Method of mass-exchange sorption, apparatus to this end, industrial plant for separation of inorganic matter water solutions, and apparatus to separate organic fluids from water solutions

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to appliances intended for mass exchange sorption in separation of inorganic matter water solution components. Proposed method comprises forcing water solution through layer of granulated sorption material with decreased volume of space between granules available for water solution. Note here that granulated sorption material layer is filled with organic fluid or mix of such fluids, immiscible neither with water nor processed water solution or chemically interacting neither with water solutions components not sorption material, thus, preventing fluidisation of granulated sorption material. Proposed method is implemented at industrial plant intended for separation of water solutions components and comprising mass exchange sorption processes and apparatus for separation of organic fluids from water solutions.

EFFECT: higher quality of separation.

41 cl, 24 dwg, 3 tbl, 16 ex

 

The invention relates to means for mass transfer of the sorption processes of separation of components of aqueous solutions of inorganic substances, in particular to a method of mass transfer of the sorption process and apparatus for its implementation, as well as including such a device industrial plant for the separation of components of aqueous solutions of inorganic substances and are used in this installation apparatus for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions.

Mass transfer processing of aqueous solutions containing ionic components, in order to separate the contained substances, concentration of solutions for individual components or groups of components, selection of individual components or cleaning solutions from individual components or groups of components is one of the most common, basic processes in modern chemical industries and technologies.

There are a large number of standard methods mass transfer sorption processes of separation of components of aqueous solutions of inorganic substances using a variety of sorbents, including ion-exchange materials (see, for example: Men. Ion exchange technology and the analysis of inorganic substances. Moscow, Izd. In chemistry, 1980, 272 S. [1]). These methods included the t periodic transmission of the processed solution through a layer of granular ion exchange material in the column, for example, the resin bed, translated in advance in any ionic form. In the resulting ion-exchange process, and also due to the different selectivity of the ion exchanger to a different component is the redistribution of the latter between the solid and liquid phases, that is, the processed solution is purified from the same components and enriched in other components. These methods have the following main limitations: requires the use of chemical reagents for the implementation of the regeneration of ion exchangers and re-use them in cycles of sorption-desorption. In this regard, the standard ion-exchange processes are usually used only for processing of dilute solutions. Processing of concentrated solutions, which are characterized by the so-called “short” sorption cycles, it becomes disadvantageous because of the large consumption of reagents for regeneration per unit volume of the processed solution. In addition, in the processing solutions in the mode of short cycles due to the difference in the densities of the liquids in the system, namely the solution fed to the ion exchange column, and the solution, in the space between the granules in the resin bed, i.e. in the space corresponding to the porosity of the layer, the effects of longitudinal mixing. This leads to a significant reduction of e is the efficiency of processing and the emergence of large volumes of wastewater in the form of mixed solutions. This particularly applies to the so-called once-through systems, ion exchange, in which the transmission process and regeneration solution through a mass transfer column is in the same direction from top to bottom.

The consumption of reagents and volumes of wastewater generated is reduced when using the so-called counter-current circuits, in which regeneration solutions with high density is passed through the column in the upward direction. However, in this case, the longitudinal effects of mixing are difficult to remove because of the formation of the “channel flow” in the layers of the sorption material, which is associated with effects compression of granules of ion exchange materials in concentrated solutions of electrolytes [1].

Also known reagentless methods mass transfer sorption processes of separation of components of aqueous solutions of inorganic substances using ion exchangers with temperature-controlled selectivity (B.A.Bolto, D.E.Weiss. In Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction (Eds. J.A.Marinsky and Y.Marcus). Marsel Dekker, New York, 1977. P.221 [2]; the patent of Russian Federation №2034651, publ. 10.05.95 [3]. In these ways to implement the regeneration of ion exchangers in cyclic processes use hot water or recycled solution, or received interim solutions at temperatures different from the temperature of holding% Sov sorption. These methods are also designed for processing of dilute solutions. Limit the degree of enrichment or purification of solutions achieved by using them, among other factors, are also limited by the availability of free space between the granules in the layer of sorbent. Other limitations of these methods are small possible range used thermoelectric ion exchangers, as well as increased energy costs associated with the need of heating and / or cooling solutions and ion-exchange materials.

