Method to manufacture cu-ge ohmic contact to gaas

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: in the method to manufacture Cu-Ge ohmic contact on the surface of the plate n-GaAs or epitaxial heterostructure GaAs with n-layer a resistive mask is developed, fims of Ge and Cu are deposited, the first thermal treatment is carried out in the atmosphere of atomic hydrogen at the temperature from 20 to 150°C and density of hydrogen atoms flow to the surface of the plate equal to 1013-1016 at.cm-2 s-1. Plates are withdrawn from a vacuum chamber of a spraying plant, the resistive mask is removed before or after the first thermal treatment, and the second thermal treatment is carried out.

EFFECT: reduced value of the given contact resistance.

7 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the technology of microelectronics, in particular to a technology for discrete devices and integrated circuits based on semiconductor compound AIIIBVin particular to create ohmic contacts to regions of the drain and source of the field-effect transistors with Schottky barrier, as well as heterostructure transistors with high electron mobility.

Ohmic contacts must be small given the contact resistance, smooth surface morphology pads, high thermal stability parameters, small depth of interaction metallization contact with the semiconductor, and low cost (Raskin A.A., Shalimov S. Foreign electronic equipment. 1990, No. 12, p.32-47).

Known methods of forming low resistance ohmic contacts to n-GaAs using a metallization system comprising the following components: Au, Ge and Ni. Gold and germanium are deposited on the semiconductor in the form of a film eutectic AuGe alloy (88% Au and 12% Ge) and a layer of Ni (Pietrovska A., Gulvatch A., Peloua G. // Solid St. Electron, 1983, v.26, p.179), or as three separate films of these elements (Bruce R. A., Piercy G.R. // Solid St. Electron. 1987, v.30, No. 7, p.729). Moreover, in the latter case, the ratio of film thickness of Ge and Au is chosen such as to correspond to the eutectic composition AuGe. Thus the total thickness of the deposited films Au/Ge is the range of 100-150 nm, and the thickness of the Nickel layer in the range of 10-50 nm. After deposition, the contact is subjected to heat treatment. In the annealing process is the formation of low-melting alloy and liquid-phase mixing of Au, Ge, Ni and GaAs.

The disadvantages of these methods is low enough given the contact resistance, the depth of recrystallized region OK (~0.1 ám), low thermal stability of electrical parameters of contact, due to the presence of the contact fusible phase AuGa with a melting point of 370°C, the developed relief of the surface of the pad, as well as its uneven edge, the high cost of fabrication of ohmic contacts, which is caused by use of Au.

A known method of making low resistance contact to GaAs (Jim-Tsuen Lai, Joseph Ya-Min Lee / Pd/Ge ohmic contacts to n-type GaAs formed by rapid thermal annealing Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(2), 1994, pp.229-237), which use the metallization system, consisting of a series of sputtered films of Pd and Ge. Nespravnou Pd/Ge ohmic contact is formed by solid-state diffusion of atoms Germany in GaAs through a layer of palladium with education signalisierung n+layer and shows the best thermal stability of electrical parameters and smoother the surface morphology of the contact compared with Au/Ge/Ni equivalent.

The disadvantages of this contact can be attributed more Comte is the things resistance compared with Au/Ge/Ni, and the complexity of its formation in a typical route for the fabrication of integrated circuits, due to the presence on the surface of the ohmic contact reactive and oxidize film Germany.

Known methods in which to obtain better electrical contact to the surface of the ohmic contact Pd/Ge deposited films Au (Rnno // On the low resistance of the Au/Ge/Pd ohmic contact to n-GaAs // J. Appl. Phys., 79(8), 1996) or Cu (US patent No. 7368822, IPC H01L 23/48, publ. 06.05.2008). The advantages of these methods include low value of contact resistance. The disadvantages of the method include low thermal stability of electrical parameters of ohmic contacts due to the penetration of the rapidly diffusing atoms of gold and copper in GaAs.

A method of obtaining thermally stable ohmic contact to GaAs (Aboelfotoh MO / Microstructure characterization of Cu3Ge/n-type GaAs ohmic contacts // J.Appl. Phys., 76 (10), 1994), whereby to obtain ohmic contacts used the metallization system on the basis of the two-layer film Ge/Cu (thickness are chosen so as to form a composition of Cu3Ge), which forms ohmic contact with both n-and p-type GaAs. These contacts are characterized by high thermal stability of electrical parameters, as well as low production costs, due to lack of dragie the different metals in the composition of the ohmic contacts.

The disadvantage of this method is the instability obtain a low value of contact resistance, due to uncontrolled oxidation of copper and/or Germany during the inter-operation of polerowanie in the air, resulting in non-repeatable processes in the formation of ohmic contacts during annealing.

