Reinforcement method of mine workings with anchor support
SUBSTANCE: reinforcement method of mine workings with anchor support involves drilling of bore pits into the roof to the bedding, installation of anchors into them with the part protruding into the mine working, mounting of support elements and tightening to the anchor protruding part. At that, the part of anchors, which protrudes from bore pits, is unbent so that a blunt angle is formed between protruding part of anchor and that part of anchor, which is located in the bore pit, and protruding part is located perpendicular to the bedding. Support elements are installed after unbending of protruding anchor part.
EFFECT: increasing carrying capacity of anchors under influence of vertical loads.
The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for securing mining.
There is a method of securing mining anchor support (patent RU №2081331, publ. 10.06.1997,). The invention consists in the fact that locate into the rock drilling the hole, is formed on the walls of the helical groove, and before tightening the bolt in the borehole posylaut legacimusic element impregnated with lubricating fluid, which as screwing the anchor enters the screw gap between the walls of the borehole and the anchor pins.
The disadvantage of this method is the complexity of technology securing mining, associated with the large number of operations and their complexity.
There is a method of securing mining (A.S. USSR №1305356, 1987), which includes the drilling of boreholes, installation of anchors with loops at the ends of the shanks, the suspension to the anchors steel metal grates, rough-in loop anchors metal rope and tension by twisting the twist by the spacer elements, lay in the gap between the ropes and surface generation, followed by coating the surface of the shotcrete concrete.
The disadvantage of this method is that the tension of the metal rope by twisting the twist usually leads to breakage of part of its wires and powerproject. In addition, over time the metal rope capable of being extended, which together with the total displacement of the rocks inside production leads to a reduction of tension and an overall reduction efficiency of the lining.
There is a method of securing mining in fractured rocks, strengthening the pillars, the pitwall and the like, as well as to enhance the deformable monolithic concrete and reinforced concrete structures (patent RU №2177550, publ 27.12.2001,), which is closest to the invention to the technical essence and the achieved result and which we accept as a prototype. The method includes drilling rows of holes, installation of anchors, curl their tails along the production and pressing of the shank to the surface workings. Grip anchors between a make with the help of area with holes made in its shelves. Bent end of the shank of the anchor of the previous row is passed through the opening in the shelf area, located perpendicular to the surface workings, and fix it. Anchor next series set in the hole through the slot in the shelf of the same area, adjacent to the surface of the excavation. The shank of the anchor may be fixed by means of the locking device. The shank of the anchor may be secured to the corner with tension. When attaching the shank between the shelf area and a locking device may be placed oppoftunity element. The shank can be secured by a wedge mounted between the shelf area adjacent to the surface of the produce, and the end of the shank. As the anchor can be used flexible cable. The anchor may be a composite of the anchor part and the shank of the associated hinge creases.
The main disadvantage of this method is that it does not increase the load bearing capacity of the anchor lining compared with the proposed invention.
The technical result of the invention is to increase the carrying capacity of anchors under the action of vertical loads.
The technical result is achieved in that the method of securing mining anchor support, including drilling holes in the roof to the unconformity, installation of anchors with serving the production part of the hinge on the inner part of the supporting elements and the tension, according to the invention have anchors are bent protruding from bore-holes part so that between serving and located in the hole portion of the anchor has an obtuse angle, and the protruding portion is perpendicular to the unconformity, and the supporting elements are set after limb protruding part of the anchor.
The method is illustrated in the drawing, where the drawing shows: 1 - anchor, 2 - the shank, 3 - roof.
The method is as follows. In the roof (1) drilled bore-holes who put them sealed with glue, then in the borehole set the anchor (2) and rotational movement of the crush it in the hole, crushing and mixing vials with glue, then anchor key unbent shank (2) of the anchor so that between serving and located in the hole part of the anchor has an obtuse angle, and the protruding portion is perpendicular to the unconformity. And this is followed by installation of the support elements (4) and tighten.
From the drawing it is seen that the vertical component of Pnthere will be more than Rwithand Rp
The advantage of this method compared to the prototype is less labor intensive work associated with the number of operations for installing a lining and increase the bearing capacity of the anchor under the action of vertical loads.
The tests showed that the bearing capacity of the anchor increases by approximately 40%.
