Light-correcting polymer film and composition for making said film
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polymer compositions for making fluorescent and selectively radiation-absorbing films, which transform the ultraviolet component of natural or artificial light into radiation in the red region, which can be used in agriculture to coat greenhouses and soil when growing plants. The light-correcting polymer film contains a photoluminescent phosphor and a light-stabiliser, where the photoluminescent phosphor is yttrium phosphate-vanadate-borate activated with europium and/or yttrium phosphate vanadate activated with europium, and the light stabiliser is Tinuvin 622. The composition for making a light-correcting polymer film contains yttrium phosphate-vanadate-borate activated with europium and/or yttrium phosphate-vanadate activated with europium - 1.0-5.0 wt %, Tinuvin 622 - 1.0-3.0 wt % and high-pressure polyethylene - the rest. Composition is in form of granules which are a concentrate of modifying additives in a polymer matrix.
EFFECT: longer service life of the film.
8 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl, 4 ex
The invention relates to polymeric compositions for the preparation of fluorescent and selectively absorb radiation films, transforming the UV component of natural or artificial light emission of the red region of the spectrum that can be used in agriculture for covering greenhouses and soil for growing plants.
Known svetoprozrachnymi material and composition to obtain [EN 2007108564 A, 2008], including a matrix and at least one composite rare earth element, converting UV radiation into radiation of a different color, in the form of particles, or particles, of at least one composite compounds of rare earth element, converting UV radiation into radiation of a different color), these particles have a size from 10 to 1000 nm, depending on the composition of the composite connection it converts UV light into light with a wavelength in the range from 380 up to 960 nm. The matrix can be made in the form of a film of polyethylene, as well as the composite connection can be used, for example, phosphate-borate-yttrium Vanadate activated with europium or phosphate of yttrium Vanadate activated with europium.
Composition to obtain svetoprovodyaschego material includes patriciabrasel component and particles at m is re, one composite compounds of rare earth element, converting UV radiation into radiation of a different color, these particles have a size of from 10 nm to 1000 nm, and said composite compound has the General formula:
where Me is a metal selected from the group comprising yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, ytterbium, aluminum, bismuth, tin, titanium, manganese, calcium, strontium, barium, zinc, cadmium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium;
And a metal selected from the group comprising cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, ytterbium, bismuth, tin, titanium, manganese, copper, silver, gold, antimony, magnesium;
R is an element selected from the group comprising oxygen, sulfur, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, phosphorus, boron, vanadium, molybdenum, tungsten, tin, germanium, zirconium, titanium, niobium, tantalum, cerium, aluminum, gallium, indium and/or their connections with each other; a, b and C denote the charge of the ion, respectively Me, a or R;
as patriciabrasel component contains a polymer thermoplastic or soluble, or natural fiber, or synthetic, or mixed, or composition to obtain organic glass, or silica or modified silica, or prophetic the creation lesoobrazuyushchei or cleopatria in the following ratio of components, wt.%:
|composite connection||of 0.0001 to 10.0|
|patriciabrasel component||the rest of it.|
The disadvantage of the material [RU 2007108564 A, 2008] is the absence in the composition of sitosterolemia, which leads to a considerable reduction of the service life of the material. In addition, a particle size of 10÷1000 nm converts light composite connection ethnological, as it leads to excessive dusting during dispensing and to the introduction of this composite connections in the matrix, and also requires a more prolonged and/or intensive mixing of the composition with the polymer matrix in the manufacture svetoprovodyaschego material as compared with particles of larger size.
The famous song of the film of polymer material to cover greenhouses [EN 2127511 S1, 1999], which contains a thermoplastic polymer, stabilizer and optical activator based on compounds of europium, which as a stabilizer contains venosan-23, and as activator - strontium sulfide, activated by europium, or sulphide of strontium and calcium, activated by europium, or strontium sulfide, activated by europium, dysprosium and/or terbium, or sulphide of strontium, calcium, activated Euro is receiving, the dysprosium and/or terbium, when this optical activator may optionally contain phosphate of yttrium Vanadate activated with europium.
The disadvantage of the composition of [RU 2127511 S1, 1999] is used as the optical activators sulphide of strontium and/or calcium activated by europium, dysprosium and/or terbium, have low resistance and a relatively low quantum yield of luminescence. Venosan-23 in the composition is an antioxidant and prevents photoaging film under the action of UV radiation from the Sun. In the film for covering greenhouses on the basis of this composition is not sufficiently long service life.
