527285 and EP 0540833), or according to any other suitable means of optical control.

Prior to delivery of the printed sheets, preferably, move in front-drying unit 6, located behind the system 5 control 5 along the path of transportation of the transportation system 11 sheets. Drying may be performed before the optical control sheet.

Depending on the optical control good leaves, i.e. leaves, which are considered to be acceptable from the point of view of the print quality after controlling delivery of one or two feet on the receiving device (one stop is filled, while another may be exempted from previously delivered sheets). The bad leaves, i.e. leaves that are not considered acceptable from the point of view of the print quality after control, delivered at the third stop in the receiving device.

Figure 2 is a schematic representation of the printing device 3 of the printing machine 1 gravure printing, depicted in figure 1. As already mentioned, the printing device 3 mainly contains printing cylinder 7, the plate cylinder 8 with plate plates 8A, 8b and 8C gravure printing, the inking unit 9 and the printing device 0.

The inking unit 9 includes, in this example, four colorful devices, three of which interact with the General collecting paint cylinder or cylinder 9.5 Orlov printing (here, the two-piece cylinder)in contact with the plate cylinder 8. Fourth inking device is located so that direct contact with the surface of the plate cylinder 8. It should be understood that shows the inking unit 9 is adapted accordingly for both indirect and direct application of ink on the plate cylinder 8. Each colorful device that communicates with the collecting paint cylinder 9.5, includes colorful box 9.10, 9.20 and 9.30 interacting in this example, with a pair of inking rollers 9.11, 9.21 and 9.31, respectively. Each pair of inking rollers 9.11, 9.21 and 9.31, in turn, colors corresponding placeholder cylinder 9.13, 9.23, 9.33 (also called selective colorful cylinder), respectively, in contact with the collecting paint cylinder 9.5. With regard to the fourth colorful device, it includes a colorful box 9.40, more colorful cushion 9.44, a pair of inking rollers 9.41 and formulaic cylinder 9.43, and this placeholder cylinder is in contact with the plate cylinder 8. Additional colorful cushion 9.44 in this latter case is necessary because chetvert the colorful device 9.4 is used for the direct dyeing the surface of the plate cylinder 8, rotating in the direction opposite to the rotation of the collecting paint cylinder 9.5. As usual in the art, the surface of the template cylinders 9.13, 9.23, 9.33 and 9.43 made so as to have protruding portions that correspond to the regions forming plates 8A, 8b and 8C gravure printing, intended for the production of inks of the respective colors are supplied to the respective colorful devices.

The doctor device 10, on the other hand, preferably contains cleaning capacity 10.1 (moved toward the plate cylinder 8 and from it), cleaning the cylinder 10.2 located in the cleaning tank and in contact with the plate cylinder 8, at least the first knife (or dry knife) 10.3 in contact with the surface of the cleaning cylinder 10.2 to remove residues were removed paint from the surface of the cleaning cylinder 10.2, tools 10.4 cleaning for applying the cleaning solution to the surface of the cleaning cylinder 10.2, and the knife 10.5 drying in contact with the surface of the cleaning cylinder 10.2 to remove residual cleaning solution from the surface of the cleaning cylinder 10.2. Funds 10.4 cleaning usually include a group of spray guns and cleaning brushes for raspryskivanii the cleaning solution on the surface of the cleaning cylinder 10.2 and to cleanse cleansing cylinder 10.2.

The first knife is whether the dry knife 10.3 typically removes approximately 80% of the paint residue from the surface of the cleaning cylinder 10.2, while funds 10.4 cleaning remove the remaining paint residue using spray the cleaning solution and cleaning brush. Knife 10.5 drying, on the other hand, is designed for surface drainage cleansing cylinder 10.2 and to remove residual cleaning solution from its surface to prevent contamination of the surface of the plate cylinder such remnants of the cleaning solution.

The doctor device including spray guns and cleaning brushes, as indicated previously, are described in more detail, for example, in documents US 4,236,450, EP 0622191 and WO 03/093011. Can be provided for other types of printing devices such as printing devices, immersion type, as described in CH 415694, US 3,468,248 and US 3,656,431, where the cleaning cylinder partially immersed in the cleaning solution.

As already mentioned, according to the current prior art, the print quality of the printed sheets is normally controlled exclusively by means of an appropriate optical system control made with the possibility of the optical receiving images of printed sheets and determine, based on the processing of these images, print defects on the printed sheets. As discussed here in the introductory part, the optical inspection of the printed end product inherently has different problems, about which bennoti, it is not possible to provide an early warning of the occurrence of print defects, and does not explain the probable causes of these print defects.

According to the present invention, the disadvantages inherent optical control can be overcome by running a current analysis of the behavior of the printing machine during processing of the printed sheets. With this purpose printing machine, which will be monitored is supplied by a number of sensors placed on the functional components of the printing machine. As these sensors are designed to monitor the behavior of the printing machine processing printing basics, sensors must be selected accordingly and placed on the appropriate functional components of the printing machine. The actual choice of sensors and their location on the printing machine will depend on the configuration of the printing machine whose behavior you want to see. They will not be the same, for example, for a printing machine, gravure printing and for printing machines, offset printing, because the behavior of these machines are not identical.

Strictly speaking, there is no need to provide sensors each functional component of the printing machine. Preferably, the sensors should be selected and located so as to record operational parameters of the selected fu is clonally components of the printing machine, which provide reasonably accurate and representative description of the different behaviors of the printing machine.

Preferably, the sensors should be selected and located so as to register and to control operating parameters that are not correlated with each other as much as possible. In fact, the less correlated the operational parameters, the more accurate the determination of the behavior of the printing machine. For example, the control of the respective rotation speeds of the two cylinders, driven by common drive, will not, as such, is very useful, because the two parameters are directly related to each other. On the contrary, the observation of the current consumed by the electric motor used as a means of the drive of the printing machine, and the contact pressure between the two cylinders of the printing machine will provide the best description of the behavior of the printing machine.

In addition, the selection and arrangement of the sensors must be made based on the actual set of behavior patterns that you want to observe classes and print defects that you want to detect. As a General rule it should be understood that the sensors can be installed in the printing machine to measure any combination of the following operational parameters:

- performance printing machine, a the speed with which the printing machine handles the printing base;

the speed of rotation of the cylinder or roller of the printing machine;

the current consumed by the electric motor, causing the cylinders of the printing device of the printing machine;

- the temperature of the cylinder or roller of the printing machine;

the pressure between the two cylinders or rollers of the printing machine;

- voltage in the bearings of the cylinder or roller of the printing machine;

the flow rate of the paint or fluid medium in the printing machine; and/or

the location or presence processed in the printing machine (this information is especially useful if printing machine contains multiple forming plates and/or blankets, because the behavior when printing is changing from one plate of the plate or blanket to another).

