Preparation method of bed deposits for advance mining at room-and-pillar system
SUBSTANCE: air supplying gate and the main air gate pass along opposite boundaries of mine field so that they run ahead of extraction front through the length equal to distance between axes of the rooms. At that, rooms have the length equal to width of mine field and are located between air supplying gate and ventilation air gate. Fresh air is supplied through the tunnel located in front of extraction front. At that, return ventilation air is removed along auxiliary air gate.
EFFECT: improving concentration of mining operations, reducing volumes of preparatory mine work, and decreasing air leaks through the worked-out area.
The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for mining of bedded deposits, such as potash.
There is a method of coal extraction chamber-and-pillar system, consisting of parallel openings along the strike of the formation, the preparation of the mining of pillars, for ventilation of the extraction field serves fresh air, followed by abstraction of the outgoing jet, excavation field prepare two blocks connected to each other on the flank of Bonami, with a fresh stream of air supplied through the workings of one block, and the outgoing stream divert through the workings of another block, and when the hollow pillar in the block, through the workings of which divert outgoing stream, in production, which produce the hollow pillars, optionally using local ventilation fans fresh air (U.S. Pat. 2229598 RF, MPK7: AS 41/18. 21F 1/00, Appl. 11.07.2003, publ. 27.05.2004).
This method has the following disadvantages: a large amount of mountain preparatory work, ineffective ventilation scheme.
The closest in technical essence and the achieved result to the present invention is a panel method for the preparation of a mine field, including the cutting of several panels with sinking air supply and ventilation panel drifts between which raspolagayut the camera length, the width of the panel. Fresh air is supplied by a vertical air shaft, outgoing stream is removed by vertical ventilation shafts. (Reconstruction of the ventilation network gypsum mine of OJSC "KNAUF Gypsum". / Aehrenthal, Win, Asianin, Laetitiam etc.// horn. Journe. - 2003. No. 3. - P.24-26.)
The disadvantage of this method is the breakdown of a mine field on the panel, which leads to the deconcentration of mining operations, the formation of branched ventilation network, complicating the management of air flows and growth of air leakage, increase the number of preparatory workings and specific volume of mining operations on one tonne of produced reserves necessitates penetration of preparatory workings on the entire length of the panel prior to the beginning of the treatment works, which increases the period of preparation of inventories for mining.
The technical result of the invention is to increase the concentration of mining operations, a significant reduction in the volume of mining and preparation work, as well as in reducing air leakage through the goaf.
This technical result is achieved in that in the method of preparation of bedded deposits to direct the development procedure with chamber-and-pillar system design, including the sinking of air supply and ve is relazioni workings, fresh air in the treatment chamber, removing the outgoing jet air ventilation shafts, air supply and the main ventilation drifts along opposite borders of a mine field ahead of the front cleaning for a length that is a multiple of the distance between the axes of the treatment cells, while treatment chamber are in length equal to the width of a mine field, and have them between the air supply and ventilation drifts, fresh air passes through the tunnel, located ahead of the front of the treatment works, and remove the outgoing stream of air through the auxiliary air passage.
The invention is illustrated by the drawing, which shows a General scheme for the preparation of bedded deposits to direct the development procedure with chamber-and-pillar system development, where 1 is the boundary of a mine field, 2 - air drift, 3 - main vent drift, 4 - auxiliary ventilation drift, 5 - cleaning Luggage, 6 - adit 7 - splitting, 8 - fresh air, 9 - outgoing current of air, 10 - deaf ventilation jumper.
The method is as follows.
For the preparation of a mine field to direct the development procedure along opposite borders of a mine field 1 are preparatory development: the intake passage 2, the main vent 3 and su is magatelli ventilation 4 drifts. Air supply and ventilation drifts knock the treatment chamber 5. Completed preparatory develop ahead of the front of the sewage treatment works, located along the purifying chamber, a length that is a multiple of the distance between the axes of the treatment chambers, due to the fact that cameras are used for transportation of rock mass from the penetration of preparatory workings.
Of the intake passage 2 periodically as the development of mining operations, are shafts 6, knocking them to the surface. The distance between the tunnels is selected based on the maximum possible length of sinking air passage dead-end face. Sinking all the workings are drilling and blasting method. The mining of the reserves of a mine field exercise chamber-and-pillar mining.
Sewage treatment works are as follows.
From the camera in the direction of the array are splitting 7 for a length equal to the distance between the axes of the cameras, and russeck in turn are parts of the next camera. After a gradual connection passable sections to each other is formed next camera. Mining the mineral remains the reference pillars, which are rectangular in plan form.