Known polymer composition [EN 2229496 C2, 2004] for the manufacture of film coating on the basis of thermoplastic material containing oxysulfide yttrium, europium activated, and thermosettable, characterized in that it further comprises cvetokorrekciju additive (IR corrector), absorbing and converting the infrared component of the solar radiation into radiation in the visible spectral range and/or infrared radiation with a different wavelength, particle size particle size less than 20 microns, in the following ratio, wt.%:
|ACS is the yttrium sulfide, activated by europium||0,02÷0,5|
|The above IR corrector||0,04÷4,5|
|Thermoplastic material||the rest of it.|
As mentioned IR corrector used connection type M-Ln, where M is oxysulfide yttrium (lanthanum), and/or (oxy)halide yttrium (lanthanum), or (oxy)halide barium (calcium); Ln - erbium and ytterbium or as mentioned IR corrector used connection type M-Er, where M is calcium tungstate or oxysulfide yttrium; Er - erbium.
As thermoplastic material used is polyethylene grades of HDPE 15803-020 (the highest and first grade) and HDPE 15813-020 (the highest and first grade); a film based on the latter differed more high transparency and durability. Film (sleeve) with a thickness of 100, 150 and 200 μm was obtained by blowing using a laboratory extruder and industrial installations-type PPR, additives UV and IR correctors, thermostatization et al. introduced a method of dusting granules of polyethylene before loading with vaseline or transformer oil, as well as pre-production of a concentrate of these additives to polyethylene by analogy with met the wild prototype [US 6153665, 2000].
Known [US 6153665, 2000], selected as a prototype, in which the polymeric film for covering greenhouses contains
a) photoprobes additive based oxysulfide yttrium, activated by europium (photoluminous);
b) svedeteliami agent-based polyamidoamine;
C) as a polymer for forming a film used high-density polyethylene.
A method of obtaining a film includes the following steps: forming portions of oxysulfide yttrium, activated by europium, polyamidoamine and polyethylene with a concentration of additives in 50÷100 times higher than in the final film, the dilution of the composition with polyethylene at a temperature of 180÷220°C, with a feed rate of 0.5÷30 kg/hour.
In the composition of the prototype, as in [RU 2127511 S1, 1999], also used with weak luminescence and low lightfastness oxysulfide yttrium, europium activated. As a result, zvetokorrekcia properties of film coatings, issued on the basis of this composition, will be manifested only in the initial period of operation of the coating, and the action of expensive additives will stop much earlier than the operational characteristics of a film coating that define its service life (transparency and strength).
Object of the present invention is to provide a polymer composition is to obtain zvetokorrekcia polymer film for a long time keeping their optical and physico-mechanical properties.
The technical result is longer service life.
This object is achieved in that, as is known, the proposed svecokarelian polymer film contains photoluminous based compounds of rare earth element, converting UV radiation into radiation in the visible spectral range and/or in the infrared radiation range, light and thermoplastic polymer.
What's new is that as photoluminous it contains phosphate-Vanadate-borate, yttrium, europium activated, and/or phosphate of yttrium Vanadate activated with europium, and as sitosterolemia contains Tinuvin-622.
In addition, the content of the phosphate-Vanadate-yttrium borate activated with europium and/or phosphate of yttrium Vanadate activated with europium, is 0.1÷0.2 percent by weight of the polymer film.
In addition, the content of Tinuvin-622 is 0.1÷0.2 percent by weight of the polymer film.
In addition, the ratio of Tinuvin and phosphate-Vanadate-yttrium borate activated with europium and/or phosphate of yttrium Vanadate activated with europium is from 1:1 to 3:5.
In addition, thermoplastic polymer is a high density polyethylene (HDPE).
The task is achieved by the fact that, as is known, the proposed composition for obtaining the above zvetokorrekcia of polim the nuclear biological chemical (NBC film contains photoluminous based compounds of rare earth element, transforming UV radiation into radiation in the visible spectral range and/or in the infrared radiation range, light and thermoplastic polymer.