The method of securing mining anchor support, including drilling holes in the roof to the unconformity, installation of anchors with serving the production part, the hinge support elements and tightening on the protruding part of the anchors, wherein the anchors are bent protruding from bore-holes part so that between serving and located in the hole portion of the anchor has an obtuse angle, and the protruding portion was located erpendicular the unconformity, and the supporting elements are set after limb protruding part of the anchor.
SUBSTANCE: mine working maintenance method mainly for mine openings reinforced with anchor support involves reinforcement of row anchors installed at drilling at the displacement period of roof rocks of the mine working by installing additional anchors into the broken roof rocks of mine working with their fastening in bore pits by means of ampule. In order to slow down the displacement process of rocks in local section of rock delamination of the anchored roof of the operated mine working, reinforcement of row anchors using additional anchors is made by dynamic impact on formation pressure intensity with possibility of roof rock reinforcement. Prior to installation of additional anchors there pre-evaluated are displacement values of roof rocks of mine working and when they exceed standard values, according to safety rules, there determined is the boundary of rock delamination zone of anchored roof of mine working. At that, bore pits for additional anchors are drilled into mine working roof within the designated boundary of the above zone with their location on staggered order in relation to row anchors. After that, first, ampules are delivered to each bore pit; they contain expanding composition the solidification time of which is more than solidification time of ampule with quick-acting fixing agent, which is arranged in the opening of bore pit after the deep part of the bore pit is filled with ampules with expanding composition. At that, at installation into bore pits of additional anchors within the boundary line of rock delamination zone of anchored roof of mine working with destruction of ampules in them owing to spread of expanding composition of ampules around those anchors with its further solidification in deep part of bore pits and compression of reinforced rocks there formed are rock blocks around additional anchors with increased side bracing between them, which contributes to occurrence of adhesive forces of delaminated roof rocks as to their lamination and formation of reinforced zone in roof of mine working in local section of its delamination.
EFFECT: increasing mine working maintenance efficiency.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of anchor installation includes drilling a blast hole in a mine wall, insertion of a spiral into it, as well as an anchor rod with a helical groove at the external surface and impression of the spiral turns into the blast hole walls. At the same time at first the spiral is inserted into the blast hole, and then the anchor rod is screwed into it, deforming the cross section of the spiral turns as they are impressed into the blast hole walls. Dimensions of the anchor rod are selected such that the cross section of the spiral turns in the initial condition is more than the distance between the blast hole walls and the bottom of the helical groove of the anchor rod.
EFFECT: increased reliability of anchor adhesion to blast hole walls.
8 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to support mines, preferably mines with preservation for subsequent use when working coal beds in long columns includes reinforcement of short anchors of the first phase installed when working in the mine roof by adding longer anchors of the second phase with their arrangement in staggered order in respect of the short anchors of the first phase and in the plane of the cross section of the mine. Additional long anchors of the second phase are hollow anchors with helical winding at their external surfaces. Besides, installation of the second phase anchors is carried out along the mine in separate sections, length of each one is accepted as corresponding to the length of the end part of the abutment pressure in the mining face equal to 0.3 l, where l is length of the mining face abutment pressure zone. At the same time conditions of mine support are ensured in the following order, first at the next section of the mine the specified anchors are installed simultaneously with mining face sweep to advance this mining face by 1.3 of the length of its abutment pressure zone, in front of which there is a section of the mine with the length equal to 0.3 l, with previously installed anchors of the second phase in front of the abutment pressure zone. And then, as the mining face is swept, as soon as the mine section with previously installed anchors of the second phase, located in front of the abutment pressure zone, gradually gets under the effect of the end part of the abutment pressure zone, the roof rocks flaked at this section are strengthened in stages by injection of a fixer solution into them via hollow anchors of the second phase, thus developing a strengthening zone in the mine roof, which helps to slow down the process of flaky cracks formation in the thickness of the mine roof rocks thickness. At the same time as works are completed to strengthen the roof rocks at the specified section of the mine being under effect of the end part of the abutment pressure zone, anchors of the second phase are again installed at the next section of the mine provided that the specified advancement of the mining face is observed, and flaked rocks of the roof are strengthened at the previous next section of the mine with installed anchors of the second phase after it gets under the effect of the end part of the mining face abutment pressure zone. Further as the mining face is swept, operations are continued as per the prescribed order to install anchors of the second phase in front of the zone of abutment pressure and strengthening of the flaked rocks of the mine roof in the period of effect of the end part of the abutment pressure zone at the specified sections of the mine corresponding to these operations.