In addition, there is a method of mass transfer of sorption processes for separating components of concentrated aqueous solutions of inorganic substances, in particular concentrated mixed solutions of salts and acids with a common anion, namely a way of separating acids from salts with the use of anion exchange resins, called the method of “holding acids” (“acid retardation”) (M.J.Hatch, J.A.Dillon. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Process Design and Development, 1963, V.2, No.2, P. 253 [4]). In the specified way no ion exchange. Separation of cations is not on cationite, and on the anion exchanger, taken in the form of the same name with the electrolyte anion. For example, separation of sulfuric acid from a mixture of sulfate salts is carried out by passing the mixed solution through the anion exchange resin in the sulfate form, in case of processing a mixture of nitrates of COI the box is used anion exchange resin in the nitrate form, and in cases of processing of chloride in the chloride form. How is that in concentrated mixed solution with a total concentration of components from 3 to 20 g·EQ/l water activity is insignificant and substantially less than the degree of dissociation of salts, especially acid. In solutions formed tightly bound ion pairs and molecules capable of non-adsorption on anion exchange resin. By passing the mixed concentrated solution through the resin bed in the column separates components: first from the column face salts of multivalent cations, then with a little delay of salts of monovalent cations, finally, with a significant delay, comparable in volume of the missed solution with the volume of the layer of the resin begins to come the acid solution. After reaching equilibrium, i.e. saturation of the resin, the compositions of the fluids at the inlet of the column and exit are the same. The separation is carried out as follows: pass the solution through the column until an acid solution, desorption of the latter together with small impurities adsorbed salts conduct water used as eluent, after which the column becomes readily separated from the next portion of the processed electrolyte solution.

The above method [4] is almost the same way that before the article passing a mixture of solutions of electrolytes through the ion exchanger or other sorption materials when using as eluent water or one of the shared components of the mixture (patent of Russian Federation №2056899, publ. 27.03.1996 [5]). In this way, in addition to the separation of acids from salts, small effects are achieved separation of salts from each other.

The main limitations of the methods [4] and [5] are that when using standard ion exchange apparatus and a ramjet mode of transmission solutions through the layers of the sorption material are formed mainly mixed solutions due to the effects of longitudinal mixing is less dense and more dense solutions in the amount of porosity. When using a counter-current mode, when a concentrated solution of an electrolyte is passed through the column from the bottom up, and the water from top to bottom, and when using the most well-known ion-exchange resins (cationite and anion exchange) takes place the formation of relatively large amounts of the mixed aqueous solution due to the lower selectivity of adsorption of electrolytes on the ion compared to the sorption of water, and also due to the effect of education channels flow in the granular layer of the sorption material due to compression of the granules of ion exchange materials. In these methods [4, 5] chemical reagents, lost due to the formation of mixed solutions or harming the environment, are not solutions for regeneration, and the processed solutions. Currently, in many areas of the chemical industry, Hydromet is lurgie, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, electroplating industry and other areas, using the processes of dissolution and leaching, are formed requiring expensive processing or causing great harm to the environment concentrated solutions. This applies particularly to the separation of concentrated solutions of acids and salts.