What's new is that as photoluminous it contains the connection phosphate-Vanadate-yttrium borate activated with europium and/or phosphate of yttrium Vanadate activated with europium, converting UV radiation into radiation in the visible spectral range and/or in the infrared radiation range, as sitosterolemia Tinuvin-622 and as thermoplastic polymer is high density polyethylene (HDPE), in the following ratio, wt.%:
|Phosphate-Vanadate-borate, yttrium, europium activated,the|
|and/or phosphate of yttrium Vanadate activated with europium||1,0÷5,0|
|HDPE||the rest of it.|
Preferably, the particle size of photoluminous was 5÷25 microns.
In addition, the composition is made in the form of granules, representing the concentrate photoluminous and sitosterolemia in the polymeric matrix.
In the present invention offer the but as a modifier (zvetokorrekcia) additives upon receipt of the polymer film for use in agriculture for covering greenhouses and soil for growing plants, use the following photoluminous: phosphate-Vanadate-borate, yttrium, europium activated, and/or phosphate of yttrium Vanadate activated with europium. These photoluminous have a good intensity of fluorescent radiation, high chemical stability in the polymeric matrix, both during processing and during use of the material. Life photoluminous in the polymeric film is three years. The content of photoluminous in the polymer matrix was found empirically and its optimal value is 0.2 wt.%. This content photoluminous observed effect of the material film for grown underneath plants (shorter period of development and increase crop yield). The increase in the content of photoluminous in the film to 0.5 wt.% does not cause a noticeable increase in the impact on plants and at the same time significantly increases the cost of material and degrades the optical properties of the film. The particle size of photoluminous - 5÷25 microns is preferred for use in process equipment dry blending in the manufacture of the composition and further concentrate.
Introduction to the material composition of sitosterolemia Tinuvin-622 in the amount of 0.2 wt.% is optimal to increase the service life of the polymer film to three years. From the change of the content of sitosterolemia to 0.1 wt.% reduces the service life of the polymer matrix, and above 0.3 wt.% leads to deterioration of the optical properties of the material and does not increase the service life of the polymer film.
The choice of sitosterolemia of Tinuvin-622 is defined by the fact that its absorption lies in another area other than areas of excitation spectra and luminescence selected photoluminous.
Used for the production of film coatings high-performance equipment can ensure the constancy of the optical and physico-mechanical properties cvetokorrekcii films only provided a good mixture of granulated polyethylene base grades, suitable for the production of films, with powdered modifying additives. The best results are achieved when mixed with granules of base grades of the polymer (HDPE) concentrates, which is the composition of the polymer matrix and the modifying additives in concentrations in 10-400 times the concentration of additives in the final product. The optimum composition of the concentrate photofluorescent composition to obtain a polymer film with a uniform distribution of the modifying additives is
|HDPE||the rest of it.|
This concentrate can be obtained on standard equipment, with the introduction of additives on the granulation phase of polyethylene. This concentrate when diluted it in a ratio of 1:9 (1 part concentrate to 9 parts of polyethylene) in the process of getting cvetokorrekcii polymer films allows not only to evenly distribute the additive in the finished film, but to ensure the best performance and application characteristics of the material.
Thus, the claimed composition allows hardware to get zvetokorrekcia film with consistently high performance, such as good luminescent properties and high mechanical strength during the entire period of operation of not less than three years.
The invention is illustrated in the drawing, which shows the dependence of the intensity of the luminescence offer cvetokorrekcii polymer films from the time of exposure.
The invention is further illustrated by the examples, confirming the possibility of its implementation to achieve the desired technical effect.
Example 1. To assess luminescent properties of polymer films based on pre-obtained mod is Ficedula supplements containing photoluminous, Tinuvin 622, was made a number of concentrates with different contents of photoluminous and sitosterolemia. From the obtained concentrates by dilution calculation amount HDPE base brand made film 20×0,120 mm extruder type Brabender with cast head with the contents of photoluminous phosphate-Vanadate-yttrium borate activated with europium, 0.1 wt.% in each sample. The results of determining the intensity of luminescence of the obtained films are shown in table 1.
|The intensity of the luminescence laboratory films containing 0.1 wt.% phosphate-Vanadate-yttrium borate activated with europium, obtained from concentrates of the composition HDPE (No. 1÷4) and in the dry mix additives and granules HDPE (No. 5)|
|No.||The content of additives in concentrate, wt.%||The intensity of luminescence, Rel. units|
|The phosphor||Tinuvin-622||Sample 1||Sample 2||Sample 3||Sample 4||Sample 5||Average|
As depicted in table 1 data, the composition of the initial concentrate photoluminescent modifying composition has almost no influence on the intensity of the luminescence obtained from it by dilution films, despite a twofold impact on the phosphor melt HDPE. The intensity of all of the films are nearly identical and equal to the index to film obtained by direct injection of powdered phosphor in the production process of the film without prior manufacturing concentrate (No. 5 in table 1).
