Moulding composition for slab materials for protective and structural purpose and method of preparing said composition

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: moulding composition contains an aggregate made from carbon-containing crushed plant and/or synthetic fibre material, binder made from inorganic polymers and a target additive. The inorganic polymers used in the composition are metal phosphates with aluminium, chromium, boron and magnesium cations and anions РО4--- or metal silicates with sodium, potassium and lithium cations and with anions SiO3--, pre-modified with solutions of organic bases with an amide bond and/or oxides or trihydrates of aluminium oxide or mixtures thereof. The target additive is a water repellent or hardener or surfactant. The aggregate, working solution of the binder and target additive are prepared first. The aggregate is treated with the working solution, dried and moulded into briquettes.

EFFECT: ecologically clean, non-toxic, non-combustible slab materials which are resistant to aggressive media are obtained.

41 cl, 3 tbl

 

The invention relates to building and construction materials and can be used in the production of heat, fire retardant products for industrial and residential construction, aircraft, ship, carriage building, electrical and electronics and home, as well as to protect the environment.

Currently in production of Board materials, type fibreboard (MDF) or particleboard (chipboard), extruded structural pieces (CCS) as binders are ready thermosetting or termoplastici organic polymers, such as phenol-, amido-, formaldehyde resin, polyethylene and derivatives thereof.

A significant drawback of such binders and materials based on them is their toxicity, Flammability, low resistance to the environment.

The famous press weight for fabrication of thermal insulating material comprising alumacraft binder, urea, wood fiber and additive in the form of a synthetic resin [SU 533500, CL. B29J 5/02, C08L 97/02, 1974].

The disadvantage of this press-composition is the high Flammability and toxicity obtained on the basis of materials and products.

Famous raw mix for the production of thermal insulating material containing alumacraft binder, urea and drives the e fiber [SU 927788, CL. C04B 43/12, B29J 5/00, 1980].

The disadvantages of the known technical solutions are high thermal conductivity, the material of the finished material, as well as the cost of the finished material because of its high content of chemicals in the composition of the raw mix.

The famous press composition for manufacturing insulation material [RU 2148064, CL C08L 97/02; C09K 3/00, 1999], which includes a filler in the form of wood fibers, wood chips, or crushed particles of waste annual plants, phosphate component, which used the ammonium polyphosphates, and targeted Supplement containing a wax and a binder, which used synthetic resin.

Lack of materials and products manufactured on the basis of press the compositions of this technical solution is the high toxicity and low thermal insulation properties.

The famous press composition for the production of combustible materials containing ammonium polyphosphates, synthetic resin, paraffin, wood fibre, waste annual plants [EN 2114882, CL C08L 97/02, B27N 3/00, 1997].

A disadvantage of the known technical solution is the high toxicity forming part of the composition of components that worsen the conditions of production, high cost of the finished products.

The task of the invention to provide environmentally friendly is, non-toxic, non-flammable, resistant to aggressive environment Board materials with higher heat and electromagnetodynamics properties and structural characteristics.

The problem is solved in that in the known press-composition for plate materials protective and structural products, including a filler made of fibrous material, a binder and the target additive, filler made of carbon milled fiber material selected from the group of vegetable fibers and/or synthetic origin, used as a binding inorganic polymers selected from the group of metallophosphates with cations Al+++, Cr+++In+++, Mg++and anions PO4---or metallasiloxanes with cations of Na+, K+Li+anion SiO3--pre-engineered solutions of organic bases with amide bond selected from the group of substances such as urea, acrylamide, melamine, oxide trihydrate alumina or a mixture thereof, and the target additive made of water-repellent selected from the group of paraffin and distillation residues from the distillation of oil, or of curing agent selected from the group of phenol - or aminoformaldehyde resin, metal chlorides, ammonium, mineral acid, or the C surface-active substances, selected from the group of silicone resin, methylsiliconate potassium, polybasic organic acid, in the following ratio of components (% by dry weight):

binder- 4,5-41,5
target additiveof 0.5 to 15.0
the placeholder- the rest.

As a placeholder in the press of the composition can be used fibrous material such as wood or cellulose, or a synthetic polymer fiber, or fiberglass, or carbon fiber, or fiber wollastonite, or fiber waste annual plants (flax, straw and the like), or mixtures of these fibers.

As a filler can be also used fabric material, such as fiberglass and/or carbon cloth.

As a placeholder can be used dispersed material, such as crushed shungite or aluminasilicate.

Also as a filler can be used crushed perlite, or vermiculite, or phlogopite, or Aerosil, or diatomite, or basalt fiber, or zeolite, or talc, or Muscovite, or corundum, and/or chalk, or a mixture of these materials, all of these mate is ialy can be uniform or different dispersion.

As a filler can also be used a mixture of wood chips and any of the above dispersed material and/or fibrous materials.

The filler may be in the form of one or more layers of chopped fibers, other layers are made of strong fibers with a length corresponding to the length of the plate press-composition, and distributed across its width with the same and/or different specific gravities.

The filler may be in the form of layers of any of the above fibrous and/or tissue and/or dispersed materials.

To give a press of the composition of the protective properties against electromagnetic radiation in the filler added shungite powder or carbon black, or metal fibers, or a mixture of carbon fiber, graphitized at a temperature of 950-1700°C, or carbon black, graphitized at a temperature of 1200°C, or metal fibers in the amount of 0-33% of dry matter.