Know of any other method of mass transfer of sorption processes for separating components of concentrated aqueous solutions of inorganic substances (Rahmatov, Bramasole, Basudeo, Naidenov. Reports of the Academy of Sciences, 1997, T, No. 2, s-218 [6]; D.N.Muraviev, R.Kh.Khamizov, N.A.Tikhonov, V.V.Kirshin. Langmuir, 1997, V.13, No.26, p.p.7186-7192-training manual [7]). This method allows to reduce the cost of chemical reagents to the minimum amounts equivalent to the amounts of the products obtained, and also to prevent the formation trudnoozhidaemyh mixed solutions. In the specified method uses the phenomenon isothermal supersaturation of solutions in ion-exchange processes and stabilization of supersaturated solutions in the resin bed. The ion exchange material is used as the sorbent, preliminary translate into a specific ionic form, for example in the form of a metal ion, and then treated with a concentrated solution of a substance containing anion, forming with the specified metal ion compound, Myung-the e-soluble, than the substance to be processed. For example, to obtain magnesium carbonate magnesium form of the cation exchange resin is treated with a concentrated solution of sodium carbonate or ammonium, and sulphate of potash potassium form of the cation exchange resin is treated with a concentrated solution of sodium sulfate or ammonium. In the ion exchange process in the resin bed is formed and for some time to stabilize supersaturated solution of the target compound. When the output of the saturated solution from the column is spontaneous crystallization of the pure target product, which is separated from the solution. Last doubleplay regenerating substance and sent to the next processing cycle of the resin in the desired ionic form. In the specified way, regardless of the effects of longitudinal mixing, there is no loss of reagents or formation of mixed wastewater, requiring additional processing. However, the disadvantages of the method [6, 7] are that the stabilization of supersaturated solutions in the resin bed is of a temporary nature, and for many components of the stabilization time is negligible. On the one hand, limits the range of used ion exchange systems, and on the other hand creates the risk grouting columns, i.e. sedimentation in the space between the granules of the sorbent, the amount of porosity.

The most effective is m to the proposed method is a method of mass transfer of the sorption process of separating the components of concentrated aqueous solutions of inorganic substances in U.S. patent No. 4673507 (publ. 16.06.1987) [8]. In accordance with this method, the processing of aqueous solutions is performed with the use of layers of granular sorption materials with reduced volume available for processing solution spaces between the granules of the sorbent. Processing solutions at the specified way when they are passing through a short highly compressed layer of fine granular sorption material. The compression layer reach different methods: for example, when working with dilute solutions in the device loads the granular ion exchange material in the environment of highly concentrated electrolyte so that in environments working solutions were swelling sorbents. Another method is to boot into the open device (without cover) excess sorption material which under pressure cover special design forcibly form a highly compressed layer. Due to the high pressure required for pumping the processed solution through such a device, in the method according to the patent [8], typically use short sorption layer. To reduce the length of the fronts ion exchange or molecular adsorption that is necessary when using short layers, use fine sorbent with good kinetic characteristics.

The presence of the labeled requirements suggests, there are certain limitations in the implementation of the method according to the patent [8]. The disadvantages of this method are the need of the use of high pressures. In addition, the drawbacks include the fragility of sorbents when they are used in cycles of sorption-regeneration. Finally, in the specified method is not achieved stability supersaturated solutions in the layer of sorbent compared to standard methods, which limits the range of recycled solutions.

The present invention related to a method for carrying out mass transfer sorption processes, aimed at the achievement of the technical result consists in increasing the efficiency of mass transfer of the sorption processes of separation of components of aqueous solutions of inorganic substances by increasing the degree of separation in the processing of concentrated solutions, including highly acidic concentrated solutions, increase the longevity of the use of the sorption material, and ensure the stabilization of supersaturated solutions in the sorption layer in the absence of special requirements to the size of sorbent granules and conditions for the processing of aqueous solutions, including the maintenance of high pressures and selection of certain directions of flows of liquids. Below at rscr the TII of the invention and examples of its use will be named and other types achieved technical result.

In the proposed method, the sorption mass transfer processes, as specified above, the closest known method according to the patent [8], recyclable aqueous solution is passed through the granular layer of the sorption material with a reduced volume available for processing aqueous space between the granules in this layer.

To achieve the technical result of the decrease in the volume available for processing aqueous space between the granules in the granular layer of the sorption material are provided by the bandwidth of the processed aqueous solution through a layer of the specified material, pre-filled organic liquid substance or mixture of such substances, is not miscible with either water or with recycled aqueous solution and chemically not interact with any components of the processed aqueous solution or with sorption material, while preventing fluidization of granular sorption material in the specified layer.