However, the optimal physico-mechanical characteristics of the pellets of the concentrate were observed when the content of 2.0 wt.% phosphate-Vanadate-yttrium borate activated with europium, and 2.0 wt.% Tinuvin-622.
Example 2. To assess the luminescent properties of film cover photoluminous phosphate-yttrium Vanadate activated with europium, preparing laboratory film according to example 1, but with the addition of 0.2 wt.% photoluminous. The results are shown in table 2.
|The intensity of the luminescence laboratory films with a content of 0.2 wt.% phosphate of yttrium Vanadate activated Europe who eat obtained from concentrates of the composition HDPE (No. 6÷9) and in the dry mix additives and granules HDPE (No. 10)|
|No.||The content of additives in concentrate, wt.%||The intensity of luminescence, oted|
|The phosphor||Tinuvin-622||Sample 1||Sample 2||Sample 3||Sample 4||Sample 5||Average|
Adding of 0.2% (wt.) phosphate of yttrium Vanadate activated with europium, the luminescence intensity is increased by about 1.5 times compared with the films obtained in example 1.
Example 3. The stability of the phosphate-Vanadate-yttrium borate activated with europium, LDPE films with 0.1 wt.% phosphate-Vanadate-yttrium borate activated with europium, obtained from concentrates of different composition, were studied under conditions of accelerated photoaging. Figure 1 illustrates the dependence of luminescence intensity of the films from the time of exposure. The curve in the drawing corresponds to the film of No. 5 in table 1, are shown by points a deviation indicator for the rest of the films. The dependence of the intensity of luminescent and in conditions of accelerated photoaging little different for films, manufactured using concentrates of different composition. A slight decrease in the luminescence of the films during irradiation for 600 min corresponds to the conservation of the intensity of luminescence of the films in the field within three years.
Example 4. For industrial production of experimental batches cvetokorrekcii polymer films for biological testing have produced a concentrate composition of LDPE with the content of the phosphate-Vanadate-yttrium borate activated with europium, and stabilizer Tinuvin-622 2.0 wt.% on extruder type ZSC. The resulting concentrate is used to produce a trial batch of films by dilution his HDPE granules in a ratio of 9:1 on the film line URP-1500. As a control used unmodified LDPE film of the same parameters.
The results of biological testing cvetokorrekcii polymer films on the basis of the claimed composition are presented in tables 3÷5.
The examples clarify the invention without limiting it.
|The yield of sweet pepper varieties "hero"grown in greenhouses under zvetokorrekcia (experience) and unmodified (control) polyethylene is linkami (planting seeds 28.03.08, planting seedlings - 19.05.2008)|
|Indicators||Option greenhouses||The difference in|
the yield of the experimental plants relative to control, %
|Yield, kt/m2(number of fruit pieces/m2) on the date 04.08.08 (age, days) (99)||-||0,055±0,014||-|
The results of studies of the growth, development and fruiting of sweet pepper showed that under zvetokorrekcia polymer film compared to the control is observed slower growth of green mass, but significantly accelerates the development of reproductive organs. In the experimental plant of pepper observed earlier flowering and early fruit formation (1 week), intensive development of the buds, flowering and fruiting. This has led to an increase in the yield of the experimental plants compared to the control at 58%.
|The yield of eggplant varieties "Diamonds", are grown in greenhouses under zvetokorrekcia (experience) and unmodified (control) PE films (planting seeds - 28.03.08, Posad the seedlings - 19.05.2008)|
|Indicators||Option greenhouses||The difference in yields experienced plants relative to control, %|
|Yield, kg/m2(number of fruit pieces/m2) on the date 31.07.08 (age, days) (95)||-||0,097±0,032||-|
The results of studies of the growth, development and fruiting of plants eggplant showed that under zvetokorrekcia polymer film compared to control significantly accelerates as the development of green mass, and reproductive organs. Experienced plant eggplant observed earlier flowering (for 1 week) and the beginning of fruit formation (3.5 weeks), intensive development of the buds, flowering and fruiting. This has led to an increase in the yield of the experimental plants compared to the control at 65%.