EFFECT: preservation of the mine in the operational condition for repeated use behind the mining face.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: during reinforcement of mine workings with anchor support, mainly of workings of rectangular shape of cross section, first, inclined bore pits are drilled into roof of working during the process and installation of anchors in them is performed with inclination towards the working face of mine working and towards its mouth, as well as installation of anchors with inclination onto the flanks of mine working. Together with drilling of inclined bore pits into the roof of mine working there drilled are inclined bore pits into flanks of the mine working; at that, bore pits for anchors are drilled into the roof and flanks of the mine working are drilled as per the specified mine rock anchoring scheme according to which installation of inclined anchors in bore pits is performed in rows. In each of the rows the anchors inclined towards the face of the mine working and anchors inclined towards the mouth of mine working are installed in bore pits in alternating order and with observation of the condition of their location in staggered order in relation to each other in adjacent orders. At that, drilling of inclined bore pits and installation of anchors in them in each row along the outline of mine working is performed following the face through the length of process displacement of the made mine working. Anchors inclined towards the face of mine working and its mouth are installed in each row at an angle to longitudinal axis of mine working, which is equal to 65-70°, with possibility of their spatial crossing between adjacent rows of mine rocks reinforced with anchors along the outline of the mine working.
EFFECT: increasing reinforcement efficiency of mine workings and increasing labour safety.
SUBSTANCE: construction of cement hopper for mining machine is an individual element. Mining machine is intended to drill holes in the rock and to pump cement to the holes, and includes mixer, cement hopper and supply device for supplying cement from lower cement hopper end to the mixer. At that, mining machine is equipped with moving device for moving the cement hopper between the position of being used at the top of the mining machine and the position of filling, which is different from the use position.
EFFECT: easy and simple loading and use of the mining machine hopper by workers.
6 dwg, 21 cl
SUBSTANCE: method for supporting mine workings with thermal strengthening of unstable rocks involves drilling at the roof-to-bottomhole interface on each driving of vertical wells and in the section with them of inclined wells with the length exceeding the length of drivings by the value of the lock part of anchor, installation of anchors in them and engagement of vertical and inclined anchors with end parts at each driving. At that, one part of drilled wells is equipped with thermal elements providing the temperature at their combustion, which is enough for the required strengthening of rocks in the volume of solid mass section between neighbouring wells, and other part of wells is used for further support of mine working with anchors. Connection and interaction of inclined and vertical anchors between each other and with solid mass of rocks is provided by means of support angles and tension nuts.
EFFECT: improving reliability of use of rock bolting and increasing stability of mine workings at their development and support.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for development of contiguous coal seams series includes downstream seams development, arrangement of development openings along overworked seam, strengthening of development openings and development of seams through long breakage faces. Area of higher overburden pressure zone location is identified in overworked seam, together with stress values in sections of massif along route of development opening arrangement that are located in zone of higher rock pressure. Depth of higher crack intensity area propagation in development opening roof rocks is identified for each section. Development openings are fixed by bolting, length of bolts is accepted as higher than depth of higher crack intensity area propagation in roof rocks. Development openings of overworked seam pass after completion of the second working related to formation of unworked coal edge parts and pillars along upper bed. With encapsulated fixation of bolts length of blasthole is determined using specified expression.
EFFECT: reduced costs for maintenance and enhancement of reliability in functioning of overworked seam development openings arranged in zones of higher overburden pressure.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for reinforcement of mines includes drilling of inclined wells at roof and bottomhole coupling aligned at each cut of vertical wells, with length exceeding length of cuts by value of anchor locking part, installation of anchors in them and engagement of vertical and inclined anchors with their end parts at each cut. Fixation of anchor ends is done with the help of support angle having holes provided in its shelves, and nuts, one of which is used to tighten vertical anchor, and the other one is used to tighten anticipatory inclined anchor. At the same time number of cuts along length of inclined anchors in front row is selected depending on condition of roof rocks in front of bottomhole.