Depending on the specific configuration of the printing machine, it may be useful to monitor other operating parameters. For example, in the case of the printing machine gravure printing, monitoring key components of the printing device is particularly useful for obtaining the characteristic behaviours of the printing machine, as many problems printing presses Rotogravure printing due to improper or abnormal behaviour of the printing device.

In the case of the printing machine 1 gravure printing, shown n the figure 1, as a rule, consider the following operational parameters:

- performance printing machine 1 gravure - it should be understood that the behavior of the printing machine gravure printing (and other types of printing machines), depends on the speed with which it handles printed sheets or rolls);

the current consumed by the electric motor used as a means of the drive of the printing device 3 of the printing machine 1 gravure printing - again, depending on the behavior of the printing machine, the current consumed by the electric motor, causing the cylinders of the printing device 3 is changed in a characteristic way;

- the speed of rotation of the printing cylinder 7, the plate cylinder 8 and/or cylinder or roller inking unit 9 or printing device 10 (for example, inking rollers 9.11, 9.12, 9.21, 9.22, 9.31, 9.32, 9.41, 9.42, master cylinder 9.13, 9.23, 9.33, 9.43 collecting the paint cylinder 9.5 and/or purifying cylinder 10.2) - the speed might not be as significant as other operating parameters of the printing machine, but, nevertheless, can provide useful visual information about the behavior of the printing machine;

the temperature of the printing cylinder 7, the plate cylinder 8 and/or cylinder or roller inking unit 9 or printing device 10 (for example, inking rollers 9.11, 9.12, 9.21, 9.22, 9.31, 9.32, 941, 9.42, master cylinder 9.13, 9.23, 9.33, 9.43 collecting cylinder 9.5 and/or purifying cylinder 10.2) temperature is also useful operational parameter to describe the behavior of the machine; this is especially true in cases of printing machinery gravure printing, where the plate cylinder 8 is usually temperature-controlled in order to maintain its temperature at a nearly constant level (typically around 80°C); temperature too low the plate cylinder 8 can, for example, may cause problems in otmerivanija paint, because the paint starts to dry;

- pressure seal between the plate cylinder 8 and the printing cylinder 7 - pressure printing is particularly representative in gravure printing, contact pressure usually reaches values of the order of 10000 N/cm2,

- pressure cleaning between the plate cylinder 8 and the cleaning device 10 is inadequate pressure cleaning or pressure fluctuations cleaning in the printing machine gravure printing can be the cause of various printing defects; thus, pressure cleaning is a particularly useful option when using printing machinery gravure printing;

- contact pressure between the plate cylinder 8 and colorful device 9 (such as the contact pressure between the collecting paint cylinder 9.5 and the plate cylinder 8, or between the template Qili the drôme 9.43 direct contact and the plate cylinder 8) - just as in the case of pressure and printing pressure cleaning, inadequate contact pressure (or its variations) between the plate cylinder and colourful apparatus of the printing machine gravure printing can be a source of problems with paint and, therefore, print defects;

operating parameters of the printing device 10 is in addition to the pressure cleaning mentioned above, other operating parameters of the printing device wipe (listed below) can be useful when modeling the behavior of the printing machine, especially when it comes to violations of cleaning; and/or

operating parameters are colorful device 9 again, in addition to the contact pressure between colourful apparatus 9 and the plate cylinder 8, the operational parameters associated with the ink in the inking unit 9 (such as the number of colors in colorful boxes, the amount of ink transferred on different colorful rollers, physico-chemical properties of the ink, for example, temperature, viscosity, etc), can cause print defects.

In particular, inappropriate or abnormal behaviors of the machine, caused by irregularities in the operation of the printing device of the printing machine gravure printing, the following operating parameters can be considered as characteristic parameters providerupdate machine:

- pressure cleaning between cleaning cylinder 10.2 and the plate cylinder 8;

the flow of the cleaning solution in the cleaning device 10;

- physico-chemical properties of the cleaning solution (such as the temperature of the cleaning solution, the chemical composition of the cleaning solution, etc.);

- knife pressure between dry knife 10.3 and purifying cylinder 10.2, or between the knife 10.5 drying and purifying cylinder 10.2;

position dry knife 10.3 or knife (10.5) drying relative to the cleaning cylinder 10.2; and/or

- voltage in bearings cleansing cylinder 10.2.

The above lists of operational parameters, of course, should be regarded as incomplete lists.

The inventors have found that, based on suitable combinations of the above operating parameters, it is possible to simulate the behavior of the printing machine and to determine, does the observed behavior of the printing machine in the wrong direction or abnormal behavior, leading or likely to lead to the occurrence of print defects. Accordingly, by executing the current analysis of the behaviour of the printing machine in the printing process and/or processing basics it is possible to determine the occurrence of improper or abnormal behavior, which affect or likely to affect the print quality of the printing basics.

Preferably, the proposed current analysis of the behaviour of the printing machine involves the implementation of trend analysis of the behavior of the printing machine. In other words, instead of considering the behavior of the printing machine at a specific point in time, the analysis is performed with long duration (i.e. the processing time of several successive printing basics). This trend analysis is preferable because it enables you to define a gradual deviation or deterioration behavior of the printing machine.

Preferably, the current analysis of the behaviour of the printing machine based on the technique of fuzzy pattern classification. Generally speaking, the classification (or recognition) of the samples is a well-known technology relating to the description or classification of measurements. The idea of pattern classification is to specify the General characteristics or properties in the set of samples (in this case, such a role can perform different behaviors of the printing machine) and their classification into different pre-defined classes according to a specific classification model. More precisely, in the framework of the present invention idea is to specify a classification model, which allows to classify the possible behaviors of a given printing machine for several classes of behaviors (or samples of behaviors)that correspond to the specific classes of printing defects.

Classical modeling techniques usually try to avoid vague, imprecise or ambiguous descriptive rules. In fuzzy logic systems such descriptive rules are used intentionally. Instead of using simple binary approach, where samples are set by the rules of "right" or "wrong", fuzzy systems use relative rules "if ...then"type "if the alpha parameter is equal to/more than/less than the value of beta, the event And is always/often/sometimes/never". The descriptors "always", "often", "sometimes", "never" in the above illustrative rule is usually called "linguistic modifiers and are used to model the desired sample values gradually truth. This leads to simpler, more appropriate models, which are easier to apply and are more familiar to the human mind.

The inventors have found that fuzzy systems are particularly well suited for the task of modeling a priori endlessly varying patterns of behavior of printing machines. Fuzzy classification of samples, in particular, is an effective way to describe and classify the behaviors of the printing machine for a limited number of classes. Fuzzy classification of samples usually divides the input space (in this case the e, variables or operational parameters - registered a number of sensors installed on the functional components of the printing press) into categories or classes of samples and assigns this sample in one of these categories. If the sample does not exactly fit the selected category, according to the so-called "quality of match". Through the use of fuzzy sets as classes of samples becomes possible to describe the degree to which the model belongs to one class or another. By examining each of the categories as fuzzy sets and specify a set of fuzzy "if ...then" as assignment operators implemented a direct link between the fuzzy set and the classification of samples.