|rogiest cucumber varieties of "Diva", grown in greenhouses under zvetokorrekcia (experience) and unmodified (control) PE films (planting seeds in the ground - 30.05.08, the beginning of the harvest-11.07.2008)|
|Indicators||Option greenhouses||The difference in yields experienced plants relative to control, %|
|Yield, kg/m2(number of fruit pieces/m2) on the date 11.07.08 (age, days) (42)||0,078±0,011||0,065±0,012||-16,7|
|Total yield, kg/m2||11,407±0,156||13,735±0,209||20,4|
From table 5 one can see that the growth of the fruit of cucumbers experienced in the greenhouse compared with the control occurs in two stages. The first stage falls on the beginning of fruiting (42÷56 days - from 11 to 25 July). At this point, the increase in yield in the experiment relative to the control is due to more intensive development of the reproductive organs of plants (ovaries) in the early growing season under zvetokorrekcia film. The second stage falls on the beginning of aging plants after 75÷80 days of the growing season (13÷18 August). At this stage, the rapid aging of the control plants and significantly slower aging of the experimental plants. This contributes to the fact that in the control greenhouse ending vegetation noted on the 105 day (12 September)and the end of the growing season in the experience - 119 day (26 September). Slowing the aging process, leading to lengthening of the growing season, increases the terms of the reproductive phase of plant experience, which increases their productivity.
1. Svecokarelian polymer film containing photoluminous based compounds of rare earth element, converting UV radiation into radiation in the visible spectral range and/or in the infrared radiation range, light and a thermoplastic polymer, characterized in that as photolumines the ora it contains phosphate-Vanadate-borate, yttrium, activated with europium and/or phosphate of yttrium Vanadate activated with europium, and as sitosterolemia contains Tinuvin 622.
2. The film according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains phosphate-Vanadate-borate, yttrium, europium activated, and/or phosphate of yttrium Vanadate activated with europium in an amount of 0.1÷0.2 percent by weight of the polymer film.
3. The film according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains Tinuvin 622 in an amount of 0.1÷0.2 percent by weight of the polymer film.
4. The film according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the ratio of Tinuvin and phosphate-Vanadate-yttrium borate activated with europium and/or phosphate of yttrium Vanadate activated with europium is from 1:1 to 3:5.
5. The film according to claim 1, characterized in that thermoplastic polymer contains a high-pressure polyethylene (LDPE).
6. Composition to obtain zvetokorrekcia polymer film containing photoluminous based compounds of rare earth element, converting UV radiation into radiation in the visible spectral range and/or in the infrared radiation range, light and a thermoplastic polymer, characterized in that as photoluminous it contains the connection phosphate-Vanadate-yttrium borate activated with europium and/or phosphate of yttrium Vanadate activated with europium, transforming UV radiation in the radiation is the visible spectral range and/or in the infrared radiation range,
as sitosterolemia contains Tinuvin 622 and as thermoplastic polymer contains a high-pressure polyethylene (LDPE) in the following ratio, wt.%:
|Phosphate-Vanadate-borate, yttrium, europium activated,the|
|and/or phosphate of yttrium Vanadate activated with europium||1,0÷5,0|
7. The composition according to claim 6, characterized in that it contains particles of photoluminous having a size of from 5 to 25 microns.
8. The composition according to claim 6, characterized in that the composition is made in the form of granules, representing the concentrate photoluminous and sitosterolemia in the polymeric matrix.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: heat accumulators are used for pre-starting heating power systems of building machine at period of inter-shift down-time in winter. Heat accumulating material contains 2-3 g of edible gelatine, 2-3 g of sodium chloride and 1-2 g of sodium hydroxide per 100 g of over saturated solution of three-water sodium acetate.
EFFECT: improved operational characteristics of heat accumulating material such as temperature of reaction, temperature of self-crystallisation and temperature of phase transition.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a polymer powdered composition re-dispersed in water. The powdered polymer composition re-dispersed in water contains one or more anhydrides of fatty acids in amount of 0.1-70 wt % per total weight of the powdered polymer composition. The method of preparing said powdered composition involves drying an aqueous polymer dispersion and a fatty acid anhydride or only the said anhydride in the presence of a protective colloid if necessary. Use of the said powdered composition combined with hydraulically setting binding materials in different areas of the construction industry. The invention is developed in subclaims.