EFFECT: improved stability of mines roofs in areas of highly cracked rocks and in zones of ruptured tectonic disturbances.
SUBSTANCE: after installation of mining anchor with anchor bolt, in particular expandable friction tubular anchor with end cartridge in front, into previously drilled well, adapter is installed on cartridge with the possibility to supply and drain the liquid. On the one hand, using injection pipeline of excess pressure maintenance, excess pressure is developed, which fixes adapter on cartridge. On the other hand, fluid rushes along expansion pipeline into anchor bolt and starts filling it. At the same time anchor bolt, due to pressure rise, under action of excess pressure, expands in drill hole, so that its external surface presses its walls and therefore fixes mining anchor in drill hole. Due to the possibility to supply gas with the help of adapter, pressurised gas, for instance compressed air, may be supplied into anchor bolt prior to and/or after its expansion.
EFFECT: compressed gas is bled after removal of adapter and almost fully drains fluid available in anchor bolt.
16 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: mine excavations fastening method during potassium salt field's development concludes in anchor bolts installation with rock bolting support and counterforce elements, the rock bolting made of polymer material Cover the rock surface between anchors with a protection element, made of polymer cloth, which does not allow moisture and water vapors penetration, at least in one side direction The polymer cloth fixed to the rock surface by pressing it to the rock with support elements The pit bolting for the rock excavation fastening during potassium fields development contains anchor bolts made of polymer material as bearing rods with support and counterforce elements, support slabs, installed between support elements and a mine roof rock, claw nuts and the protection element as a polymer cloth, which does not allow moisture and water vapors penetration, at least in one side direction, fixed on the mine roof with support slabs.
EFFECT: decrease of water vapor and pit aggressive waters influence on a mining equipment, operation casts decrease, undergoing mining equipment lifetime increase.
4 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry, particularly for supporting stall roofs.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling boreholes in roof and extending boreholes to perform breaking; pouring fixing mix into boreholes; loading explosive charges and blasting thereof, wherein anchor is introduced in bottomhole section and wooden self-loosened plug is placed between explosive charge and the anchor.
EFFECT: increased supporting reliability and operating safety.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly for mine tunnel anchoring with steel-and-polymeric anchors.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling boreholes; inserting at least one ampoule into the borehole; driving assembled anchor into the borehole, wherein anchor includes rod, fastening nut, support ring, support and spherical washers; rotating anchor up to ampoule breaking; mixing chemical components: tightening the nut after polymerization finishing; turning fastening nut against stop by drilling rig torque applied through fitting; continuing rod rotation so that rod passes beyond the fastening nut screwed on threaded rod tail of the anchor and fixed against damage by ring installed on end of threaded rod tail. Borehole is drilled and anchor is driven with the use of the same mechanism, namely with left-handed telescopic rock drill.
EFFECT: reduced costs for anchor production and installation.
FIELD: mining, particularly means for mine contour bolting.
SUBSTANCE: tightening device comprises clutch connected to rope in axial orifice by means of wedge-like bush. The bush comprises thread and nut located on outer surface thereof. Annular groove is formed in clutch end, which receives rope. Guiding means surrounding the rope is installed in the annular groove. Opposite clutch end has outer surface defining hexahedron.
EFFECT: increased flexural rigidity of cable part connected to clutch, simplified clutch structure and increased operational efficiency.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to support and consolidate rock.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling injection and drain wells; connecting bolts with support members in well bottoms; applying isolation covering on mine surface after rock shifting; injecting binding composition into rock via the injection wells to create rock-and-concrete shell around the mine; maintaining maximal binding composition pressure in injection wells free of fluid losses for half and hour; applying load to bolts in rows in direction from excavation face. Bolts fastened with powder mineral filler without support washer installation may be used. During bolt fastening in drain wells the wells are filled with mineral filler for the full length thereof and well heads are supported with filtering material. During bolt fastening in injection wells the wells are filled with mineral filler for minimal height necessary for uniform bolt fastening. The height is selected so that upper level of mineral filler is outside stable massif contour.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of rock consolidation.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly methods to fill slope secured with roof bolting.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling-out massif area around each roof bolt to be removed. For massif area drilling-out runner rod and grilled lagging are taken away in roof bolt removal zone. Then guiding bush is screwed on rod end projected in mine and freed of fastening nut and support member so that the guiding bush is restricted from rotation. Drilling tool, namely drill-rod made of pipes with annular crown, is advanced along guiding bush side up to crown resting against rock. Then annular slot about rod to be removed is created for rock massif breaking along with core forming inside the pipes. After that rod is disintegrated from rock massif and core with rod is removed from annular slot under the action of external force. Rod is released from core rock by core rock breakage.