To ensure the highest properties of water resistance as the target additives are water-repellent agents, such as paraffin or distillation residues from the distillation of crude oil.

To increase the strength properties of the material as the target additives you can use a curing agent, a phenol - or aminoformaldehyde resin. This problem will be solved, if the curing agent uses the I mineral acid or chlorides of metals or ammonium. As the mineral acid used is sulfuric or phosphoric acid.

As the mineral acid can be used sulfuric or phosphoric acid.

To prevent cracking of the outer layer plate materials as the target additives are surface-active substances such silicone resin, methylsiliconate potassium, polyhydric organic acid.

To enhance protection against external electromagnetic radiation can be used pre-engineered solutions of organic bases with amide bond and/or oxides or trihydrate aluminum oxide or mixtures thereof with inorganic polymers.

In the modified solutions can be used water, pre-structured water by magnetic field or electric current, or heat treatment and/or exposure to ultrasound, and/or ultraviolet or microwave radiation. As structured water can be used distilled or melt or rainwater.

The task can be solved also by the fact that in the method of manufacture press composition for plate materials protective and structural purpose, which consists in the preliminary preparation of a filler, a working solution of the binder and the target extension is Cai, processing aggregate working solution with subsequent drying, the formation of the briquettes and hot pressing, the working solution is prepared as follows: mix a structured aqueous solution of organic bases with amide bond with an inorganic polymers, such as metallophosphates with cations Al+++, Cr+++In++, Mg++and anions PO4---and the target additive, the resulting mixture is heated to a temperature of 40-75°C., maintain the temperature of the solution within 5-20 minutes to obtain a solution viscosity 16-27 SP, after which the resulting solution is treated with a placeholder.

This problem would also be solved if these inorganic polymers modified solutions of aluminum oxide or solutions of three-hydrate of aluminum oxide or the same inorganic polymers modified with a mixture of solutions of organic bases with amide bond, oxides and three-hydrate of aluminum oxide.

This problem would also be solved if the binder used modified solutions of inorganic polymers, such as metroselect with cations of Na+or K+or Li+and anions SiO3-or the same inorganic polymers modified with solutions of aluminum oxide or solutions of three-hydrate of aluminum oxide, or the same neorganicheskiye, modified with a mixture of solutions of organic bases with amide bond, oxides and three-hydrate of aluminum oxide.

If used as an inorganic polymer binder metallophosphates, and the target additive wetting agent, the filler is treated with a binder and the target additive together, and if used as a binder metroselect, and as the target of the additive compound, the filler is treated with a binder and hardener at the same time, but separately.

To enhance protection against external electromagnetic radiation structuring inorganic polymer is produced by heating up to 75°C or exposure to direct current voltage up to 36 V for 12 hours or exposed to an alternating magnetic field.

A comparison of the claimed technical solution with the known solutions of the prior art has not revealed a similar solution that allows you to install it corresponds to the criterion "novelty".

Proposed press composition is capable of industrial application, developed technical equipment meets the criterion of "inventive step", as they explicitly do not follow from the prior art.

This latter does not identify any transformations, characterized by distinctive substantial prize is akami, to achieve the technical result.

Thus, the proposed technical solution meets the conditions of patentability.

The invention consists in the following.

It is known that polymeric composite materials (PCM) are characterized primarily by the presence in their structure of the reinforcing part and a matrix binder. As a matrix in RMB, as a rule, are applied thermosetting and thermoplastic polymers. A significant drawback of the binder based on organic polymers and polymer composite materials based on them is their lack of chemical activity, resulting in low resistance to the action of destabilizing factors (DF) of the external environment, such as fire, microbial objects, high temperatures, outer atmosphere, the conditions of outer space, the radiation field.

Themselves organic polymers, the conditions of their production, the products of combustion are characterized by high toxicity and Flammability. From this point of view, of great interest is the possibility of creating a harmless, non-toxic atmosphere, subsoil, groundwater and surface water, resistant to the action of DF PKM, have, moreover, highly protective and structural characteristics.

From the positions of these principles in the framework of the research were tested new polifunctional the major binding agent based on inorganic polymers, [Tao. Inorganic polymers. - M.: Knowledge, 1965, p.12 and Judicial. Inorganic polymers. http:/pereplet.ru/obrazovanie/stsoros/183.html]that does not contain in its composition, as well as in the products of their combustion and processing of hazardous substances, apply to jobs, the environment. These PPS are resistant to the action of different DF.

Polymeric composite materials (PCM) based on inorganic polymers (PPP) have the same properties: they are environmentally friendly, resistant to fire and high temperatures, atmospheric conditions, house mushrooms, non-hygroscopic, have a high physical-mechanical and thermal properties, radiation resistance, possess the properties of attenuation of electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range, noise absorption, etc..

The formation of PPP is based on a reaction between hydrate of aluminum oxide, chromic anhydride and phosphoric acid with an organic base with an amide bond in two stages.

In the first stage receive metal-containing inorganic polymers (polyphosphates), capable of polymer solution to break down into Monomeric cations of metals with high ionic potential and high-molecular anions. The introduction of such polymer solutions of organic bases with amide bond and special-purpose additives leads to the formation of have an order which Noah structure of the new polymer because of their proximity, these groups Coulomb and chemical interactions. As a result of these interactions, a new reactive polyfunctional polymer with high chemical activity.

Structuring aqueous solution leads to the emergence of new consumer qualities and properties of inorganic polymers and materials based on them.