Fresh air 8 into the mine enters the tunnel 6 and the intake passage 2, which is directed to the treatment chamber 5 and moves along unprocessed mA is Siwa, airing the faces. Outgoing air jet 9 from the camera is displayed on the sub 4, and then the main vent drift 3, from which a shaft is removed to the surface.
For isolation of the outgoing air flow 9 in the transport zboyco, formed by the sinking of the ventilation drifts, construct a deaf ventilation jumper 10. Repulsed minerals of the purifying chamber is transported to the surface through the tunnel 6.
Implementation of the proposed method of preparation consider the example of Kamsko-Ustinsky gypsum deposits.
The method of preparation of a mine field - Plast. The width of the camera is 12 m, length - from 900 to 1400 meters the Width of the pillar depends on the depth of development and is from 8 to 15 m Cameras connected to each other by rasejcami width 11 m, which are passed in the pillars. The host rock steady, all production carried out without fixing the roof.
The refinement of the reservoir are at full capacity drilling and blasting method, with the use of blast hole method. After blasting develop ventilated. Treatment chamber ventilated at the expense of mine depression, stub faces over a length of 10 m is ventilated by local ventilation fans type VME-6.
Ventilation drifts are ahead in relation to the working chamber on the length 66-88 m (two-treck alnoe the distance between the axes of the cameras). Air supply the roadway ahead of the front cleaning work on 352-440 M. Over the same distance, with the development of mining operations, are passed galleries. Annual podvigina front of the sewage treatment works is from 15 to 30 m depending on the length of the chamber and the applied parameters of the system development. The mine is ventilated suction method. Fresh air enters the mine galleries, and the exhaust air is given to the surface through the vertical shaft through the main ventilation unit equipped with a WATERS fan-30. When the ventilation network of the mine next gallery previous excluded from the network by installing a deaf ventilation jumper.
The use of the proposed solution allows to increase the concentration of mining operations, because with the new scheme of training the mining stocks is one front wastewater treatment works, moving across the entire width of a mine field that allows you to put in the same cell with a large number of workers and back faces. If necessary, it also allows you to increase production significantly without additional preparatory workings. Due to the wide scope of work is significantly reduced rate podvigina Stopes and in General the excavation front, which consequently reduces Ude the performance communications the scope of training per tonne of mined reserves.
When implementing the proposed method of preparation of the ventilation scheme minimizes air leakage through the goaf inherent in direct order of testing of the mine field and eliminates the need for construction of a large number of ventilation jumpers, it is reliable for the sustainability of air flow and well-controlled regulation of the distribution.
In addition, there is no need for the construction and operation of air supply vertical shaft, which reduces capital and operating costs (the costs of boring vozduhopodajushchej galleries several times less).
Thus, the use of the proposed solution allows to increase the concentration of mining operations with a significant reduction in the volume of mining and preparation work (as all mine field is prepared only two groups of mines - air supply and ventilation, along the borders of a mine field), and also to reduce air leakage through the goaf.
The method of preparation of bedded deposits to direct the development procedure with chamber-and-pillar system design, including the sinking of air supply and ventilation openings, the flow of fresh air to the treatment chamber, the removal of the outgoing air stream is about a shaft, characterized in that the air supply and the main ventilation drifts along opposite borders of a mine field ahead of the front cleaning for a length that is a multiple of the distance between the axes of the treatment cells, while treatment chamber are in length equal to the width of a mine field, and have them between the air supply and ventilation drifts, fresh air passes through the tunnel, located ahead of the front of the treatment works, and remove the outgoing stream of air through the auxiliary air passage.
SUBSTANCE: gate includes double-leaf bed installed in box and longitudinal and transverse bed movement mechanisms. Elastic seals are arranged in closed position of gate between box and front surface of bed, as well as on rear surface of bed. Simultaneous pressure of bed leaves to box is performed with external support fixed in the wall of underground mine working.
EFFECT: higher strength of double-leaf bed of gate and higher sealing reliability of underground mine working.
7 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: composition of a filling mixture, containing cement, a surfactant, a filler and water, as a binder it additionally contains a ground blast-furnace granulated acidulous slag, containing particles of less than 1 mcm of at least 4.3%, the surfactant is a superplasticiser SP-1, and the filler is a mixture of wastes of dressing of wet magnetic separation of ferric quartzites with slag crushed stone at the following ratio of components, wt %: cement - 4.85; specified slag - 12.1; specified crushed stone - 10; specified wastes - 55; superplasticiser SP-1 - 1.0% from cement; water - balance.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of cement, increased strength of massif, recycling of mining and metallurgical industry wastes and wastes of ferric quartzites dressing, reduced contamination of environment for considerable improvement of environment in the region.