Figure 3 is a diagram of the structure of the system of fuzzy classification for analysis of the behavior of the printing machine according to the present invention. Operating parameters from P1 to Pn, registered by the system from a number of sensors, optionally pre-processed optically, prior to their submission to the classifier designs. Such pre-processing may, in particular, include the spectral transformation of some of the signals issued by the sensors (as explained below), in particular signals from which one seeks to find typical examples, represents the General behavior of the printing machine. This spectral transformation, in particular it is assumed for signal processing, reflecting the vibration and noise produced by the printing machine, such as, for example, typical examples of noise/vibration of printing machinery gravure printing.

The fuzzy classifier samples, as mentioned, is implemented essentially as a set of fuzzy "if ...then"imitating human thinking, designed to create relationships between the behavior of the printing machine, presents introduced (and, optionally, pre-processed) operating parameters from P1 to Pn, and several specified classes of samples, each of which is assigned an appropriate class print defects. When entering the monitored operational parameters from P1 to Pn, coming from a number of sensors, classification is performed with a predefined classes of samples and the respective classes of printing defects. Each class of samples, preferably, is attributed to the appropriate value or weight of "belonging" (also called "value" or "quality of match") depending on the correlation between the observed behavior of the printing machine, presents the entered operating parameters from P1 to Pn, and a set of fuzzy rules that define the class of the sample.

Specialists in the art there are known various fuzzy models. They include in particular the so-called model of "fuzzy pattern classification" (FPC, fuzzy pattern classification), models of the Takagi -, Sugeno and similar models. In General, they can be developed using linguistic fuzzy rules. Next, the simulation output can be performed in various ways, for example, using the "center of mass", methods based on the singleton instance ("singleton"), and the like. In the framework of the present invention, the "linguistic" technology of fuzzy modeling and output functions on the basis of a singleton instance are most suitable for classification of the behaviors of the printing machine.

Returning to the example of the printing machine gravure printing, you can specify certain classes of printing defects that may occur in the printing machine. In order to explain the listed basic classes of printing defects that may occur in the printing machine 1 gravure printing, depicted in figure 1, and caused by disturbances in the operation of the printing device 10.

Class a: print defects caused by inadequate or not relevant requirements pressure cleaning between cleaning cylinder 10.2 and the plate cylinder 8, is insufficient pressure cleaning usually leads to unsatisfactory PTS is illuminated areas on the surface of the plate cylinder, which then appear on the print substrates in the form of uniformly colored areas;

Class: print defects caused by insufficient drained (or too wet) surface cleaning cylinder 10.2, i.e. improper installation of the knife 10.5 drying, too wet surface cleaning cylinder usually leads to contamination of the paint on the surface of the plate cylinder, which is then displayed on print substrates in the form of the colored areas with low brightness or obscurities in the areas of gravure printing;

Class: print defects caused by contaminated cleaning cylinder 10.2, i.e. the remnants of paint on the surface of the cleaning cylinder 10.2, - contaminated cleaning the cylinder can be the result of various factors, including, for example, insufficient supply or flow of the cleaning solution (for example, problems with sprinklers), the inefficiency of cleaning brushes (for example, excessive wear of the brushes), which does not meet the requirements of the pressure between the dry knife and purifying cylinder, dry or damaged knife, insufficient temperature of the cleaning solution, etc.; contaminated wiping cylinder usually leads to randomly distributed patterns of ink on print substrates;

Class D: print defects caused by damaged cleansing cylinder 10.2, - damaged the purifying cylinder usually causes local variations in the efficiency of cleaning doctor blade device on each cycle of rotation of the cleaning cylinder, then reflected on print substrates similar to class A;

Class E: print defects caused by faulty knife 10.5 drying, damaged knife drying usually leads to fluctuations in dry/wet condition of the surface cleaning of the cylinder, which then affect print substrates similar to class;

Class F: print defects caused by temperature fluctuations cleansing cylinder 10.2, and in classes a and D, temperature purifying cylinder lead to changes in the size of the cleaning cylinder and, consequently, to changes in the efficiency of cleaning, then reflected on print substrates.

Figure 4 is a partial image of a printed sheet processed in the printing machine gravure printing, depicted in figure 1. More precisely, Figa shows an image of a printed sheet obtained under normal operating conditions.

Figa is a partial image of a printed sheet processed in the printing machine gravure printing, showing typical print defects caused by not complying with the requirements of pressure cleaning, as described above in class A. As shown in the upper part figa, print defects appear as uniformly colored regions in the areas of gravure printing. The inventors have found that the actual appearance on the effects of printing, shown in Figa, is not instantaneous, but on the contrary, these print defects occur after a certain period following the reduction of pressure cleaning. By monitoring the current consumed by the electric motor, traditionally leading printing device, it is possible to detect a decrease in pressure cleaning, as this reduction of pressure cleaning is reflected in the reduction of the current consumption. In combination with the observation of stress (e.g., vibrations), defined on the bearings of the doctor roller, it becomes possible to set the characteristic model incorrect behavior when printing and predict the occurrence of print defects. Fluctuations in pressure cleaning, as specified in classes D and F, can be detected in a similar manner.

FIGU is a partial image of a printed sheet processed in the printing machine gravure printing, showing typical print defects caused by contamination of the cleaning solution, as mentioned above in the class C. As shown in the lower part Figv, print defects appear as areas with low brightness or obscurities in the areas of gravure printing. The inventors have found that the actual occurrence of print defects, shown in figv, again, is not instantaneous, since the cleaning solution is, typically, p is gradually accumulate on the outer plates, gravure printing, due to inadequate drainage of the cleaning cylinder. Again, by monitoring the current consumed by the electric motor, resulting printing device, and by monitoring the position of the knife drying and pressure of the knife between the knife drying and purifying cylinder, it is possible to detect the occurrence of insufficient surface drainage cleansing of the cylinder (such surveillance may be, alternatively or additionally, performed by direct observation of the surface of the cleaning cylinder). The observation voltages, defined on the bearings cleansing cylinder may again be useful to characterize the behavior of the printing machine associated with inadequate drainage. Thus, it is possible similarly to specify the characteristic model incorrect behavior when printing and predict the occurrence of print defects. Damage to the knife drying, as discussed in class E, can be detected in a similar manner.

Figs is a partial image of a printed sheet processed in the printing machine gravure printing, showing typical print defects caused by contaminated surface cleaning of the cylinder, as indicated above in the class due to insufficient supply of cleaning solution. As shown in the left part of the visible image on figs, print defects appear as colored areas in a random form. As in the case of other print defects, the inventors have found that the actual occurrence of print defects, shown in figs, again, is not instantaneous. By monitoring the current consumed by the electric motor, resulting printing device may, for example, to identify a very small number of the cleaning solution, as the power consumption will increase. This measurement may be supplemented by the measurement of the flow of the cleaning solution. Thus, again it becomes possible to set the characteristic model incorrect behavior when printing and predict the occurrence of print defects. Other causes print defects mentioned in class, can be controlled in the same way.