A known method of manufacturing a contact-based films Ge/Cu (..Aboelfotoh, S.Oktyabrsky, and J.Narayan / Electrical and microstructural characteristics of GeCu ohmic contacts to n-type GaAs // J.Mater. Res., Vol.12, No.9, 1997, pp.2325-2332), essentially the most close to the proposed technical solution chosen for the prototype. The method consists in the following. On the surface of the plate n-GaAs (100) with the concentration of electrons in the epitaxial layer is n=3×1017cm-3to implement the reverse process of the lithography mask is formed. To clean the surface in the Windows of the mask, the GaAs wafer is processed in an aqueous solution of HCl (1:1) and then rinsed in deionized water and drying in a stream of nitrogen. Then by the method of electron beam evaporation in vacuum at a residual pressure atmosphere 10-7Torr is a sequential layer-by-layer films deposited on Ge and si with a total thickness of 0.2 μm and the thickness of the Ge film, which sets the mass content of Ge in the metallization equal to 40%. Thereafter, the GaAs wafer is subjected to the first thermobreak is in a single vacuum cycle at T 1=100°C for t=60 minutes Then, the plate is removed from the vacuum chamber and after removal of the mask runs in the danger of the second heat treatment at a temperature T2=400°C for t=30 min in vacuum at a residual pressure atmosphere 10-7Torr.

The disadvantages of this method include low enough the value of a given contact resistance.

The main technical objective of the proposed method is to reduce the values shown in the contact resistance.

The main technical problem is achieved in that in the method of manufacturing a Cu-Ge ohmic contact to GaAs, including the creation on the surface of the plate n-GaAs resistive mask, the deposition on the plate surface of the n-GaAs films of Ge and Cu, the first heat treatment, removing the plate n-GaAs from the vacuum chamber of the spraying installation, removal resistive mask and the second heat treatment, characterized in that the removal of the resistive mask is performed after the extraction plate n-GaAs from the vacuum chamber installation spraying before or after the first heat treatment in an atmosphere of atomic hydrogen at a temperature of from 20 to 150°C and density flow of the hydrogen atoms on the plate surface of the n-GaAs equal to 1013-1016the ATA. cm-2with-1.

In the particular case instead of plate n-GaAs using epitaxial heterostructure of GaAs with an n-layer on a surface the property.

In the particular case of the films deposited on Ge and Cu, and the first heat treatment in an atmosphere of atomic hydrogen is produced in a single vacuum cycle.

In the particular case of the films deposited on Ge and Cu, and the first heat treatment in an atmosphere of atomic hydrogen is carried out in a vacuum chamber at a pressure of residual atmosphere of less than 5×10-6Torr.

In the particular case of initially precipitated Cu film and then the film Ge.

In the particular case of thicknesses of Cu and Ge is chosen so that the mass content of Ge in the two-layer composition is 20-45%.

In the particular case of the films deposited on Ge and Cu simultaneously or alloy CuGexor from two independent sources of Cu and Ge with the formation of the film CuGexwhere x=0,2-0,45.

Conducted by the applicant's analysis of the level of technology has allowed to establish that the analogs are characterized by the sets of characteristics is identical for all features of the proposed device are missing.

Search results known solutions in this and related areas of technology in order to identify characteristics that match the distinctive features of the prototype of the invention has shown that they do not follow explicitly from the prior art.

Of certain of applicant's prior art there have been no known effect provided essential features of the invention transformations on achievement at asanoha technical result. Therefore, the invention meets the condition of patentability "inventive step".

The drawing shows the dependence of the above contact resistance ρ of ohmic contacts to n-GaAs-based films of Ge and Cu with 45%germanium concentration from the temperature of the second heat treatment T in vacuum, obtained according to the method of the prior art (curve 1) and for the proposed method (curve 2).

The proposed method consists in the following. On the surface of the plate n-GaAs having a doped layer, with the aim of implementing the process of the inverse lithography is formed of two-layer resistive mask. To clean the surface in the Windows of the mask plate n-GaAs is processed in an aqueous solution of H2SO4or HCl with subsequent rinsing in deionized water and drying. Then using methods of electron-beam and/or thermal evaporation in vacuum at a residual pressure of less than 5×10-6Torr is the deposition of films of Ge and Cu total thickness of 100-500 nm with a mass content of germanium in a two-layer composition, equal 20-45%. Then the plate is removed from the unit spraying and uploaded installation for carrying out the first heat treatment in an atmosphere of atomic hydrogen at a temperature T1=20-150°C at a flux density of hydrogen atoms on the surface of the plate equal to 1013-1016the ATA. cm-2with-12=280-460°C for t=0.5 to 30 minutes

The second heat treatment can be performed with a gap of a vacuum cycle to another installation of annealing, and in the case where the resistive remove the mask before the first heat treatment, in a single vacuum cycle with the first heat treatment.

The films deposited on Ge and Cu, and the first heat treatment may be performed in a single vacuum cycle at the above conditions.

The minimum and maximum values of mass content of Ge in the two-layer composition the 20% and 45%, respectively, are determined by the fact that at smaller or larger values of the contact resistance of ohmic contacts becomes unacceptable regardless of the method and its modes of the first and second heat treatment.