As established by the authors, when filling in the sorption layer of organic liquid substance not miscible or water, or with recycled aqueous solutions, or a mixture of such substances, you can pass water or aqueous solutions through the layer of granulated with blondage material conditions, when there is practically no free space between the granules, as it is filled with organic liquid. Organic liquid repels water and aqueous solutions, which tend to contact with hydrophilic sorbent. Consequently passed through the sorption layer of the processed aqueous solution is introduced at the interfacial boundary between the organic liquid and the surface of sorbent granules, forming the thinnest film around each pellet sorbent and flowing down the points of contact between the granules. In the components of the processed solution immediately appear at the output of the sorption layer.

When this happens multiple increase of the contact area of the processed aqueous solution with the surface of the sorption material, which results in a higher degree of separation, including in the processing of concentrated solutions, without any special size requirements of sorbent granules and without creating a high pressure in the sorption layer. It also improves the durability of sorption materials and stabilization of supersaturated solutions in the sorption layer. By choosing organic liquids that meet the above requirements, combined with the absence of high pressure, gripping the edge of your is the future of the sorption material, ensured the preservation of the properties used by the sorption material and the possibility of long-term operation in repeated cycles of sorption-desorption, prevent pollution and loss of fluids, pollution and loss themselves of these organic substances.

In particular, as mentioned substances to fill the layer of the sorption material can be used organic liquid substance with a density less than the density of water (or a mixture of such substances), such as liquid compounds from a number of waxes, unsaturated hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, organic substances, higher alcohols, ketones, carboxylic acids, ethers and esters. In this case, the processed aqueous solution is passed through the layer of the sorption material in the downward direction.

As these substances can also be used organic liquids with a density greater than the density of the recycled aqueous solution (or a mixture of such substances), such as liquid compounds from a number of halogen-substituted paraffins, including perfluorocarbons, halogen-substituted unsaturated hydrocarbons, halogen - and nitrosamine aromatic compounds, organic substances, cyclotouriste from a number of higher alcohols, ketones, carboxylic acids, simple and complex e is irov. In this case, the processed solution is passed through the layer of the sorption material in the upward direction.

The proposed method can be implemented using the proposed apparatus for mass transfer of the sorption processes.

The known device for mass transfer sorption processes in which various measures have been taken to improve their effectiveness.

Thus, the device according to the author's certificate of the USSR No. 1183146 (publ. 07.10.1985) [9] contains a vertical cylindrical body with a bottom and a lid that is designed to fill the sorbent and having placed in the base and the cover respectively the input and output connections, as well as in a special way made distribution system that is connected to the inlet side. This system contains a package stacked on top of other panels of the tunnel cells whose edges on each canvas is shifted relative to the previous paintings in the horizontal plane in the same direction. This creates a spiral twisting of the processed solution and a more uniform and intense interaction with the sorbent. However, the described implementation of the distribution system it creates increased resistance to the flow of the processed solution, and it needs to be submitted under uvelicheny the pressure.

The device according to the author's certificate of the USSR No. 1533750 (publ. 07.01.1990) [10] has a vertical housing with cover, bottom and connections for input and output of the solution, and is coaxially accommodated in the housing cylindrical microporous drainage system installed in it the piston. The space between the drainage system and the walls of the casing is intended to be filled by the sorbent. The piston when the device performs a reciprocating motion whereby intensified as well as the absorption of the purified solution through the drainage system and cleaning the surface of the stuck sorbent. A disadvantage of this device is the need for a mechanical drive.

The proposed apparatus for mass transfer of the sorption processes, intended for implementing the method that is closest to the device known from U.S. patent No. 4673507 [8], designed for the implementation described in this patent the method.

This device has a cylindrical body with a bottom, a lid, wall, top and bottom nozzles, entered, respectively, in the cover and bottom. The case contains the upper and lower drainage-distributing system, hydraulically connected, respectively, with the top and bottom nozzles. The space between these systems is intended for C is filled granular adsorption material. The latter forms a highly compressed layer. The apparatus provides for the use of fine sorbent with good kinetic characteristics.

This apparatus has disadvantages, correlated with the above-noted drawbacks of the method according to the patent [8], for which this apparatus is designed. They are, in particular, of the need to create and use high pressure when the machine is running. Related to this is the fragility of the sorbents when they are used in cycles of sorption-regeneration. Strong compression sorption layer determines its high hydraulic resistance, so the layer should be short. As a consequence, the low achieved stability of supersaturated solutions in the layer of sorbent and limited range of recycled solutions.