Structured solution is a solution in which water has modified the crystal lattice, which is obtained as a result of exposure to magnetic fields and/or electric current, and/or distillation, and/or melting and/or condensation and/or heat treatment (heating or cooling), and/or ultraviolet or ultrasonic or microwave radiation.

Structured solution - this solution, which is ready to be subjected to any of the above effects.

The chemical activity of the PPP is linked to the presence in their structure of metal cations with high ionic potential Al+++In+++, Cr+++, Mg++, Na+, K+Li+and anions with a large ionic radius PO4---, SiO3---the active functional groups of the type HE and NH2that is reactive with respect to the filler. This provides favorable conditions for the formation of patterns PKM caused by the occurrence of parallel reactions in the synthesis of a new polymer, egooverdose and physico-chemical interactions of the active components of inorganic polymers with components of the fill.

As it turned out, the inorganic polymer has both a property and a binder, and a flame retardant, antiseptic and makes the material resistant to the action of fire, biological objects.

Based on the above to improve the achieved qualities of the new polymer additionally, before the second stage, with the aim of increasing the number (stock) and structuring of charged particles PPP is heated and exposed to a constant electric current (by type electrophoresis) voltage up to 36 V not more than 12 hours. Duration of exposure is determined by the concentration, volume and presence of additives in the polymer.

Additionally, to increase the energy of the movement and interaction of charged particles in the second stage of obtaining a new polymer working solution is exposed to an alternating magnetic field.

As the inorganic polymer is diamagnetic, the particles acquire a magnetic moment only under the influence of an external magnetic field.

All the radiation and reception of electromagnetic waves, as well as their distribution in the substance associated with the interaction of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the environment. The interaction of the alternating electromagnetic field with matter is accompanied by the motion of charges in atoms and molecules. The excitation of oscillations of the electron causes the emission of its own micropose in substance (internal field) - this is the result of the interaction between the external AC macroscopic field with the total field of micro-emitters (electrons, atoms, molecules). The result is a magnetic polarization of charged particles in a substance move from one energy level to another.

Measurement of electrophysical parameters, in particular the conductivity of the polymer composite with a filler of natural carbonaceous material, showed their similarity in this parameter with semiconductors. So for semiconductors the conductivity of the 102-106Ohm·cm, and for the stated PKM≈104Ohm·see

Electromagnetic properties of semiconductors is caused in most cases by the interaction of free charge carriers with EMFs.

For the transition process, the press-composition, consisting of mixed aggregates of working solution (binder and additives target) in the liquid and/or gel-like state, in a solid phase at hot pressing or drying, you can get PKM as materials with a permanent electric moment. They are characterized by the asymmetry of the distribution of electric charges and the ability to create external EMFs. This is required to ensure the solidification of inorganic polymers in a strong electric field. After curing, the change in the steady-state orientation is difficult, the polarization kinda freezes and remains in a metastable state.

Conducted research laboratory specimens Board materials with an aggregate of carbon-containing materials on the interaction with electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range 800-2000 MHz showed a significant decrease in the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the near zone for this screen (90%) mainly due to energy absorption.

The test results indicated a number of areas of use of such RMB. They can be used as protective surfaces in the apartment (room) in the form of decorative and/or construction, built-in internal or external structural members attached to a wall, partition, etc. for protection from microwave radiation, computers, cordless telephones (including mobile), to protect against unauthorized access to information or for protection against radiation, radar, stationary mobile stations in the near zone, etc.

Using, for example, shungite in this panel allows you not only to relax AMY, but also to reduce the influence of geopathic zones, to give these panels unique healing properties.

For solving the problem make the material necessary insulating properties have attracted well-known theoretical concepts: thermal insulating ability of the material is achieved, mainly due to low diploproa the particular air, filling the pores of the filler. The more closed and through pores in the material, the more air. This is achieved by using highly porous materials as fillers and low density of the final product.

Production technology of inorganic polymers is simple and boils down to a combination of solid and liquid components in the reactor with a stirrer and a jacket for heating, i.e. according to the principles of classical chemical technology. In particular, it consists of the following stages:

a) preparation of raw materials;

b) preparation of the reaction mixture;

C) obtaining intermediate;

d) condensation of the intermediate with a solution of an organic base;

d) stabilization of the finished binder.

The process of obtaining a binder in the form of inorganic polymer can be represented as the following equations. For metallophosphates binder:

Products condensations according to equation (2) contains fragments of macromolecular structure type:

Metallophosphates formed according to reaction (1), belong to the class of inorganic polymers; binder, formed by the reaction (2), refers to aminomethylphosphonate.

The process of obtaining PPP-based metallasiloxanes can be represented by the following urav enemy:

As in the case of application of phosphate, and in the case of the use metallodielectric polymers, is the introduction into their structure active-NH-groups, which contributes to binding properties of PPS. Curing PPP can be represented by the example lomographische binder:

Press composition for the manufacture of polymer composite materials on the basis of PPP is prepared as follows.

Pre-prepare a filler, for example, of powder and/or fibrous, and/or particle material by chopping or grinding pre-tested samples of materials, their filtration (separation of the fractions, the length, the thickness of the fibers), the dosing of the required components and their flow simultaneously or separately in sequence in the mixer.