Classes print defects listed above, of course, are mentioned only for purposes of explanation. Although the above list can be considered as representing the main defects that arise as a consequence of the problems with cleaning, however, it should be understood that this list is not exhaustive.

In addition, it should be understood that the printing defects occur not only as a consequence of the problems associated with the work of the doctor blade device, but that these defects can also be caused by not the of spravnosti other functional components of the printing machine, such as, for example, insufficient pressure seal between the plate cylinder 8 and the printing cylinder 7, a lack of ink on the plate cylinder 8 colorful unit 9, etc.

As mentioned above, the analysis of the behaviour of the printing machine based on the installation of appropriate systems from a number of sensors designed for measuring operational parameters of the functional components of the printing machine, adequately describes the behavior of the printing machine. One particularly advantageous way of assessing the conduct of the printing machine is the observation noise or vibration produced by the printing machine. Such noise or vibration can theoretically be measured in any convenient place on the printing machine. A particularly suitable place to measure noise or vibration are the bearings of the cylinder of the printing machine. For printing machine gravure printing, shown in figures 1 and 2, the appropriate place is the shaft doctor roller 10.2.

Figa and 5B represent two pictures of possible locations of the sensors related to noise or vibration produced by the printing machine, on the axis of the cleaning cylinder 10.2. On figa shows the first bearing 101 cleansing cylinder 10.2, located on the cleaning capacity 10.1 on the left side (leading side) of the printing machine gravure printing, while nafig shown In the second opposite bearing 102 cleansing cylinder 10.2 (for clarity, figure 1 is a printing machine gravure printing is shown with the leading hand). Cleansing cylinder 10.2 not shown figa and 5B, and is installed between the two bearings 101 and 102, shown in the photos. The plate cylinder 8 is visible on figa and 5B partially.

On each bearing 101, 102 of the cylinder, preferably, installed a pair of sensors 51A, 51b and 52a, 52b to register noises or vibrations propagating in two different directions perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the cleaning cylinder 10.2, in this case horizontally for sensors 51A, 52a and vertically for sensors 51b, 52b. The sensors 51A, 51b, 52a, 52b can be any suitable sensors that are sensitive to noise or vibrations, such as sound sensors, acceleration sensors, or any other pressure-sensitive or sensitive to vibration sensors.

Using a system of sensors, shown in figa and 5B, it is possible to understand that secured four of the measuring channel for monitoring the behavior of the printing machine from the point of view of noise or vibration transmitted cleansing cylinder 10.2. As already mentioned, these measuring channels can be combined with other measurement channels. For example, it was found that it is desirable to Supplement the above four measuring channels the following channels:

- one channel for measuring bystrodeistvuyushchei machine (for example, the number of sheets processed per hour);

- one channel for the current consumption of the motor which drives the cylinders of the printing machine;

- two channels for measuring pressure seal between the printing cylinder 7 and the plate cylinder 8, the pressure is measured on both sides of the cylinder;

- one channel for measuring the pressure of the knife between the knife 10.5 drying and purifying cylinder 10.2 (pressure, which is normally regulated by hydraulics);

- one channel for measuring the flow of the cleaning solution;

- two channels for measuring the position of the knife 10.5 drying, and the position is measured on both sides of the knife;

- one channel to indicate the presence or absence of the sheet at the location of the print; and

- one channel to specify which plate the plate was used to print the sheet.

The above example system from a set of sensors to register the behavior of the printing machine, includes fourteen separate channels, which was found sufficient for the corresponding descriptions and observations of the behavior of the printing machine gravure printing, at least if one considers the work of printing device 10.

Above it was mentioned that it may be desirable to pre-process some of the signals issued by the sensors used to monitor the behavior of the printing machine. This item is correct for registration noise and/or vibration, produced by a printing machine, when the signals typically include a huge number of frequency components. The classical approach to the processing of such signals is to perform a spectral transform of the signals. Normal spectral transformation is a well known Fourier transform (and its derivatives), which converts the signals from the time domain into the frequency domain. Signal processing is simplified thanks to the work in the thus obtained spectrum, because of the periodic components of the signal can be easily detected in the frequency domain as peaks in the spectrum. The shortcomings of the Fourier transform, however, consists in its inability to effectively recognize and distinguish the signals move phase shifts, frequency deviation, echo, noise, etc.

More appropriate "spectral" analysis is the so-called "gastralny analysis. "Castr" is an anagram of the word "spectrum" and is a common term for the inverse Fourier transform of the logarithm of the signal spectrum. Gastralny analysis, in particular, is used to analyze the "sounds" instead of analysis frequencies. Castr can be viewed as information about the rate of change in the different spectrum bands. It was originally proposed to describe the seismic signals caused by earthquakes and bombings (see, oz is Lavandou "The Quefrency Analysis of Time Series for Echoes: a cepstrum, Pseudautocovariance, Cross a cepstrum, and Saphe Cracking", Bogert, Healy, Tukey, 1963). Bogert et al. observed that the logarithm of the power spectrum of a signal containing an echo has additive periodic component due to the echo, and thus the Fourier transform of the logarithm of the power spectrum should show a peak at the delay of the echo. They called this feature "Castr"by rearranging the letters in the word "spectrum", because essentially we are working on the frequency side ways, the usual time, or Vice versa converting the signal into its Castr is homomorphic, and the idea of cepstra is a fundamental part of theory of homomorphic systems for processing signals that have been combined by convolution (see "Discrete-Time Signal Processing", A.V.Oppenheim and R.W.Schafer, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1989).

There are many advantages Castelnovo analysis:

one of its most important properties is the fact that any periodicity or recurring patterns in the spectrum will be recorded as one or two separate components in cepstra;

- if the spectrum contains several sets of side bands or harmonic series, in this case, they may be confusing because of their overlapping. However, in cepstra they separated just as in the spectrum of the separated recurring patterns in temporary signals;

- gastralny analysis is especially good approach is t for the analysis of rotating elements, experiencing vibration.

Accordingly, in a preferred embodiment of the invention, the signals measured on the rotating elements of the printing machine (for example, noise and/or vibration produced in the bearings cleaning cylinder and a sound/vibration sensors, as mentioned above), pre-processed using the above Castelnovo analysis.