EFFECT: enhancement of hydrophobic properties.
10 cl, 6 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of making thermal cells which are suitable for incorporation into disposable heating covers. The thermal cells contain an exothermal composition which contains an absorbent gelling material.
EFFECT: absorbent gel-forming material enables utilisation of heat when offering assistance during temporary or chronic bodily pain or diseases.
20 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a composition of refrigerant agent or heat-transfer liquid, containing at least one compound selected from a group consisting of fluoroolefins of formula E- or Z-R1 CH=CHR2 , in which R1 and R2 independently denote a C1-C6 perfluoroalkyl groups, and where the said compound has at least 5 carbon atoms.
EFFECT: disclosed fluoroolefin compositions can be used to replace existing compositions of refrigerant agents or heat-transfer liquids, which have higher global warming potential; furthermore, compounds used in the composition are non-flammable.
34 cl, 11 ex, 17 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a coolant or heat carrier composition which contains an azeotropic or nearly azeotropic component, which contains 1-99 wt % HFC-1234yf and approximately 99-1 wt % HEC-134a and, optionally, at least one compound selected from a group consisting of propane, n-butane, isobutene and dimethyl ether. The coolant or heat carrier composition optionally contains at least one more component selected from lubricant substances, isotopic indicators, compatibility agents, dyes which are fluorescent in UV light, soluble agents, stabilisers, water absorbers and deodorant agents. The composition is used in refrigerator installations, air conditioners and heat pumps, for cooling or heating, as liquid heat carriers, foaming agents, aerosol propellants and agents for suppressing or extinguishing fire.
EFFECT: composition with low global warming potential and low ozone layer depletion potential.
29 cl, 14 ex, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to phase change materials (PCMs) which can transform upon absorbing heat from solid or semisolid phase to liquid phase and from liquid phase back to solid phase when releasing the same amount of heat. Depending on their phase transition temperature, the materials can be used as heat-accumulating materials. The invention describes a method of preparing a polymer composition which contains heat-accumulating phase change material which is a salt hydrate in which at least one monomer, which is a vinyl compound, is polymerised in the presence of heat-accumulating material, where polymerisation takes place in an almost anhydrous polar medium and heat-accumulating phase change material is in molten state and the heat-accumulating product in which the polymer composition is used is obtained using the said method.
EFFECT: obtaining a composition which can be easily heated and mechanically processed without changing its structure and composition and without loss of phase change material, having several applications.
12 cl, 6 ex, 2 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to liquid compositions used to prepare abrasive slurries for loose abrasive mechanical processing. The composition contains 40-50 vol % polyethylene glycol and 50-60 vol. % water. The composition can contain a viscosity modifier which provides viscosity ranging from 40 to 100 cP, and a viscosity activator selected from triethanolamine and aminoborate. The invention also discloses a method of preparing a liquid composition for use in back-and-forth cutting with a wire saw. The liquid composition is obtained by mixing components of the composition. Abrasive particles selected from silicon carbide, diamond and boron carbide are uniformly dispersed inside the composition. A working slurry with concentration of the solid phase equal to 20-28% of the volume of the composition is obtained. Water is added to the working slurry in order to change viscosity to the one required for cutting.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain low-viscosity abrasive slurries which prevent settling down of the solid phase and reduce destruction of plates when cutting with a wire saw.
20 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to compositions of a cooling agent or liquid heat carrier, which contain: approximately 1-99 wt % HFC-1234yf, approximately 99-1 wt % ammonia. The invention also relates to methods of producing heat, coldness, replacing cooling agent with large value of GWP using said composition, as well as a method of using said composition as a liquid heat carrier.
EFFECT: disclosed composition can be used as heat carrier.
7 cl, 6 ex, 14 tbl
FIELD: wood working industry.
SUBSTANCE: method for heat recuperation in grinding of wood pulp includes ejection of pressurised wood pulp from high-pressure refining machine; introduction of at least filtrate from pressurised wood pulp into pressurised expansion cyclone; transfer of heat from expansion cyclone to water for its heating, and usage of heated water in process of wood pulp grinding. Meanwhile wood pulp is a pressurised suspension of fibres in liquid, besides, wood pulp suspension is pressurised with 3 to 6 bar. Pressurised wood pulp is a suspension of low or medium concentration and has the temperature of not lower than 140°C in the refining machine. Expansion cyclone maintains pressure in wood pulp at the level of 3-6 bar. Heat exchanger is additionally used for heat transfer. Wood pulp is ground in pulp mill, and a separate flow from pressurised expansion cyclone is used in a separate process at pulp mill.