Then prepare the working solution: mix plain or structured aqueous solution of organic bases with amide bond and/or oxide or three-hydrate of aluminum oxide or mixtures thereof with structured or unstructured inorganic polymers, such as metallophosphates with cations Al+++and Cr+++or Al+++and+++or Mg++, Al+++and+++and anions PO4---and the and metallogenically with cations of Na +or K+or Li+and anions SiO3--and the target additive, the resulting mixture is heated to a temperature of 40-75°C., maintain the temperature of the solution within 5-20 minutes to obtain a solution viscosity 16-27 SP.

The prepared filler treated with a working solution in the mixer with intensive stirring, after reaching the set homogeneity discharged from the mixer, dried, then forming the resulting material into briquettes and subjected to hot pressing or heat treatment in tunnel kilns.

If the binder used metallophosphates, and the target repellent additives, filler treated with a working solution of the binder and the target additive together.

If the binder used metroselect, and the target additive hardener, filler treated with a binder and the target additive separately due to the nature of the course of chemical reactions.

For example, the fibrous filler is loaded into a high-speed mixer, where through a pneumatic nozzle serves and sprayed binder, the target additive - foaming agent in the form of urea. The resulting mixture is dried in air or tunnel dryers to a moisture content of 8-9%, then the raw material mixture is formed into briquettes and subjected to hot press is of or drying at temperatures 160-3000°C. Components are used in the ratio of:

inorganic polymer- 4,5-41,5
target additiveof 0.5 to 15.0
the placeholderthe rest of it.

In the process these impacts press composition polycondensates and takes the desired shape and properties.

Examples obtained such compositions shown in table 1 (see Annex).

Physico-mechanical and other characteristics of the RMB, the relevant specified in table 1 press the compositions shown in table 2.

Comparative tests are known, currently used PCM in the form of wood-based sheet materials in which the binder used urea-formaldehyde resin, and prototypes of materials declared the press-composition based on wood chips and natural minerals are given in table 3.

In addition to the above in the table of benefits claimed by the press composition and polymer composite materials based on it have a number of consumer characteristics, such as environmental and fire safety, bio - and radiation resistance, protection from electromagnetic radiation.

The production of such right is not accompanied by the allocation of the harmful substances, the production does not use harmful components. The operation of this PCM in a variety of conditions (heat, chemical, etc.) does not lead to aggressive allocation toxic reagents.

Application.

In table 1, 2 in the numerator - values for insulation boards, the denominator for construction.

Table 2
IndicesThe value of the physico-mechanical products and materials according to the examples in accordance with table 1
12345Analog/prototype
Density (kg/m3)100/1100100/1100100/1100100/1100100/1100350/1100
Thickness(mm)from 0.01 to 16.0from 0.01 to 16.0from 0.01 to 16.00,01-6,0from 0.01 to 16.0 16,0/16,0
The tensile strength of2,0/32,02,5/35,0a 2.5/31,51,3/15,01,5/18,02,2/30,2
in static bending (MPa)
The tensile strength of0,7/1,21,5/,2,80,8/3,10,6/3,00,5/3,11,1/3,0
under pressure (MPa)
Swelling in water13/0 .016/0 .120/0 .025/0 .130/0 .226,6/18,6
24 hours (%)
Indicators Flammability:
is the temperature increment35/4134/3833/3536/8445/53-
(°C)
weight loss(%)45/5844/5143/4959/9257/61-
Factor0,038/0,04/0,045/0,06/0,07/
thermal conductivity (W/M K)0,0410,0045 0,050,0650,08
The content of harmful substancesnonononono0,09/0,8
(mg/100 g2)>10

Table 3
IndicatorsEd. measuring range.The claimed rightName of similar firmsName of similar firms
Acron (Russia)Raute
12345
Composition:
PTS%,4,5-41,5--
ureaon0.5 to 1533-3635-38
watercommoditya 5.0 to 13.5--
formaldehydeThe oxygen--63,5-66,061,5-63,5
ammoniaation-0,5-1,00.5 to 1.5
Concentration on a dry%50-5558-6362-64
substance
Mass fraction of free%- 0,15-0,200,11-0,15
formaldehyde
The viscosity B3-4, in17-1950-8047-78
25°C
Gelling time at35-4950-7053-75
100°C
Refractive index1,43-1,441,464-1,472the 1.44-1,45
The concentration of hydrogenPH2,5-3,07,5-8,57,1-8,0
ion
Viablehunlimited7,5-8,07,0-7,5
Stabilitymonthunlimited2,0-3,01.5 to 2.5
storage during
Densityg/cm31,39-1,451,26-1,36of 1.23 to 1.31
Destructive voltage
when chipping onMPa1,6-5,51,5-1,61,45-1,55
the adhesive layer after soaking in water for 24 h
Temperature resistant products curing°C150-1500150-200150-200
Environmental hazardsafedangerousdangerous
RMB on the basis of PPP
The density of the PCMkg/m3100-2400600-1100600-1100
Thicknessmm1-503-303-30
The ultimate strength in static bendingMPaa 2.0 55,012-4012-35
Tensile strength at
tension perpendicular to the plane of the plateMPa0,4-0,7 0,3-0,4
Resistivity
the normal separation of the outer layerMPa0,4-0,5/0,8-0,990,45-0,550,4-0,5
Swelling in thickness 24h in water%0-20/020-3022-33
The content of harmful substancesmg/100 gnoformaldehyde 10-60formaldehyde 10-30
Flammability classnon-combustibleflammableflammable
Environmental hazardnot dangerousdangerousdangerous
Bio - and radiation resistancehave have nohave no
Economic securityRUB/m3500