Returning again to the measurements made on the bearings cleansing cylinder 10.2 printing machine, gravure printing, depicted in figure 1 and 2, gastralny analysis is preferably performed with the aim to identify three variables that will be referred to as values "Castr on sheet", "Castr 2:3" and "Castr on turnover, and the trend analysis is performed on the basis of these two variables. Value "Castr on sheet" in the present invention is defined as the value of cepstra corresponding to the sheet interval, i.e. the time interval between two successive sheets. Value "cepstrum 2:3" in the present invention is defined as the value of cepstra corresponding to the interval of movement of the plate cylinder 8 relative to the cylinder 9.5 Orlov printing (which are, respectively, three-segment and two-segment cylinder in this example). Value "Castr revolution", with the other the hand, in the present invention is defined as the value of cepstra corresponding to the time interval (or interval of turnover), necessary to the plate cylinder of the printing machine made a complete turn (this time interval is a multiple of the interval of the sheet). In the case of forming plates gravure printing, shown in figures 1 and 2, using a three-segment of the plate cylinder and the two-piece cylinder Orlov printing, the sheet interval, the interval of movement and turnover interval (in seconds)will be determined by the following formulas:

Internallist [] = 3600/skorostril [sheets/hour],

Intervento [] = Internallist [s]*chiseler,

Intervalometer [] = Internallist [s]*chiseler.

Figure 6 schematically shows an example of cepstra signal noise measured on the same bearing cleaning cylinder 10.2, the processing speed of the sheet in the printing machine gravure printing equals 6316 sheets per hour in this example, which gives the interval of the sheet is equal to or 0.57 seconds, the interval of movement, equal to 1.14 seconds, and the interval of turnover, equal 1,71 seconds, the corresponding values "Castr on sheet", "Castr 2:3" and "Castr on turnover" is manifested in the form of three peaks in cepstra figure 6.

Gradual change (or trend) of each value "Castr on the sheet and to pstr on the turnover preferably monitored using the normalized speed tunable bandpass filter for filtering characteristic bands in cepstra, moreover, the band-pass filter "fixed" at the appropriate interval of the sheet or the interval of turnover, respectively (where the intervals inversely proportional to the speed of the sheet processing). Is determined by the maximum value of the resulting filtered signal and recorded the resulting amplitude over time. 7 schematically shows the principle of processing and filtering. As shown in the upper left part of Fig.7, Castr first filtered at an appropriate time interval (i.e. the interval of the sheet or in the range of turnover) using the corresponding normalized speed bandpass filter (i.e. bandpass filter, fixed by the centre at the relevant time interval). The resulting filtered band cepstra shown in the upper right side of Fig.7. Defines the maximum value of the filtered band and its amplitude is recorded for a certain period of time, which consequently gives the signal shown in the lower part of Fig.7. This signal is then used as the basis for monitoring trends in the behavior of the printing machine.

Returning again to the measurement of sound and/or vibration mentioned above when considering figa and 5B, representing four separate measuring channel (i.e., horizontal and vertical measurements, the imp is applied on both sides of the cleaning cylinder), gastralny analysis as described above is performed for each of the four measurement channels, and the resulting eight signals trends are used as the basis for controlling the behavior of the printing machine.

According to a preferred implementation of the invention, the current analysis of the behaviour of the printing machine is connected with the current control of printing basics. In other words, the conclusions obtained on the basis of the classification of the behavior patterns of the printing machine, are correlated with the conclusions obtained on the basis of optical inspection of printed bases.

Some examples of recorded operating parameters can be to such an extent characteristic of improper or abnormal behaviour of the printing machine, it is possible to immediately come to the conclusion that incorrect or abnormal behavior will lead to print defects, without resorting to optical inspection of printed bases. In other examples, however, the exact conclusions regarding the likely occurrence of print defects may not follow directly and solely from the results of pattern classification behavior of the printing machine. In such cases, it may help the Association of behavior analysis with optical control of printing basics.

Based on General considerations, the Association of behavior analysis pécs is based machines and control printing basics can be performed to:

- give early warning of probable occurrence of print defects when determining improper or abnormal behaviour of the printing machine, while on the resulting images still determined no print defects; and/or

to provide an indication of the likely causes print defects, detected by optical inspection of printed bases.

In relation to combining the results of the inspection of printed bases and results of the analysis of the behaviour of the printing machine again used the techniques of fuzzy logic. By comparing data from sensors representing the characteristic irregular/abnormal behaviour of the printing machine, and image data resulting optical view print defects, you can specify fuzzy sets and create classifier samples of higher rank (in a manner analogous already attributable to above in connection with the classification of the behavior patterns of the printing machine).

It should be understood that in the above-described embodiments, the implementation can be made various changes and/or improvements obvious to those skilled in the art, without going beyond the protection of inventions, is characterized in the accompanying claims.

For example, although gastralny analysis was described above in kachestvennosti, particularly suitable for pre-processing of the measured signals related to noise or vibration may be applied spectral analysis using other types of spectral transformations. Thus, it is possible to consider any suitable derivative of the Fourier transform. It may be, for example, so-called circular transform and wavelet transform.

In addition, although the methods of fuzzy logic was discussed in connection with the issues of modeling and classification of samples can be provided by other approaches, including modeling methods using the so-called neural networks. One of the differences between the two methods is that the fuzzy classifier samples can be specified with the learning process and experienced developer (so-called "expert") on the basis of experimental data and knowledge of the relevant processes, whereas the neural network based only on the learning processes. The expert is able to configure the system using linguistic modifiers.

1. The method for detecting printing defects on print substrates in the process of printing in the printing machine, comprising the following steps: provision of a range of sensors on the functional components of the printing machine to observe the behavior of printing machines is in the process of printing basics and implementation of the current analysis of the behaviour of the printing machine to determine the occurrence of the characteristic behavior of the printing machine, which leads, or is likely to cause print defects on print substrates, either leading or likely to lead to good quality printing on a printing basics
the current analysis of the behaviour of the printing machine includes the following steps:
(a0) simulation of the characteristic behaviors of the printing machine using the operational parameters of the functional components of the printing machine as the characteristic parameters of these characteristic behaviors, and specific behaviors include:
- improper or abnormal behaviour of the printing machine, leading or likely to lead to the occurrence of print defects; and/or
- normal behavior of the printing machine, leading or likely to lead to good quality printing on a printing basics
(a1) check operational parameters of the functional components of the printing machine when the print processing in the printing machine, and operating parameters characterize the behavior of the printing machine processing printing basics; and
(a2) determining whether the registered operating parameters of the functional components of pechat the th machine to improper or abnormal behaviour of the printing machine, which will probably lead to print defects
when this step definitions (a2) includes the steps:
(a21) monitoring of operational parameters of the functional components of the printing machine when the print processing in the printing machine; and
(a22) definition, indicate whether the monitored operational parameters on any of the simulated characteristic behaviors of the printing machine.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the current analysis of the behaviour of the printing machine includes providing analysis of trends in behaviour of the printing machine during the processing of successive printing basics.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the current analysis of the behaviour of the printing machine includes the implementation of fuzzy pattern classification behavior of the printing machine.

4. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that it further includes combining the current analysis of the behaviour of the printing machine with the current optical inspection of printed basics.

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the optical control includes
(i) optical images of the printing basics processed in the printing machine; and
(ii) processing the received image printing basics in order to detect possible defects print on print substrates, the current analysis of the behaviour of the printing machine is Beginin with the current optical inspection of printed basics so, in order to give early warning of probable occurrence of print defects when determining improper or abnormal behaviour of the printing machine, while on the resulting images are still determined by the absence of print defects.

6. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the current optical inspection of printed bases includes:
(i) optical images of the printing basics processed in the printing machine; and
(ii) processing the received image printing basics in order to detect possible defects print on print substrates, the current analysis of the behaviour of the printing machine is connected with the current optical inspection of printed basics to give an indication of the probable cause of the occurrence of print defects identified by optical inspection of printed bases.

7. The method according to claim 1, wherein step (a0includes modeling of irregular or abnormal behaviour of the printing machine, leading or likely to lead to the occurrence of print defects, and contains the following steps:
(a01task several classes of printing defects that may occur in the printing machine;
(a02) determining for each class print defects operating parameters of the printing machine, characterizing irregular or abnormal led the e printing machine, which leads or is likely to cause print defects; and
(a03task for each class print defects associated model is wrong or abnormal behaviour of the printing machine based on the operating parameters, for which it is determined that they are characterized by irregular or abnormal behavior,
when this step definitions (a22) includes determining demonstrate whether the observed operating parameters according to any one of the specified models of improper or abnormal behaviour of the printing machine.

8. The method according to claim 1 or 7, characterized in that the simulation of the characteristic behaviors of the printing machine includes modeling of the characteristic behaviors using rule sets, fuzzy logic.

9. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the printing machine is equipped with sensors for measuring any combination of the following operational parameters:
- performance printing machine;
the speed of rotation of the cylinder or roller of the printing machine;
the current consumed by the electric motor, causing the cylinders of the printing machine;
- the temperature of the cylinder or roller of the printing machine;
the pressure between the two cylinders or rollers of the printing machine;
- voltage in the bearings of the cylinder or roller of the printing machine;
- paint consumption is whether the fluid in the printing machine; and/or
the location or presence processed in the printing machine.

10. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the printing machine is fitted with sensors for registration of operational parameters of the functional components of the printing machine, with the specified parameters are not correlated with each other as much as possible.

11. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that it is implemented on the printing machine (1) gravure printing, comprising at least a printing cylinder (7), the plate cylinder (8)in contact with the printing cylinder (7), the inking unit (9) for applying paint to the surface of the plate cylinder (8), and cleaning device (10) for purifying painted surface of the plate cylinder (8) before printing.

12. The method according to claim 11, characterized in that the printing machine (1) gravure (1) set the sensors to register any combination of the following operational parameters:
- performance printing machine (1) gravure printing;
the current consumed by the electric motor used as a means of the drive of the printing machine (1) gravure printing;
- the speed of rotation of the printing cylinder (7), the plate cylinder (8) and/or cylinder or roller paint machine (9) or printing device (10);
the temperature of the printing cylinder (7), the plate cylinder (8) and/or cylinder or the face paint machine (9) or printing device (10);
- pressure seal between the plate cylinder (8) and the printing cylinder (7),
- pressure cleaning between the plate cylinder (8) and cleaning device (10);
- contact pressure between the plate cylinder (8) and colorful device (9);
operating parameters of the printing device (10); and/or
operating parameters are colorful apparatus (9).

13. The method according to claim 11, characterized in that it is performed to detect print defects on print substrates, caused by irregularities in the functioning of the cleaning device (10).

14. The method according to item 13, wherein the cleaning device (10) includes a doctor blade capacity (10.1), the cleaning cylinder (10.2), located in the cleaning tank (10.1) and in contact with the plate cylinder (8), dry knife (10.3)in contact with the surface of the cleaning cylinder (10.2) to remove residues were removed paint from the surface of the cleaning cylinder (10.2), means (10.4) cleaning for applying the cleaning solution to the surface of the cleaning cylinder (10.2), and knife (10.5) drying in contact with the surface of the cleaning cylinder (10.2) to remove residual cleaning solution from the surface of the cleaning cylinder (10.2), provided with sensors to register:
- pressure cleaning between cleaning cylinder (10.2) and the plate cylinder (8);
- flow of the cleaning solution in the cleaning device (10);
- iziko-chemical properties of the cleaning solution;
the pressure of the knife between dry knife (10.3) and purifying cylinder (10.2) or between the knife (10.5) drying and purifying cylinder (10.2);
position dry knife (10.3) or knife (10.5) drying relative to the wiping cylinder (10.2); and/or
- stresses in the bearings cleansing cylinder (10.2).

15. The method according to 14, characterized in that the pressure cleaning, pressure of the knife, the position of the knife and/or stresses in the bearings cleansing cylinder (10.2) is produced on each edge of the cleaning cylinder (10.2).

16. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the observation of the behavior of the printing machine includes the observation noise and/or vibrations produced by the printing machine processing printing basics.

17. The method according to item 16, characterized in that the measurement noise and/or vibrations produced by the printing machine, perform in the bearings of the cylinder of the printing machine.

18. The method according to 17, characterized in that it is performed in the printing machine (1) gravure printing, comprising at least a printing cylinder (7), the plate cylinder (8)in contact with the printing cylinder (7), the inking unit (9) for applying paint to the surface of the plate cylinder (8) and cleaning device (10) with a cleaning cylinder (10.2)in contact with the plate cylinder (8), for the purification of the painted surface of the plate cylinder (8) before printing, and registration noise and/is any vibration, produced by a printing machine (1) gravure printing, produce bearings cleansing cylinder (10.2).

19. The method according to 17 or 18, characterized in that the registration noise or vibration produced by the printing machine, performed by at least two sensors (51a, 51b, 52a, 52b), located on the bearings (101, 102) of the vehicle and recording the noise or vibration that is transmitted in at least two different directions perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the cylinder.

20. The method according to 17 or 18, characterized in that the registration noise or vibration produced by the printing machine, perform through sound sensors, acceleration sensors or recording pressure gauges.

21. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that it further includes pre-processing of the signals issued by the sensors.

22. The method according to item 21, wherein the pre-processing of the signals issued by the sensors, involves performing Castelnovo analysis of these signals.

23. Expert system for the detection of printing defects on the PC-based processing printing basics printing machine, containing a number of sensors associated with the functional components of the printing machine to observe the behavior of the printing machine during processing of the printed substrate, and a processing system related to specified what tchicai, to run the current analysis of the behaviour of the printing machine, and the specified processing system configured to implement the method described in any of the preceding paragraphs.

24. Printing machine, equipped with the expert system described in item 23.



 

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10 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: polygraphic industry, possible use for controlling technological parameters of paper flat of input roll on printing factories, which is formed in advance at paper factory.

