Method of producing polymer-wood composite materials from plastic and wood wastes

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to recovery of solid household wastes into polymer-wood composite material to be used in production of components and parts of machines, equipment and construction structures. Proposed method comprises wastes mincing, mixing, thermal extrusion and activation. Activation is performed by magnetic-acoustic resonance effects in the frequency range of 5 to 15 kHz and radiation power of 15 to 20 mW.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and rate, improved mechanical properties.

4 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the technology of recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW) and in particular the recycling of their plastic and wood fraction in the polymer-wood composite (PMC) material, which can be manufactured elements and parts of machines, mechanisms and structures. To do this, the resulting composite material must have certain performance characteristics such as toughness, hardness, durability, moisture resistance, etc. To impart these qualities in the polymer matrix impose various fillers and the resulting mixture is subjected to certain types of activation.

A method of obtaining a composite material of PVC and wood chips, including their mechanical mixing and activation of the electric heating to temperatures 130-220°C, followed by molding in a mold at a pressure of from 60 to 75 kg/cm2(Patent RF №16666306). The disadvantage of this method is poor impregnation of wood polymer and, as a consequence, the anisotropy of the composite material and low mechanical quality of produced products.

A method of obtaining a polymer composite materials, including the introduction of the filler in the polymer matrix, followed by curing, characterized in that the quality is of omnitele ferromagnetic material is used in powder form, and curing is carried out in a cyclic magnetic field (RF patent No. 2327717). The authors did not give the values of the parameters of high strength, but because the resulting material can only be used for the adhesive layers, seals, tapes, they may not be sufficient for building and construction products.

A method of obtaining composite materials, we have chosen as a prototype, of a mixture of a polymer matrix and filler, including grinding, mixing with subsequent activation of the mixture by microwave (MW) heating to a temperature of from 90 to 120°C at a flow of microwave power from 50 to 500 W/cm2at frequencies from 915 to 5200 MHz with the depth of penetration of the microwave field from 20 to 100 mm, for periods of time from 60 to 240 s (RF patent №2284335).

In the resulting composite material as filler using talcum powder, Portland cement, sawdust, mica, asbestos. Activating the microwave heating optimizes the pore structure of the filler, providing maximum impregnation of the polymer, which makes composite material is isotropic, and made of it products by extruding reduced moisture absorption, increased impact strength, resistance to tension and compression.

The disadvantages of this method include the following:

- after activating the microwave clean the Dimo rapid cooling of the mixture and maintaining it in this state within 24 hours, that does not allow carry out the process in a continuous mode, reducing performance and increasing operational costs;

- increase toughness, durability and decrease moisture absorption produced from the obtained composite material products largely depends on Portland cement, and not from activation of microwave heating. This is confirmed by the comparison of the values of these parameters obtained without activation microwave heating, but only using as filler Portland cement, and using the activation microwave heating;

for maximum polymer impregnation of the filler such as Portland cement, need intensive and prolonged stirring (as the authors do not say), and this requires additional costs.

For corrective features a continuous method of obtaining a polymer-wood composite (MPC) of the material at the disposal of plastic and wood fractions of MSW and manufacture high-quality and inexpensive parts and components of machines, mechanisms and structures. This is achieved by the fact that in the presented method, including grinding, mixing, heating and termextraction through a Spinneret, high strength and operational quality made products at the AET activation of the raw material mixture of the magnetic field in the acoustic frequency range. Engaging in interaction with the magnetic moments of atomic nuclei of polymer molecules, it creates a resonance effects, for which he received the name of magneto-acoustic resonance effects (MARV). It happens this way. It is known that almost all polymers consist of molecules linked by covalent bonds, representing the socialized part of the electrons of these molecules. In the process of mechanical crushing, these relationships weaken, and in some places even broken, breaking the physico-mechanical structure of the polymers. Generated MARV resonance effects not only prevent these violations, but also eliminate their consequences, making changes in the molecular structure. Thus, the resonant steric effect creates additional obstacles when moving molecules in branched polymers, which are characterized by a disordered packing. Resonant electronic effect due to the redistribution of electrons in molecules contributes to their consolidation and acquisition links with dense packing. And this is not only extensive, but also in linear and crosslinked polymers. Resonant magnetic striktsionnyj effect contributes to the compression of the links of the polymer chains with the formation of these dense packing ("Chemistry in action, volume II M Fremantle "WORLD", 199,).