1. Press composition for plate materials protective and structural products, including a filler made of fibrous material, a binder and the target additive, characterized in that the filler is made of chopped carbon fiber material selected from the group of vegetable fibers and/or synthetic origin, used as a binding inorganic polymers selected from the group of metallophosphates with cations Al+++, Cr+++In+++, Mg++and anions PO4---or metallasiloxanes with cations of Na+, K+Li+anion SiO3--pre-engineered solutions of organic bases with amide bond selected from the group of substances such as urea, acrylamide, melamine, oxide, triggered aluminum oxide, or mixtures thereof, and the target additive made of water-repellent selected from the group of paraffin and distillation residues from the distillation of oil, or of curing agent selected from the group of phenol - or aminoformaldehyde resin, metal chlorides, am one, mineral acids or surfactants selected from the group comprising silicone resin, methylsiliconate potassium, polybasic organic acids in the following ratio of components (% by dry weight):

binder4,5-41,5
target additiveof 0.5 to 15.0
the placeholderrest

2. Press composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the binder used, containing in wt.%:

metallophosphates or metroselect73,0 to 90.0
organic base with an amide bond5,0-13,
watera 5.0 to 13.5

3. Press composition according to claim 1, characterized in that a binder is added phenol - or aminoformaldehyde resin in the amount 49-69% of the total mass of the binder.

4. Press composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the fibrous material is wood fiber.

5. Press composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the fibrous material the material used in the pulp and fiber.

6. Press composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the fibrous material is a synthetic polymer fiber.

7. Press composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the fibrous material is fiberglass.

8. Press composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the fibrous material is carbon fiber.

9. Press composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the fibrous material is a fiber wollastonite.

10. Press composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the fibrous material used in the fiber waste annual plants (flax, straw and the like).

11. Press composition according to claim 1, characterized in that as a placeholder used wood chips.

12. Press composition according to claim 7, characterized in that the fibrous material is a mixture of fibrous materials pp.5-11.

13. Press composition according to claim 1, characterized in that as a placeholder used cloth.

14. Press the composition according to item 13, characterized in that as a placeholder used fiberglass.

15. Press the composition according to item 13, characterized in that as a placeholder used carbon cloth.

16. Press composition according to claim 1, characterized wusasa fact, as the filler used dispersed material.

17. Press the composition according to item 16, characterized in that the dispersed material is crushed shungite.

18. Press the composition according to item 16, characterized in that the dispersed material is crushed alumina magicality.

19. Press the composition according to item 16, characterized in that as the dispersed material used perlite and/or vermiculite, and/or phlogopite, and/or aerosol, and/or diatomaceous earth, and/or chopped basalt fiber, and/or zeolite and/or talc, and/or Muscovite, and/or corundum, and/or chalk.

20. Press composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the filler consists of a mixture of wood chips and particulate materials according to any one of PP-19.

21. Press composition according to any one of claims 1 to 20, characterized in that the filler is made of a multilayer.

22. Press the composition according to claims 1 to 20, characterized in that the layers of filler made of a material homogeneous dispersion.

23. Press the composition according to item 21, characterized in that the layers of filler made of materials with different dispersion.

24. Press the composition according to item 21, characterized in that the layers of filler made of any material PP and 23 with the same and/or different specific gravities.

25. Press the composition according to item 21, harakteryzuyetsya fact, the filler is made in the form of one or more layers of chopped fibers, other layers are made of strong fibers with a length corresponding to the length of the plate press-composition and distributed across its width.

26. Press composition according to any one of claims 1 to 25, characterized in that the filler added to the powder shungite up to 33% of the dry weight.

27. Press composition according to any one of claims 1 to 25, characterized in that the filler added carbon black up to 33% of the dry weight.

28. Press the composition according to claims 1 to 25, characterized in that the filler added metal fibers in an amount up to 33% of the dry weight.

29. Press the composition of claim 8 or 13, characterized in that the filler used a mixture of carbon fiber, graphitized at a temperature of 950-1700°C.

30. Press the composition according to item 27, characterized in that the filler used carbon black, graphitized at a temperature of 1200°C.

31. Press composition according to any one of claims 1 to 30, characterized in that for the preparation of pre-structured modified solution used structured water.

32. Press the composition according to p, characterized in that the binder solution used magnetic or electrostrictively water.

33. Press the composition according to p, the characteristic is karasuyama fact, in the binder solution used water is subjected to heat treatment, and/or ultrasonic or ultraviolet or microwave radiation

34. Press the composition according to p, characterized in that the binder solution used distilled or melt or rainwater.

35. Press the composition according to p, characterized by the fact that ready-made solutions, previously subjected structuring.

36. Press composition according to claim 1, characterized in that used primaryservername in an electric field binder, filler and target additive.

37. The method of manufacture press composition for plate materials protective and structural purpose, which consists in the preliminary preparation of a filler, a working solution of binder and additives target, the processing of aggregate working solution with subsequent drying, the formation of the briquettes and hot pressing, wherein the working solution is prepared as follows: mix the aqueous solution of organic bases with amide bond and/or oxide or three-hydrate of aluminum oxide or mixtures thereof with inorganic polymers selected from the group of metallophosphates with cations Al+++, Cr+++B++, Mg++and anions PO4---or metallasiloxanes with cations of Na+and the and K +or Li+and anions SiO3--and the target additive, the resulting mixture is heated to a temperature of 40-75°C., maintain the temperature of the solution within 5-20 min to obtain a solution viscosity 16-27, after which the resulting solution is treated with a placeholder.