SUBSTANCE: in the method, length of flat part of input roll, which includes control marks, is selected as controlled parameter. Marks are positioned with constant value step, which is selected depending on technologically acceptable error relatively to length of roll flat, regulated by its tensioning during technological cycle of creation of this roll at paper factory. Detection, recognition and registration of informative signs of controlled parameter is performed twice. Namely: during insertion of a roll into technological zone of roll printing machine and during removal from it. Recording of read and transformed information in memory block of electronic computing device is performed with ensured storage of that information and its possible output to information carriers, which are functionally a "roll report" with given database, based on "roll passport" information. Particularities of the system are as follows. It is provided with second block of optic-electronic devices, functionally and structurally identical to first block. One block is mounted at the point of insertion of a flat into technological zone of roll printing machine, second one - at exit point of same. Each block has commutated connection to its own electronic computing device. In front of each block, flat speed sensor is mounted, in commutated connection with corresponding electronic computing device. Software of one of the blocks is created with possible creation of database of input roll flat, and of another block - of output roll flat, and with possible storage of that information in memory blocks and its output to information carriers, which functionally act as "roll reports".

EFFECT: possible control of technological parameters of flat at input and output of roll printing machine, resulting in increased precision of control.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: method and device for colored flexography.

SUBSTANCE: method for applying multiple paint layers onto a substrate includes following stages: application onto a substrate of at least one painting layer of energy-hardened liquid paint with viscosity less than approximately 4000 centipoises, and including reaction-incapable paint thinner, where applied layer of energy-hardened paint has first viscosity; evaporation of at least a part of reaction-incapable paint thinner from applied paint layer for increasing viscosity of applied layer of energy-hardened paint; application onto substrate and applied layer of energy-hardened paint with increased viscosity of at least one layer of non energy-hardened liquid paint, viscosity of which is less than increased viscosity of previously applied layer of energy-hardened paint; and drying of both paint layers on the substrate. Another variant of method for applying multiple paint layers onto a substrate is differentiated by applied layer of energy-hardened paint having to be of increased viscosity compared to following layer of energy-hardened liquid paint with viscosity less than approximately 4000 centipoises, and containing reaction-incapable paint thinner, where viscosity of following layer is less than increased viscosity of energy-hardened paint layer applied beforehand. Also a method is suggested for printing multiple paint layers on a substrate, which includes stage of selection of first and second energy-hardened liquid flexography paint, where each paint contains viscosity controlling reaction-incapable paint thinner, consisting of water in amount of from 5% to 50% of thinner weight, where each paint has viscosity approximately ranging from 30 to 70 centipoises, and stage of serial application of first and second energy-hardened liquid flexography paint onto a substrate to create first and second paint layers, having overlapping parts, where second paint is applied only after at least a part of paint thinner is evaporated in first paint layer. Device for serial application of multiple overlapping paint layers onto a substrate contains substrate route and substrate drive for moving the substrate along a route, where paint application sections are adapted for applying paint onto substrate, which paint includes reaction-incapable paint thinner and has viscosity less than 4000 centipoises, and also management system, which manages transportation of substrate along a route. Viscosity of first layer of liquid paint, applied onto a substrate in one of paint sections, is increased due to evaporation of at least a part of paint thinner from first paint layer to higher viscosity compared to viscosity of second paint, applied on top of first paint layer in next paint section, located at a certain distance from first paint section, up to viscosity, sufficient for "crude" application of second liquid paint layer during transportation of substrate between paint sections.

EFFECT: in suggested methods, relief printing is achieved without insignificant modifications of printing equipment.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: polygraphic industry, in particular, technique for processing of perfected paper sheets, in particular, bonds.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has device for sequential feeding of sheets, transportation means, means for processing of said sheets, and means for sorting out of sheets into at least two paper sheet stacks. Indicated parts of apparatus are sequentially arranged in direction of advancement of said paper sheets. Means for processing of sheets has first print quality controlling device, device for applying series numbers and/or additional members onto sheets, second print quality controlling device adapted for controlling of applied numbers and/or images of additional members, and sheet marking device actuated in response to data generated by first and second print quality controlling devices for marking of sheets rejected by said first and second print quality controlling devices.

EFFECT: increased efficiency in carrying out of complex or part of said operations and provision for high-degree controlling of print quality.

12 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: polygraphic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method for printing of protected documents, in which the latters are printed on sheets, each containing a great number of protected documents. Each sheet has a unique type-readable identifier. In the process of production the lots are processed with the aid of several printing presses. On each printing press the identifiers are read off with the aid of a local computer separated for the given printing press. The results are transmitted by inquiry in the form of poles of data to the central data base. Each pile contains information on several sheets, which eliminates the necessity of transmission of the respective data in the conditions of real time through the network. To enhance the safety of reduction of dependence from operation, each local computer has a means of automatic checkup of the state of the lot processing.

EFFECT: checkout of printing production at a large enterprise at low requirements to hardware, software and computer circuit.

10 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: operative color control in printing presses for used primary and auxiliary colors by continuous conducting of spectral measurements in conjunction with linear equations for determining the required correction of printing ink feed for conservation of color precision in printing.

SUBSTANCE: when the color anomaly is exceeded, the measured values of the spectral reflectivity of the tested area are compared with the respective preset values, and the anomaly of the reflection spectrum is determined. The linear equations are used for correlation of the reflection spectrum anomalies with varieties of the solid ink density or thickness of the ink layer for ink feed control with the use of an operatively empitically produced corrective matrix, such that the reflection spectrum is minimized.

EFFECT: provided color control during printing with the use of spectral measurements.

65 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: polygraphic industry, in particular, technique for processing of perfected paper sheets, in particular, bonds.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has device for sequential feeding of sheets, transportation means, means for processing of said sheets, and means for sorting out of sheets into at least two paper sheet stacks. Indicated parts of apparatus are sequentially arranged in direction of advancement of said paper sheets. Means for processing of sheets has first print quality controlling device, device for applying series numbers and/or additional members onto sheets, second print quality controlling device adapted for controlling of applied numbers and/or images of additional members, and sheet marking device actuated in response to data generated by first and second print quality controlling devices for marking of sheets rejected by said first and second print quality controlling devices.

EFFECT: increased efficiency in carrying out of complex or part of said operations and provision for high-degree controlling of print quality.

12 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: method and device for colored flexography.