EFFECT: increased power consumption in process of production of mechanical wood pulp.
12 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: heat-retaining composition contains 2.3-2.7 wt % strontium fluoride, 65.9-66.4 wt % strontium chloride, 22.3-22.8 wt % sodium chloride and 8.5-9.0 wt % strontium tungstate.
EFFECT: high enthalpy of fusion, density and electroconductivity.
1 cl, 2 tbl, 4 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: film contains a polyolefin base resin and a polyolefin carrier resin which contains 5-35 wt % CaCO3. The base and carrier resins are distinguished by molecular weight, density, flow melt index and/or polydispersity. The film can be multilayered, where the first layer contains one or more compounds such as ethylene vinyl acetate, ethylene ethyl acetate and ethylene acrylic acid, and the second layer is made from polyolefin containing calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate can be surface-treated with one or more fatty acids having 8-24 carbon atoms. The films have low rate of vapour and moisture penetration.
EFFECT: packaging materials made from said films are moisture sensitive.
33 cl, 5 tbl, 34 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves: (A) putting a product in a packing article, containing a multilayer wrapping film welded onto itself, (B) heat sealing the closed product so that the product is surrounded by the multilayer wrapping film; (C) heating the packed product to temperature of at least 212°F for at least approximately 0.5 hours, where heating takes place in the presence of vapour under pressure. The multilayer wrapping film contains: (1) a cross-linked first outer layer which serves as an insulating layer and the in contact with the product, and (2) a cross-linked O2-impermeable layer containing a mixture of: (i) 50-95 wt % in terms of the weight of the mixture of amorphous polyamide, which contains at least one polyamide selected from a group comprising PA-6I/6T; PA-MXD,I/6,I; PA-6/6,T; PA-6/6I; PA-6,6/6,I; PA-6,6/6,T; and (ii) polycrystalline polyamide which contains at least one polyamide selected from a group consisting of (a) 5-50% of the weight of the PA-MXD,6/MXD,I mixture and (b) 5-15% of the weight of the mixture, polyamide with or without a nucleating agent, having reduced viscosity measured in accordance with the ISO 307 test method from 150 ml/g to 245 ml/g.
EFFECT: obtaining a packed food product sterilised in an autoclave and having a long shelf life.
11 cl, 2 ex, 2 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: film is obtained from a polymer composition. The composition contains 90-99.95 wt % transparent thermoplastic - polycarbonate and 0.01-10 wt % transparent polymer particles on an acrylate base with a "core-cladding" structure with average diameter from 1 to 100 mcm. The film contains more than 500 mln-1 transparent polymer particles on the acrylate base with average diameter from 80 to 200 nm.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain films with high light transmission and light scattering.
5 cl, 4 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: sheet includes, in standard version, a permeable fibre-reinforced thermoplastic middle layer, having the first surface and the second surface. The middle layer includes structures with open cells, formed by accidental weaving of multiple reinforcing fibres, having the average length approximately from 5 to 50 mm and attached to each other by thermoplastic resin, having density approximately from 0.1 g/cm3 to 1.8 g/cm3, content of cavities is approximately between 1 and 95%, and approximately 20-80 wt % of fully or mostly noncompacted fibres or particles of thermoplastic materials. The multilayer sheet also includes at least one first reinforcement shell on the first surface of the middle layer, and at least one second reinforcement shell on the second surface of the middle layer. Each first and each second reinforcement shell includes a matrix of reinforcement fibres and thermoplastic resin, where reinforcement fibres of the matrix on the first surface, and reinforcement fibres of the matrix on the second surface are aligned in two directions. The structural component of a vehicle interior includes a seat back of the specified multilayer fibre-reinforced material.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability.
20 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to use of terpolymers of propylene/butylene/ethylene with a nucleating agent to form sterilising films obtained via extrusion blowing. A film is obtained from a polymer composition containing (i) and (ii) 0.001-1.0 wt % of one or more phosphorus-containing and/or polymeric α-nucleating agents. The terpolymer of propylene, ethylene and butylene consists of 86.0-98.0 wt % propylene, 2.0-12.0 wt % butylene and 0.1 to less than 1.0 wt % ethylene. The obtained films have a) turbidity according to ASTM D 1003-92 for a 50 mcm film less than 8% before and after steam sterilisation at 121°C for 30 minutes and b) lustre at 20° according to DIN 67530 for a 50 mcm film of at least 55% before steam sterilisation at 121°C for 30 minutes and at least 60% after steam sterilisation at 121°C for 30 minutes. The films are sterilisable and have excellent optical and mechanical properties.