1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises air flows displacement by moving electric train and feed fresh air to passenger platform by varying air density on said platform. Note here that train is provided with fluid air to be released in air space of metro station equipped with vent shaft. Air with higher density displaces warm dirt air into station vent shaft to replace it by fresh cold air.
EFFECT: fresh air feed in whatever season.
SUBSTANCE: proposed gate conveyor comprises transport flute made up of several interconnected sections with its both ends equipped with drive stations and/or scraper chain tensioning heads 4. Flute every section 19 has scrapper chain upper and lower runs confined by lateral sections and conveyor bottom as well as receiving appliances 18 arranged outside lateral sections for flute section connectors. Conveyor incorporates rotary support 11 for hinged joint with adjacent sections arranged between said connectors and between lateral sections at central lengthwise axis of flute section.
EFFECT: reduced wear and required drive power.
20 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: filling mixture compound contains the following, wt %: cement - 4.85, ground byproduct of vanadium production - 14.5, washery refuse of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites - 60.2, superplastising agent SP-1 - 1 of cement, and water is the rest.
EFFECT: reducing the consumption of cement at maintaining the accuracy of massif, utilisation of wastes.
2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: filling mixture compound includes ground granulated acid blast-furnace slag containing particles, %: less than 1 mcm - 4.3; less than 3 mcm - 12.6; less than 5 mcm - 17.2; as inert filler are processing wastes of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites, which contain particles, %: less than 1 mcm - 3.4; less than 3 mcm - 12.6; less than 5 mcm -17.2, water and in addition - composition of lime-gypsum byproduct of vanadium production and SP-1 superplasticising agent at the following component ratio, wt %: the above slag 16.1, the above composition 4.8, the above wastes 57.7, SP-1 superplasticising agent 0.0805 and water is the rest.
EFFECT: avoiding expensive cement, use of slag of lower grade, increasing the strength, enlarging and increasing volumes of utilised technogenic wastes for sufficient improvement of ecological environment of the region.
SUBSTANCE: installation includes fan, delivery line, inducing and water-spraying device installed on its end. Inducing and water-spraying device includes outlet head with annular outlet slot, receiver and compressed air supply nozzle. In order to increase energy use efficiency of compressed air owing to active mixing of inducing and induced jets, separation effect of inducing jet from convex surface is used in inducing and water-spraying device. Common air jet is passed through two-layer fine-meshed screen before it is emitted to atmosphere of mine working. In order to protect outlet slot against deformations, at HWL (high-water level) impact, inducing and water-spraying device is equipped with deformation-proof flange. Water supply nozzles to inner cavity of the main diffuser are installed on convex surface of the main diffuser at angles of 120 degrees to each other.
EFFECT: higher use efficiency of compressed air energy.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining engineering.
SUBSTANCE: according to the procedure mine working is filled with backfilling mixture layer by layer. Upon laying each layer of backfilling mixture is subjected to autoclave treatment; for this purpose an autoclave chamber is constructed in the vertical mine working by arranging an isolating bridge in it at distance for backfilled part of borehole equal to thickness of a backfilling layer. Thickness is multiple to a step of shaft furniture. The bridge is positioned under the tier of a divider. Upon autoclave treatment of the laid layer all furniture above it is dismantled by height of the backfilling layer.
EFFECT: reduced expenditures, facilitation of favourable ecology.
SUBSTANCE: method involves arrangement in worked out area of backfill material speed converter, supply to the well adjacent to the worked out area of subsequently loose and hardening backfill materials. Elastic closed cover with weight in its lower part and which is fixed on rope with hose is used as speed converter. The above cover is laid on dry backfill material layer; then, it is filled with compressed air till working pressure. Loose backfill material is supplied till the layer is filled with height not exceeding D diameter of cover. Then, hardening backfill material is supplied. Cover is lifted vertically through the height of new layer. Then, cycles for supplying of backfill materials and movement of cover are repeated till complete filling of the worked out area. Diameter D of cover in filled state is accepted equal to 0.2 B, where B is maximum linear size of the worked out area, m.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing distribution efficiency of fineness of backfill material and reducing the wear of speed converter.
SUBSTANCE: filling mixture compound including ground granulated blast-furnace slag, binding agent, inert filler and water contains the specified acid slag as binding agent with the following particle size distribution: less than 1 mcm - 4.3%, less than 3 mcm - 12.6%, less than 5 mcm - 17.2% and dolomite powder containing not less than 10% of particles with size of less than 1 mcm; wastes of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites as inert filler containing not less than 3.4% of particles with size of less than 1 mcm. In addition, composition includes surface active additive - superplasticising agent SP-1 at the following component ratio, wt %: the above slag 12, the above dolomite 10, the above wastes 60, water is the rest, and superplasticising agent SP-1 0.5% of slag.