Thus MARV forms in polymers sufficiently large number of so-called resonance structures, which give composite materials and produced from these products extra strength, increased impact strength and reduce moisture absorption. Parameters MARV, in which there are resonant effects have been selected in the process of special studies and had the following values: frequency range from 5 kHz to 15 kHz, the radiation power of 15-20 mW. Duration of exposure is determined by the transit time of the raw material mixture through thermoelectrodes and the die plate and lasts from 3 to 5 minutes.

A specific example of the proposed method.

Plastic waste, which is not split into "soft" and "hard" polymers, after crushing missing a screw mixer through the apparatus with three temperature zones 200, 230 and 250°C, where they turn into a eutectic mixture with the average of thermoplastic parameter ("Chemistry in action, volume I M Fremantle., MIR, 1998). The cooled mixture is pulverized in a rotary grinder to a particle size of 3-5 mm, mixed with sawdust, the chosen dye and method of termextraction in the temperature range of 180-210°C when exposed to MARV is converted into a polymer-wood composite material, which is mounted on the output termextractor file is and ensures the formation of an element or part of the required profile for the machine, mechanism or the building structure.

Efficiency MARV was tested as follows. Output termextractor set the die plate, which has a rectangular beam with a cross-section of 3×6 cm From the received beams were prepared three sample length of 30 cm for determination of physical and mechanical parameters that affect the operational characteristics of the products. Then output termextractor set the die plate forming the product in the form of a pipe with outside diameter of 6 cm and an internal - 3 cm, which was also produced three sample length of 30 cm In obtaining these samples raw material mixture is not subjected to activation MARV. In samples were determined density, hardness, impact strength, bending strength, compression strength, elongation at tensile strength, moisture absorption. The results of the determinations are given in table 1.

Then were made of similar samples, but when you activate MARV. Magnetoacoustic generator MAG-1 (RF patent No. 215508) installed at a distance of 20 cm from termextractor and raw mass was subjected to activation by its passing through timextender and the die plate, which lasted from 3 to 5 p.m. In the obtained samples were measured the same parameters as in the samples not subjected to activation MARV. The results are shown in table 2. The above tablicah results shows the activation MARV raw mixture, which was formed MPC material, allowed to improve their performance from 15%to 30%.

The proposed method has the following advantages over the analogue and other described methods:

- provides the technological process in a continuous mode using inexpensive method of activation, cheap matrices and fillers;

- allows to produce a wide range of products, the replacement analogues of wood, concrete and even metal, the cost of which 15-25% lower due to cheap raw materials;

- eliminates plastic and wood waste, which is the pollutant of the environment;

- products manufactured by extruding, do not require additional processing, which makes their production waste.

Table 1
Strength and operating parameters of products from MAC, not subjected to the activation effect
Measured parameter and dimensionForm sampleValues of measured parameters 7 sample
No. 1No. 2No. 3
Density, kg/DM3beam1,151,151,16
.pipe1,171,151,17
The hardness of Brinell, kg/mm2beam393939
.pipe383838
Impact strength,beam32,433,033,0
.pipe33,033,033,0
Resistance, good discharge performance what s in bending, MPabeam165163163
.pipe164164164
Resistance in compression, MPabeam109109108
.pipe108108108
Elongation at elongation, %beam0,520,510,52
.pipe0,60,60,6
Water absorption, %beam0,210,210,21
.pipe 0,210,210,21

Table 2
Strength and operating parameters of products from MAC, subjected to activation MARV
Measured parameter and dimensionForm sampleValues of measured parameters 7 sample
No. 1No. 2No. 3
Density, kg/DM3beamof 1.34of 1.34of 1.34
.pipe1,331,331,33
Hardness Brinnel, kg/mm2beam4545,145,1
.pipe 44,444,344,3
Impact strength,beam38,238,238,0
.pipe37,238,038,0
Resistance in bending, MPabeam190191191
.pipe206206207
Resistance in compression, MPabeam134134134
.pipe131132131
Elongation at elongation, % beam0,470,470,47
.pipe0,480,50,48
Water absorption, %beam0,150,170,17
.pipe0,180,180,18

1. A method of obtaining a polymer-wood composite materials of plastic and wood waste, including grinding, mixing, termextraction and activation, characterized in that the activation is carried out magnetic acoustic resonance effects (MARV) in the frequency range from 5 kHz to 15 kHz, and the radiation power of 15-20 mW.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the activation is subjected to a feed mixture consisting of plastic and wood waste, in the temperature range of 180-210°C.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the feed mixture is subjected to activation during its passage through thermoelectrodes and the die plate, which forms the product of the composite material is.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that MARV lasts from 3 to 5 minutes



 

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