The minimum value of the flux density of hydrogen atoms on the surface of the plate equal to 1013the ATA. cm-2with-1defined by the fact that at lower values is not achieved technical result of the invention in connection with the competition between the processes of oxidation, metallization OK gases present in the residual atmosphere in the vacuum chamber, and its reduction with hydrogen atoms. Maximize the value of the flux density of hydrogen atoms on the surface of the plate, equal to 1016the ATA. cm-2with-1that limit is determined by technical possibilities of today sources of atomic hydrogen.

The minimum temperature of the first heat treatment T1=20°C is determined by the minimum room temperature, typical for clean rooms microelectronic production. The maximum value of the temperature of the first heat treatment T1=150°C is determined by the maximum temperature for which there is the effect of cleaning the surface of the Cu from the native oxide and its subsequent passivation by hydrogen atoms.

The temperature and time intervals of the second heat treatment (T2=280-460°C, t=0.5 to 30 min) sets the minimum and maximum thermal budget required for the formation of ohmic contacts with a minimum value of the given contact resistance.

Example.

The example demonstrates the technical result achieved by the proposed method on how the prototype, and the ability to achieve a technical result in the temperature of the second heat treatment.

Used heteroepitaxial structures of GaAs/AlGaAs/InGaAs with the concentration of electrons in the upper n-GaAs layer with a thickness of 50 nm, equal to 5×1018cm-3. On the surface of the plate was formed a two-layer resist the main mask with topological pattern of ohmic contacts. Before deposition of the metallization to clean the surface and remove native oxides of arsenic and gallium plate n-GaAs were processed in an aqueous solution of H2SO4(1:10) for 3 minutes, subsequently rinsed in deionized water and drying in a stream of nitrogen. Then, the plate n-GaAs was divided into two parts and loaded into the vacuum chamber. On both parts of the plate with the serial film deposition of Ge and Cu was formed a two-layer composition with a mass content of germanium equal to 45%. The residual pressure of the atmosphere was 4×10-6Torr. Immediately after deposition, by analogy with the method of the prototype, the first part of the plate n-GaAs subjected to first heat treatment in vacuum at T1=75°C for t=60 minutes thereafter in accordance with the proposed method both plates of n-GaAs is removed from the vacuum chamber installation deposition and was exposed to the air. Then the second part of the plate n-GaAs was processed in an atmosphere of atomic hydrogen at a pressure of molecular hydrogen p=10-4Torr and flux density of the hydrogen atoms of 1015the ATA. cm-2with-1for t=5 min at a temperature T1=22°C. Next, with both plates of the n-GaAs was removed resistive mask, which led to the formation of the topology of ohmic contacts.

Then both parts of the plate at the same time p who was dergalis second heat treatment in the temperature range T 2=200-500°C for t=180 seconds in vacuum.

The value of the given contact resistance was measured by the method of transmission lines 10 tests, and then were averaged.

From the drawing, which shows the dependencies listed in the contact resistance ρ from the temperature of the second heat treatment T2for ohmic contacts, obtained according to the method of the prior art (curve 1), and ohmic contacts, obtained by the proposed method (curve 2)shows that the formation of contacts on the proposed method at temperatures above T2=400°C can reduce the value of a given contact resistance 1.6 times relative to the prototype method.

In the case of the prototype method, after the first annealing and the extraction plate n-GaAs from the installation deposition, oxidation of the surface metallization of ohmic contacts, which does not allow the second heat treatment to achieve a minimum values listed in the contact resistance. In the case of the proposed method after extraction plate n-GaAs processing plate in atomic hydrogen, which removes metal oxides and passivates the cleaned surface by hydrogen atoms.

1. A method of manufacturing a Cu-Ge ohmic contact to GaAs, including the creation on the surface of the plate n-GaAs resistive mask, the deposition on the surface is the face plate of the n-GaAs films of Ge and Cu, the first heat treatment, removing the plate n-GaAs from the vacuum chamber of the spraying installation, removal resistive mask and the second heat treatment, characterized in that the removal of the resistive mask is performed after the extraction plate n-GaAs from the vacuum chamber installation spraying before or after the first heat treatment in an atmosphere of atomic hydrogen at a temperature of from 20 to 150°C and flux density of hydrogen atoms on the plate surface of the n-GaAs equal to 1013-1016the ATA. cm-2with-1.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the plate instead of the n-GaAs using epitaxial heterostructure GaAs n-layer on the surface.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the deposition of films of Ge and Cu, and the first heat treatment in an atmosphere of atomic hydrogen is produced in a single vacuum cycle with the process of film deposition of Ge and Cu.

4. The method of claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the deposition of films of Ge and Cu, and the first heat treatment in an atmosphere of atomic hydrogen is carried out in a vacuum chamber at a pressure of residual atmosphere of less than 5 x 10-6Torr.

5. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the first precipitated film of si, and then the Ge film.

6. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the thickness of the films of Cu and Ge is chosen so that the mass content of Ge in the two-layer composition is 20-45%.

7. The method according to claim 1 or 2, otlichalis the same time, the films deposited on Ge and si are performed simultaneously or alloy CuGexor from two independent sources of Cu and Ge with the formation of the film CuGexwhere x=0,2-0,45.



 

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