EFFECT: larger volumes of utilised industrial wastes for sufficient improvement of environmental safety at maintaining the strength during 28 days.
1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method consists in maintaining the stable state of worked-out area with inter-chamber support pillars; at that, sizes of inter-chamber support pillars are determined from actual pressure of rocks on them, which are located inside the natural arch in its final position, and the pillar located at the joint of natural arches is determined considering the pressure on abutments of arches of those rocks which are located above the outlines of natural arches.
EFFECT: reducing the losses of developed mineral resources and improving the safety of mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: method for development of thick flat beds of minerals includes division into layers, arrangement of development openings in upper and lower layers, strengthening of development openings. Layers are developed downstream in longwalls. Development openings of lower layer pass under edge portion of bed, formed in process of upper layer longwalls development. Prior to arrangement of development openings in the lower layer, edge part of bed is weakened over route of development openings arrangement in the lower layer, for instance, by means of wells drilling in bed or creation of slot in bed. Development openings of the lower layer are fixed by anchors, at the same time depth of bed weakening is accepted as larger than width of development opening in the lower layer. Length of anchors is accepted as larger than distance from lower layer openings to bed roof, and depth of bed weakening above route of lower layer development openings arrangement is determined from the expression.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce labour intensiveness of works and costs for strengthening, to increase speed of development openings arrangement.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used to develop bedded deposits, for instance potassium ones, in case of reverse order of mining with unstable immediate roof. In process of panel preparation, tunneling combine is used to arrange one transport, two ventilation drifts and also mined slots on workable beds for the whole length of panel. Conveyor drift is tunneled with cutter-loader in sections as mining front advances. Stopes are mined on one of half-panels from conveyor drift. Transport drift is expanded by cutter-loader to section of its working element by periodic cuts, as mining front advances by the length multiple of distance between axes of stopes. During preparation of panel, ore passing wells are drilled from field conveyor drift down to design elevation of bed conveyor drift soil, and these wells are opened when conveyor drifts are tunneled on mined beds, as mining front advances. Distance between ore passing wells is selected as multiple of distance between axes of chambers.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to significantly reduce scope of mining-preparation works required to commission the panel, and to reduce time of its preparation.
8 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation and cutting operations, creation of horizontal 1,5,6,8,9 and vertical delineation 7 and separation artificial massifs 10, clearing withdrawal and filling in of developed area 12. All of the vertical artificial massifs 7,10, parallel to one of mutually perpendicular axis of a developing area horizontal cross section, to be trapezoid shaped with a long bottom foundation, to the delineation ones - rectangular shaped with a vertical side along the ore body contour 4 or developing area, the separation massifs 10 - isosceles shaped, and the trapezoid sides inclination angle defines form an equation tgα =hστ/(Poλσ - (Pa-Pb)τ), where h - floor height, m; σ and τ - the artificial massif compression and shear strength limits accordingly, MPa; λ - horizontal stress factor; Pa, Pb, Po - natural arch limit rock weight, part of the top artificial border massif weight and ore massif in a gap block weight accordingly. H.
EFFECT: invention allows creating a safe environment condition for high efficiency rate mine sections, delineated with artificial separation slabs, treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining and may be used in development of strong sloping beds of minerals, mainly coal minerals, by layer systems of development in descending order. Method for layerwise development of strong sloping beds of minerals at high depths, including separation of bed into layers, separation of layers into columns of mineral, development of columns in long breakage faces in descending order with abandonment of interlayer pack and performance of preparatory ventilation and haulage drifts of lower layer with displacement to the side of exhausted space relative to drifts of the first layer and abandonment of inter-column pillars. Prior to beginning of breakage works in upper layer, unloading slot is created from preparatory drifts of upper layer at the angle of 45° to vertical plane in direction of lower layer, at the same time depth of slot is identified according to the following formula - L=2/3m, where L is depth of unloading slot, m; m is efficiency of lower bed layer, m.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve stability and to reduce costs for maintenance of preparatory drifts, to increase safety of mining works performance.
SUBSTANCE: development method of lodes by layers with backfilling includes driving of preparatory-temporary workings 1, excavation of ore by diagonal layers 3, breaking by explosive blast holes into open area of layer, shipping of ore and filling of open area of layer by backfilling. Angle of slope of diagonal layer 3 is accepted equal to minimal limit angle, overcoming by self-propelled equipment. Backfilling is implemented up to designed taking-out capacity of lode by undermined rocks of bottom layer and/or granulated laying mixture from mill tailing.