EFFECT: improved method of obtaining films.
16 cl, 4 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: silicon layer is extruded. The silicon layer can be extruded onto a carrier layer or the silicon layer and the carrier layer are extruded together from an extruder bore.
EFFECT: method enables to obtain thin silicon layers in a single step.
40 cl, 3 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to production of polyimide film used as heatproof electric insulation or as metalised film substrates for electronic hardware. Proposed device comprises two containers with solutions of polyamine acid with catalysts and dehydrating agent 1, two gear pumps 2, two-slit spinneret 3, drum 4 or endless tape 6, and high-temperature rolls. Primary element of proposed device is said two-slit spinneret with two separate slit heads to feed solutions and constrictors, 5-10 mm-wide and 10-20 mm-long, arranged on faces of each slit on spinneret edges. Said spinneret consists of two cheeks 7, two half-dies 12 and 14, spacer 13, differential screw 11, threaded coupling 10, lock screw 5, assembly screw 15 and four limiters 8. Produced method comprises feeding two solutions of polyamine acid with ring formation catalysts and dehydrating agent on drum or endless tape moulding surface via one spinneret at 0.8-1.0 MPa with solutions dynamic viscosity of 200-500 p, and performing imidine formation at stepped temperature increase from 150°C to 350°C.
EFFECT: high-quality, uniform-thickness polyiminide film.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: composition contains polyethylene and traditional additives, has density of 0.915-0.955 g/cm3, melt index MI from more than 0 to 3.5 g/10 min, flow-rate rating HLMI/MI of 5-50 and polydispersity Mw/Mn of 5-20. Z-average molecular weight Mz of the mouldable composition is less than 1 million g/mol. The mouldable composition is obtained in one reactor in the presence of a mixed catalyst which contains a pre-polymerised chromium compound and metallocene.
EFFECT: films containing disclosed mouldable compositions have very good mechanical properties, high impact resistance and high breaking strength coupled with very good optical properties, the films do not easily stick together and they can be transported in a car without adding lubricants and anti-adhesives or only in their small amount.
9 cl, 3 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: composition contains a mixture of polyamide, where the ratio of terminal amino groups in the terminal carboxyl groups of the polyamide polymer is less than 0.2, polyester which is capable of crystallising and an interfacial tension reducing agent.
EFFECT: composition enables to obtain dispersed particles with average size of less than 200 nm when stretched, good colour composition which will not exhibit high increase in turbidity with increase in the amount of dispersed material, or has acceptable turbidity during production, and has good colour, especially in the absence of cobalt.
7 cl, 3 tbl, 18 ex, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention describes multimodal polyethylene which is suitable for use as a film, as well as a pipe. The polyethylene is characterised by density between 0.940 and 0.965 g/cm3, flow melt index l21 between 4 and 20 dg/min. The polyethylene contains a low-molecular ethylene copolymer, having weight-average molecular weight between 5000 and 50000 amu, characterised by short-chain branching index between 2.5 and 4.5; and high-molecular ethylene copolymer, having weight-average molecular weight between 60000 and 800000 amu, characterised by short-chain branching index between 2 and 2.5. The invention also describes multimodal polyethylene, where the weight ratio of the high-molecular ethylene copolymer in terms of the overall multimodal composition is between 0.3 and 0.7. The ratio of branching indices of the low- and high-molecular ethylene copolymers is between 1.2 and 6.0.
EFFECT: balance of short-chain branches makes multimodal polyethylene suitable for use in making films, pipes, in fields using centrifugal moulding and blow moulding.
23 cl, 5 dwg, 6 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to agriculture. Method involves cutting of furrow in soil, installation of tray into it, seed sowing, transplanting into soil and watering through holes made at tray bottom. Waterproof screen with grooves made on one of side edges is placed between side walls of tray and inclination is given to it in direction of grooves.
EFFECT: method allows protecting plants against glased rain and provides control of plant watering owing to atmospheric moisture.