38. The method according to clause 37, characterized in that when used as a binder metroselect, and as additives target - hardener, the simultaneous processing of aggregate working solution binder and the target additive serves (inject) separately.

39. The method according to any of PP or 38 for the manufacture press composition according p, characterized in that use pre-structured modified solutions.

40. The method according to § 38, characterized in that the modified solutions use water, which is pre-structured by the magnetic field or electric current, or ultrasonic or ultraviolet or microwave radiation, or heat treated.

41. The method according to § 38, characterized in that the structuring of inorganic polymer is produced by heating up to 75°C or exposure to direct current voltage up to 36 V for 12 h or pre-exposed to an alternating magnetic field.



 

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17 cl, 1 tbl, 27 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: wood-polymer composition for articles contains polyvinyl chloride, wood flour, calcium-zinc complex stabiliser and the composition can additionally contain a metal-containing lubricant obtained via reaction of higher monocarboxylic acids with glycerine at 130-230°C in molar ratio 1:(1-2) in the presence of oxides of divalent metals Ca, Zn, Mg or other two-component mixtures in weight ratio 0.25-1.0:0.5-1.0 and polyethylene wax.

EFFECT: high quality of ready articles owing to improved technological parameters of the compositions, thermal stability, melt fluidity, water absorption and environmental safety.

2 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: wood industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used to extract, recycle and process wood wastes in process of fibreboards production. The method includes supplying waste waters downstream pouring-forming machine into an accumulating-balancing reservoir, its pumping along a bypass pipeline into a disperser with simultaneous air supply from atmosphere into the bypass pipeline, formation of air and water mixture passing through the disperser, supply of air and water mixture into a dynamic absorber to create floating complexes, their supply into a receiving chamber of a flotation plant, separation into foam sent to the pouring-forming machine and treated water supplied to the accumulator. The system for method realisation comprises an accumulating-balancing reservoir for collection of waste waters, a bypass pipeline and a disperser to create air and water mixture, a dynamic absorber to form floating complexes, a floatation plant with a receiving chamber, a foam-producing mechanism and a foam-collecting pocket to separate caught fibre in the form of foam and an accumulator of treated water.

EFFECT: inventions ensure simple and cheap technology for extraction, recycling and processing of internal fibreboard production wastes with the possibility of secondary wood fibre catching and return directly into the process cycle without its additional treatment.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves plastification with extrusion of dispersion components, and specifically cellulose filler and thermoplastic polymer matrix. The thermoplastic polymer matrix consists of high-density polyethylene, a compatibiliser in form of graft polyolefin and a lubricant. The lubricant used is pre-ozonised polyethylene homologues in form of super-molecular polyethylene, low-density linear polyethylene and ethylene vinylacetate in ratio of 1:3:5. The graft polyolefin used in the compatibiliser is high-density polyethylene to whose molecular structure glycidyl methacrylate is grafted. Use of such a compatibiliser increases energy compatibility of dispersion components used in preparing a cellulose-containing polymer super-concentrate. The composite material contains a polymer and a super-concentrate with 30-70 wt % content of the super-concentrate.

EFFECT: composite materials based on the obtained cellulose-containing polymer super-concentrate have good physical and mechanical characteristics, namely strength and water resistance.

6 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of fuel production. Fuel is produced in mixing lignin with metallurgy wastes. Note here that lignin moisture content may vary. Chips of steel and foundry iron parts and scale are used as metallurgy wastes. Said mix comprises lignin in amount of 70-90 wt % and scale in amount of 10-30 wt %.

EFFECT: universal high-energy fuel.

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to woodworking industry. Proposed method comprises preparing wood particles, drying and sorting them, making modifying carbamide-formaldehyde resin-based binder, mixing it with wood particles, producing carpet and moulding plates. Carbamide-formaldehyde resin modifier is made up of PVAC dispersion-based composition with ratio of components in wt % as follows: carbamide-formaldehyde resin - 67-92; PVAC dispersion - 5-20; carbamide - 1-5: plasticiser - 1-5, and curing agent - 1-3.

EFFECT: reduced toxicity of chipboards.

7 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to using wax water dispersion as oil-wetting agent in producing wood-base materials. Wax dispersion contains soft wax with content of oil exceeding 20% by wt as solid phase or its component. Note here that soft wax is solid at, at least, 10°C and below, and features softening temperature below 65°C, and contains 0.5-10 % by wt of urea per wax dispersion weight. Soft wax-to-urea weight ratio varies from 100:0.3 to 100:6. Wax dispersion is brought in contact with wood chippings or fibers. Invention covers also wood-base material produced in using binders, soft wax and urea, and method of its production.

EFFECT: higher oil-wetting effect and better physical and chemical properties.