EFFECT: effectiveness increase of development, cost cutting for development of lodes, losses of minerals and anthropogenic load to environment.
FIELD: mining engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises mounting of sections of powered roof support in the erecting room, a lava conveyor, a cutter-loader and a gripper pad, coal extraction using cutter-loader and formation of sections of seam roof powered support by means of separate entry ways and in each entry way by means of separate groups. The gripper pad sections are connected together by means of flexible coupling and the end sections are connected by means of pulling element with cable hoists located in the developing entry of the extraction pillar. After the gripper pad has been erected, the stress shall be created and hydraulic racks shall be actuated and the sections of lava conveyor shall be removed towards the future lava. In future, when performing the next entry ways in every two following entry ways the operation cycle concerning entry ways performing by separate groups of powered support section for lava seam roof shall be repeated. At the end of the last entry way performing before pulling the last group of powered support sections towards removed sections of lava conveyor the gripper pad shall be disassembled. Then these sections shall be pulled towards removed sections of lava conveyor and the process of formation of sections of seam roof powered support shall be finished.
EFFECT: improved efficiency and safety of formation of sections of seam roof powered support.
3 cl, 22 dwg
FIELD: mining engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and can be used at underground operation heavy abrupt layer with stowing of open area. Method includes implementation of layerwise drifts, upraise and alternate development of cut in horizontal fibers by means of combine and following filling of cuts by cast solid stowing. Before stowing supplying, on cut soil there are laid chutes and are installed shields for reservation as operating layerwise drift in waste horizontal fibers. Layerwise drifts are implemented up to beginning of layer development nearby top or nearby layer soil and they are used for coal transportation, ventilation and feeding of cast solid stowing into cuts of underlying horizontal layer.
EFFECT: increase of labour productivity and safety of mining.
SUBSTANCE: procedure for development consists in excavating layers with primary stopes mined in ore massif and with undercutting stopes driven in direct vicinity from filling mass and in supporting stopes with framed support. When driving the primary stope, there are assembled frames of the support consisting of a roof beam and two props. At driving undercutting stopes there are assembled frames of the support, each consisting of the roof beam and one prop located from the side of ore massif; the second end of the roof beam of the support of the undercutting stopes rests on filling mass. Before filling the undercutting stope driven from one of sides of filling mass formed in the primary stope, nearest to it props of the support of the primary stope are removed. Before filling the undercutting stope driven from another side of filling massif formed in the primary stope the roof beams and the second props of the support of the primary stope are removed. When there are used the roof beams of rectangular shape, width of the undercutting stopes is accepted below width of the primary stopes at a value equal to length of the section of the roof beam of the support of the undercutting stope resting on filling mass. While supporting stopes of rectangular or trapezoid shape with the framed support, there are used metal props consisting of two elements connected with a wedge-shaped lock.
EFFECT: preventing dangerous failures of host rock and reducing costs for stopes support.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: breaking of block stock is performed by means of inclined-directed down boreholes drilled from airway entry. To bore inclined sections of boreholes a common vertical section is used. Charging of boreholes is performed before the point of undercutting of the inclined section; the angle of layers incline is accepted as exceeding a minimal angle of incline to horizon of inclined sections of boreholes. Distance h between magnetised ore and ore massif is determined out of expression h=1.5W, where W is the line of the least resistance, m.
EFFECT: increased efficiency due to possibility to combine process of ore discharge and borehole drilling, increased safety of works and possibility to implement method in ores of medium and low stability.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes use of screw-drilling machine for driving of several first ventilation shafts in ore body and driving several second shafts, while second and each second shaft crosses, at least, one matching first shaft, forming first support walls, supporting ceiling. First supporting ceilings consist of ore body zones between neighboring second shafts, each first support wall has portion of at least one first shaft, passing horizontally through it. Horizontal channels are formed, each of which is placed transversely to matching second shaft between appropriate portions of first shaft, formed in adjacent support walls, for forming of group of continuous ventilation shafts. Second shafts are filled for forming second supporting walls, supporting well ceiling, and first supporting walls are extracted. First ventilation shafts can be made parallel to each other. Second shafts may be directed perpendicularly relatively to first ventilation shafts. In ore body air-outlet and air-inlet ventilation mines can be formed, placed at distance from each other along horizontal line, while first or each first ventilation shaft passes through portion of ore body between air-inlet and air-outlet ventilation mines. Driving of second or each second shaft can be performed by cutting machine, or by drilling or explosive mining.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
7 cl, 11 dwg