SUBSTANCE: method for applying multiple paint layers onto a substrate includes following stages: application onto a substrate of at least one painting layer of energy-hardened liquid paint with viscosity less than approximately 4000 centipoises, and including reaction-incapable paint thinner, where applied layer of energy-hardened paint has first viscosity; evaporation of at least a part of reaction-incapable paint thinner from applied paint layer for increasing viscosity of applied layer of energy-hardened paint; application onto substrate and applied layer of energy-hardened paint with increased viscosity of at least one layer of non energy-hardened liquid paint, viscosity of which is less than increased viscosity of previously applied layer of energy-hardened paint; and drying of both paint layers on the substrate. Another variant of method for applying multiple paint layers onto a substrate is differentiated by applied layer of energy-hardened paint having to be of increased viscosity compared to following layer of energy-hardened liquid paint with viscosity less than approximately 4000 centipoises, and containing reaction-incapable paint thinner, where viscosity of following layer is less than increased viscosity of energy-hardened paint layer applied beforehand. Also a method is suggested for printing multiple paint layers on a substrate, which includes stage of selection of first and second energy-hardened liquid flexography paint, where each paint contains viscosity controlling reaction-incapable paint thinner, consisting of water in amount of from 5% to 50% of thinner weight, where each paint has viscosity approximately ranging from 30 to 70 centipoises, and stage of serial application of first and second energy-hardened liquid flexography paint onto a substrate to create first and second paint layers, having overlapping parts, where second paint is applied only after at least a part of paint thinner is evaporated in first paint layer. Device for serial application of multiple overlapping paint layers onto a substrate contains substrate route and substrate drive for moving the substrate along a route, where paint application sections are adapted for applying paint onto substrate, which paint includes reaction-incapable paint thinner and has viscosity less than 4000 centipoises, and also management system, which manages transportation of substrate along a route. Viscosity of first layer of liquid paint, applied onto a substrate in one of paint sections, is increased due to evaporation of at least a part of paint thinner from first paint layer to higher viscosity compared to viscosity of second paint, applied on top of first paint layer in next paint section, located at a certain distance from first paint section, up to viscosity, sufficient for "crude" application of second liquid paint layer during transportation of substrate between paint sections.

EFFECT: in suggested methods, relief printing is achieved without insignificant modifications of printing equipment.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: polygraphic industry, possible use for controlling technological parameters of paper flat of input roll on printing factories, which is formed in advance at paper factory.

SUBSTANCE: in the method, length of flat part of input roll, which includes control marks, is selected as controlled parameter. Marks are positioned with constant value step, which is selected depending on technologically acceptable error relatively to length of roll flat, regulated by its tensioning during technological cycle of creation of this roll at paper factory. Detection, recognition and registration of informative signs of controlled parameter is performed twice. Namely: during insertion of a roll into technological zone of roll printing machine and during removal from it. Recording of read and transformed information in memory block of electronic computing device is performed with ensured storage of that information and its possible output to information carriers, which are functionally a "roll report" with given database, based on "roll passport" information. Particularities of the system are as follows. It is provided with second block of optic-electronic devices, functionally and structurally identical to first block. One block is mounted at the point of insertion of a flat into technological zone of roll printing machine, second one - at exit point of same. Each block has commutated connection to its own electronic computing device. In front of each block, flat speed sensor is mounted, in commutated connection with corresponding electronic computing device. Software of one of the blocks is created with possible creation of database of input roll flat, and of another block - of output roll flat, and with possible storage of that information in memory blocks and its output to information carriers, which functionally act as "roll reports".

EFFECT: possible control of technological parameters of flat at input and output of roll printing machine, resulting in increased precision of control.

2 cl, 5 dwg

Sensor device // 2335403

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to fluorescing or phosphorescing print check and detection on sheets fed to printing press for securities printing. Luminescent sensor device contains set of subunits, optical sensitive elements, at that each subunit contains ultra-violet lighters for sample illumination, digital camera system containing front element, mirror assembly tracking light radiated from the specified sample to front element of digital camera system; and digital signal processor providing processing of signals, generated by the specified front element of digital camera system. Thus fluorescing or phosphorescing print check and detection system on security sheets contains luminescent sensor device.

EFFECT: improved control quality.

10 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: printing industry.

SUBSTANCE: method for adjustment of inking apparatus (16) of printing machine consists in the fact that in phase of preparation of printing machine for printing the first measuring accessory (22) is used to identify at least one first measuring value versus the one adjusted on inking apparatus (16) of printing machine, applied at least on one material for printing (21) of ink application, besides based on this first actual value inking apparatus applying ink onto material is adjusted for printing (21). In phase of printing machine run printing the second measuring accessory (23), which varies from the first measuring accessory (22) is used to identify several second actual values related to imprint applied onto material for printing (21) and to deliver to the adjustment device (26) that adjusts inking apparatus (16). One of second actual values detected by the second measuring accessory (23) is used in adjustment device (26) as a specified value, at the same time adjustment device (26) detects deviation of other second actual values identified in phase of printing machine run printing from applied specified value, and this deviation is minimised by new adjustment of inking apparatus that applies ink onto material for printing (21).

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve quality of printing.

16 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: printing industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of printing. Described system of sheets control, intended for sheet machine for double-sided printing of such type, comprises two printing cylinders, intended to do simultaneous double-sided printing of sheets, at the same time specified system of sheets control comprises at least the first control device to produce image of the first side of printed sheets. The first control device comprises the first linear shaper of image signals, intended to produce image of the first side of printed sheets by means of linear scanning. At the same time the first control device is arranged so that the first linear shaper of image signal visually produces image of printed sheet, while specified printed sheet still sticks to surface of the first of two printing cylinders of printing machine, and directly prior to displacement of specified printed sheet into chain system with grips provided in printing machine. Also printing machine equipped with control system is described.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to provide for efficient prevention of sheets smudging in process of control.

12 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: printing industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of printing. Described system of sheets control intended for sheet printing machine for double-sided printing of such type comprises two printing cylinders intended to do simultaneous double-sided printing of sheets. At the same time specified system comprises at least one control device to produce images of one side of printed sheets. System of sheets control comprises the first and second transmission cylinders arranged between the first of specified two printing cylinders and chain system with grips provided in printing machine. At the same time printed sheets are moved serially from the first printing cylinder to the first transmission cylinder, to the second transmission cylinder and chain system with grips. Control device comprises linear shaper of image signals intended to produce image of one side of printed sheets by means of linear scanning, at the same time this linear shaper of image signals visually produces image of printed sheet, while printed sheet moves on the first or second transmission cylinder.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to provide for efficient prevention of sheets smudging in process of control.

6 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: numbering system is designed to be incorporated with printing machine and consists of numbering cylinder, rotary shaft, at least, one supporting disk fitted in said shaft to revolve therewith. Support disk comprises peripheral set ring to mount at least one numbering device 2.06 on support disk periphery. Said device 2.06 is secured to peripheral et ring by means of locking mechanism. Peripheral set ring features T-cross section that defines two annular mounting grooves on each side of the ring. Numbering device 2.06 has its each side supporting locking elements 2.50 to interact with annular mounting grooves for attachment of numbering device to peripheral set ring. Locking elements 2.50 represent, preferably, spring-loaded locking elements.

EFFECT: higher reliability, simplified design.

21 cl, 12 dwg

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