28 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to wood material in which a nitrogen-containing compound is distributed, where the said compound forms a cellular structure and is a product of condensation of formaldehyde in form of a cellular structure formed in amount (N) of at least 1 wt % in terms of nitrogen, relative the total weight of the wood material. The coefficient (FA/N) which is expressed as the ratio of extraction of formaldehyde (FA), determined using a method in a closed volume in accordance with EN 717, part 3, to the quantitative content of nitrogen (N) has maximum value of 3.5×10-3, and the hold level of the nitrogen-containing compound is higher than 73%. The method of obtaining the wood material involves a) saturating wood material with an aqueous composition containing i) at east one nitrogen-containing compound which forms a cellular structure and ii) at least one substance which catalyses formation of the cellular structure, b) treating the saturated wood material at high temperature in order to remove water and to form a cellular structure from the nitrogen-containing compound which forms a cellular structure. Step b) of the process involves treatment of the saturated wood material at least once with superheated water vapour, followed by treatment at least once at temperature higher than 110°C and with relative humidity of the gaseous medium surrounding the wood material of not more than 20%. The nitrogen-containing compound which forms the cellular structure is selected from: 1,3-bis(hydroxymethyl)-4,5-dihydroxyimidazolidin-2-one, 1,3-bis(hydroxymethyl)-4,5- dihydroxyimidazolidin-2-one, which is modified by an alkanol with 1-6 carbon atoms, a polyol with 2-6 carbon atoms or oligoalkyleneglycol, 1,3-bis(hydroxymethyl)urea, 1,3-bis(methoxymethyl)urea, 1- hydroxymethyl -3-methylurea, 1- hydroxymethyl-3-methyl-4,5- dihydroxyimidazolidin-2-one, 1- hydroxymethyl -4,5- dihydroxyimidazolidin-2-one, 1,3-bis(hydroxymethyl) imidazolidin-2-one, 1,3-bis(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-hexahydropyrimidin-2-one, 1,3-bis(methoxymethyl)-4,5- dihydroxyimidazolidin-2-one, tetra(hydroxymethyl)acetylenediurea, low-molecular melamine-formaldehyde resins and low-molecular melamine-formaldehyde resins which are modified with alkanol with 1-6 carbon atoms, polyol with 2-6 carbon atoms or oligoalkyleneglycol, mixtures of said compounds with each other, mixtures of said compound with not less than one compound V', which contains at least one free NH- group, and mixtures of said compounds with at least one compound V" which contains at least one hydroxyl group which is not part of the CH2OH group.

EFFECT: wood material has low release of formaldehyde.

19 cl, 19 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: composition contains polyethylene production and/or household wastes, beet pulp and bentonite as a processing additive.

EFFECT: disclosed composition has rheological characteristics which meet requirements for polymeric materials for their possible processing on conventional equipment, as well as required operational characteristics, including biodegradability.

4 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: wood industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used to extract, recycle and process wood wastes in process of fibreboards production. The method includes supplying waste waters downstream pouring-forming machine into an accumulating-balancing reservoir, its pumping along a bypass pipeline into a disperser with simultaneous air supply from atmosphere into the bypass pipeline, formation of air and water mixture passing through the disperser, supply of air and water mixture into a dynamic absorber to create floating complexes, their supply into a receiving chamber of a flotation plant, separation into foam sent to the pouring-forming machine and treated water supplied to the accumulator. The system for method realisation comprises an accumulating-balancing reservoir for collection of waste waters, a bypass pipeline and a disperser to create air and water mixture, a dynamic absorber to form floating complexes, a floatation plant with a receiving chamber, a foam-producing mechanism and a foam-collecting pocket to separate caught fibre in the form of foam and an accumulator of treated water.

EFFECT: inventions ensure simple and cheap technology for extraction, recycling and processing of internal fibreboard production wastes with the possibility of secondary wood fibre catching and return directly into the process cycle without its additional treatment.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

Fractionating grid // 2428304

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to woodworking industry and may be used in production of laminated wood boards. Fractionating grid comprises rods diverging in direction of production with their converging ends being articulated while diverging ends are arranged in limiters on hinged strips arranged on the frame. Said frame represents stationary structure while grid is provided with vibration apparatus jointed with hinged strips.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

Door frame mould // 2427463

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mould for producing door frames with openings intended for paneling or glassing. Frames are made from conglomerate of wood particles and glue arranged in layers to produce sandwich structure with its outer layers made from smaller-size particles with higher density relative to inner layer that features greater thickness and is made from larger particles. Material is fed from moulding machine to fill moulds and compacted between two heating plates of the mould. Mould comprises stationary perimetric frame that follows the door frame outline or that of its several surfaces to produce simultaneously several door frames and separated them by cutting. Note here that perimetric frame height exceeds thickness of door frame before compaction. Mould bottom horizontal platform may move vertically and be driven hydraulically. First rectangular frame made integral with said platform rests thereon. Frame sizes comply with those of perimetric frame opening. Said frame may slide in perimetric frame inner part like a plunger. Mould first rectangular frame surface incorporates so many openings as many door frames may be moulded at a time. Besides, mould is made up of one or more independent second rectangular frame arranged to perform telescopic displacement inside every opening of first rectangular fame and make remaining surface of door frame with its relevant openings. Note also that they may be driven by hydraulic cylinders and feature the height of the first rectangular door frame. Mould top plate may move vertically and doubles as heating plate driven by hydraulic drive in mould closing on placing in contact with stationary peripheral plate.

EFFECT: reduced wastes, ruling out machining and higher rigidity of peripheral zone.

28 cl, 30 dwg

Fractionating grid // 2423229

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to woodworking industry and may be used in production of laminated wood boards. Fractionating grid comprises rods diverging in direction of production with their converging ends hinge-jointed and diverging ends arranged limiters in hinged-jointed plates located on frame in symmetry about lengthwise central axis to form polygonal with jointing plates. Support plates may be arranged out of symmetry about crosswise central axis. Angle α between one support plates is set to make distance between rod converging end corresponding fine fraction, while angle β between second support plates is set to distance between diverging rod end corresponding to coarse fraction.