EFFECT: possibility to remove roof blots having different structures.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly mine lining with deep bolts.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling borehole; inserting necessary number of ampoules filled with chemical hardening mix in the borehole; inserting sharpened bolt end having length exceeding mine height in borehole and leaving another end in mine ground; locking bolt rod and support washer thereof with the use of sharpened metal bar having length equal to telescopic perforator advancing travel; moving the lock to borehole head by force applied thereto by telescopic perforator; repeating said movement operation to provide perforator connection with bolt head to rotate bolt for ampoule breaking and mixing; retaining bolt in borehole up to total mix polymerization. Borehole drilling and anchor installation are carried out with the use the same telescopic perforator.
EFFECT: increased reliability, decreased costs and time for bolt installation, simplified works due to possibility of integral bolt installation mechanization with the use of device for bolt forcing in borehole.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns the method of manual installation of the anchor bolts extended by means of impact of pressure of environment, including manual connection of a pressure source to an anchor bolt needed to be extended. The method includes the following stages: start of sequence of operations by the operator at which an anchor bolt is impacted by pressure to preliminary set level, and provision of preliminary set pressure during preliminary set period of time. The guidance system for connection to a pressure source contains means for impact on an anchor bolt pressure of preliminary set level and means for provision of pressure during preliminary set period of time. The device for installation of an extended anchor bolt by means of pressure impact on it, contains a source of pressure and means for manual connection to an extended anchor bolt.
EFFECT: possibility of provision of pressure for anchor bolts for maintenance of corresponding quality of their installation.
16 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method and device for installation of anchor bolts. There is suggested the method and device whereat a tube bolt of closed section is installed into interior section of a well and where an extensible part of the bolt is extended to the contact with the interior section of the well to be anchored in it. A tie positioned in the exterior section of the well and having an interior part fastened to the tube bolt is subject to a preliminary tension. Then a channel is opened for passing of hardening medium for connecting of the tie with an outer space by means of applying pressure of a specified value. Hardening medium is pressed into the exterior section of the well between the tie and a wall of the well which facilitates hardening of the medium.
EFFECT: facilitating fast, rational, economic and safe installation of anchor bolt in strengthened rock.
19 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to drilling elements and anchor bolts used at mining works and tunneling. The drilling element has opposed the first and second ends and a rod passing between the ends. At least one drilling head is positioned on the first end. The second end is adjusted for connection to a drilling facility to ensure rotation of the drilling element and to transfer axial force onto it. Along and around the rod there is assembled a bushing while the passage formed between the bushing and the rod facilitates flowing of fluid medium along the rod. Also there is suggested the drilling bit, the method of drilling with a drilling element and the method of stabilisation of rock.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of process of rock bolting and reduced costs for drilling elements.
57 cl, 31 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and can be implemented for entries fastening. The method consists in installation of wire coil on an anchor rod, in introducing the anchor into a bored blast hole and in impressing a turn of the wire coil into walls of the blast hole. The wire coil is assembled on the rod in a screwed groove cut in the rod. The diametre of the wire coil is bigger, than the diametre of the blast hole. The end of the wire coil introduced into the blast hole is secured on the anchor rod and is rotated in the direction wherein diametres of turns of the wire coil become less; after that, turns of the wire coil are pressed into the walls of the blast hole by elastic force of the wire coil. The device consists of the anchor rod, on the exterior surface of which the groove is cut. The wire coil is laid into the groove; the diametre of the wire coil exceeds the diametre of the blast hole. The end of the wire coil introduced into the blast hole is secured on the anchor rod. A head turned around with a wrench is assembled on the end of the anchor rod outgoing from the blast hole.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of the method due to reduced labour intensiveness at anchor installation and at operation, and also due to increased reliability of its cohesion with walls of the blast hole.
6 cl, 1 dwg