EFFECT: higher quality of fractionating.

4 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to woodworking industry and may be used in production of extruded phenol formaldehyde resin-based chipboards. Proposed unit comprises extruder incorporating proportioner, guide device, heating plates provided with holes and distributors, collector with cavity formation devices with their working surfaces being provided with grooves communicated by through holes with inner space of cavity formation devices. To increase quality and reduce toxic emission, extruder heating plate holes and inner space of cavity formation devices are communicated with vacuum pump. Aforesaid proportioner is proved with tight casing while heating plates are communicated with tight inlet. Outlet of vacuum pump, tight casing and tight inlet are communicated with dust and volatile components trap. Said dust and volatile components trap is made up of spraying scrubber with its bottom section accommodating fluid collector provided with polypropylene filter. Scrubber top section accommodates confuser-diffuser devices with their tube space accommodating haydite filter nozzle. Scrubber is provided with absorbent feed line and sprinkling nozzles. Said absorbent feed line is communicated with fluid collector to form closed circulation system while sprinkling nozzles are arranged in every confuser-diffuser device.

EFFECT: production of extruded phenol formaldehyde resin-based chipboards.

2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to woodworking industry. Proposed method comprises preparing wood particles, drying and sorting them, making modifying carbamide-formaldehyde resin-based binder, mixing it with wood particles, producing carpet and moulding plates. Carbamide-formaldehyde resin modifier is made up of PVAC dispersion-based composition with ratio of components in wt % as follows: carbamide-formaldehyde resin - 67-92; PVAC dispersion - 5-20; carbamide - 1-5: plasticiser - 1-5, and curing agent - 1-3.

EFFECT: reduced toxicity of chipboards.

7 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises crushing chipwood into shavings. The latter is dried, glue is applied thereon and shavings is filled thereon to produce shavings carpet to be compressed thereafter at certain temperature. Prior to cutting, water steam is fed onto wood chipwood. Wood chipwood, at least, frozen partially through is used. Prior to cutting, it is thawed and dried. Proposed device comprises machine tool to produce chipwood, chipwood drier, appliance for glue application and press. Proposed device differs from known designs in that in incorporates hopper intended for feeding steam onto chipwood contained therein, steam temperature and amount regulator, and chipwood drier. Note here that steam temperature and chipwood amount are controlled to implement above described method.

EFFECT: high process rate using perfected device for production of particle boards.

16 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, namely to production of chips-cement plates. Proposed method comprises logs unbarking at unbarking line, holding them for 4-6 months at drying and vaporisation site, feeding logs to crushing line, producing chips, feeding chips into mixer of chips, mortar, water, water solution of aluminium sulphate and water solution of liquid glass. Then finished mix is fed into plastic wood moulds. Filled moulds are transferred through mix placement line are stacked by stacker. Said stacker is placed under press to press the stack. Then moulds are placed for 24 h into day-long hardening chamber wherein initial hardening occurs at 40°C. Now, they are removed from said chamber, dissembled by manipulators and transferred to mold removal device for finished plates to be withdrawn and sent to face trimming and stacking. Stacks are placed for 7 day-maturing to remove moisture and acquire intermediate hardness. Note here that plates are placed on spacers in vertical position. After 7 days they are stacked. The stacks are transferred to 20 day-maturing to acquire required hardness. Complete production cycle makes 28 days.

EFFECT: production of chips-cement plates, power savings.

1 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to woodworking industry and can be used if production of wood boards from oriented chips. Proposed device comprises even and uneven rolls arranged across carpet being made and disks fitted on said rolls, staggered and overlapping. Said disks are driven by drives of said even and uneven rolls. Proposed device comprises three units of setting, unit of raising to a power and adder. Note here that said units are interconnected.

EFFECT: higher quality of orientation.

1 dwg

FIELD: wood working industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of production of wood-particle composite materials and relates to wood-particle composite material and method of its manufacturing. Material contains pressed wood-particle filler and binder, material has monolithic low-porosity structure characterized by achieved density of up to 2 g/cm3, thickness of chips makes from 0.1 to 1.0 mm, pores of wood-particle filler are fully filled with binder, such as wood resinous substances that are released from chip filler in process of its hot pressing as composite material is made. Method of manufacturing consists in the fact that filler is pressed as wood chips in presence of binder, at the same time binder is used, which is released from chips as it is pressed with pressure of 2-5 MPa, besides puncheon and die of press are pre-heated to temperature of 220-300°C, and process of hot pressing is carried out in cyclic loading mode.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of wood-particle composite material manufacturing method and to improve quality, due to increased strength, water resistance and fire resistance of manufactured wood-particle composite materials.

FIELD: packing equipment.

SUBSTANCE: method involves grinding paper to obtain paper flakes; distributing paper flakes to produce paper flake coating and spraying liquid adhesive on coating surface; performing the first compaction operation to compact flakes and the second compaction operation to compact coating; forming paper sheet with a number of reinforcing depressions during the second compaction operation.

EFFECT: provision of paper sheet rigidity comparative with that of corrugated cardboard along with reduced material consumption, cost and increased simplicity of sheet production.

19 cl, 4 dwg

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