The invention is related to apparatus for mass transfer of the sorption processes, aimed at the achievement of the technical result consists in increasing the degree of separation, including in the processing of concentrated solutions, including strong acid solutions, in enhancing the durability using sorption materials, and in ensuring stability of the supersaturated solutions in the sorption layer. Thus the observed increase in the efficiency of mass transfer SOR is ment processes implemented in this device, is provided in the absence of special requirements to the size of sorbent granules and conditions for the processing of aqueous solutions, in particular to maintain high pressure. Following the disclosure of the invention and examples of its use will be named and other types achieved technical result.

The proposed apparatus for mass transfer of the sorption processes, as the closest known apparatus for U.S. patent No. 4673507 [8], contains a vertical cylindrical housing with a cover, a bottom and a wall. In the upper and lower housing parts are installed, respectively, the upper and lower drainage-distributing system. In the cover and bottom of the casing respectively, the upper and lower pipes, intended for supply to the apparatus or removal of liquids and hydraulically connected respectively with the upper and lower drainage and distribution systems.

To achieve the above technical result in the proposed apparatus, in contrast to the closest known apparatus, between the lower and upper drainage-distributing system placed the granular layer of the sorption material, the space between the granules of which is filled with an organic liquid substance or mixture still the substances, not miscible or water, or with recycled aqueous solution and chemically not interact with any components of the processed aqueous solution or with a granular adsorption material. The upper drainage-distributing system is installed and is hydraulically connected with the upper pipe can move in the vertical direction, and between it and the cover has a space in which is placed the clamping means to effect in the vertical direction on this system and prevent fluidization underneath granular layer of the sorption material. One of these two pipes is an input socket of the specified device is intended to convey the processed solution, and water, and the other outlet pipe of the specified device. At lower socket mounted faucet.

The use of this apparatus granular layer of the sorption material in which the free space between the granules filled with organic liquid substance, leads to the fact that there is practically no free space between the granules. Organic liquid repels water and aqueous solutions, which tend to contact with hydrophilic sorbent. The result is passed through the sorption layer of the processed water is the solution applied at the interfacial boundary between the organic liquid and the surface of sorbent granules, forms a very thin film that coats each grain of the adsorbent and flows through the points of contact between the granules. As a consequence, increases the contact area of the processed aqueous solution with the surface of the sorption material. This, in turn, leads to an increase in the degree of separation in the processing of concentrated solutions and eliminates special requirements for the size of sorbent granules and the necessity of using high pressures. The pressure exerted by the clamping means on the granular layer of the sorption material through the upper drainage-distributing system, a disproportionately small compared with the pressure in the compressed layer of the device according to the patent [8], since in the proposed apparatus, it is created only in order to prevent fluidization of the sorption material in the layer. At the same time increases the durability of sorption materials, as well as stabilization of supersaturated solutions in the sorption layer. Choice organic liquid substances in accordance with the above requirements, combined with the absence of high-pressure, compression of the sorption material, maintains the properties of this material is material and the possibility of long-term operation, prevents contamination or loss of fluids, pollution and loss themselves of these organic substances. The presence of a faucet on the bottom of the pipe prevents the leakage of fluid from the apparatus is not connected to the mains for the supply or removal of fluids.

In the proposed apparatus in one of the private cases of implementation hydraulic connection with the upper drainage-distributing system with the top connection can be made using flexible tubing. In this case, the clamping means may be in the form of a layer of an elastic porous material, for example foam rubber filling the space between the cover and the upper drainage-distributing system and specified ambient flexible tube. The clamping means can also be carried out in the form located above the upper drainage-distributing system disk with a hole for the specified flexible tube and is installed between the disc and the cover spiral spring surrounding the specified flexible tube.

In another particular case, the clamping means may be in the form prescribed in the housing above the upper drainage-distributing system of the piston through the hole in the center of which is hermetically passes the specified flexible tube, with cover in its upper part provided with a socket for connection with and is a source pressurized gas or liquid.

Each of these drainage and distribution systems can be made in the form of horizontal radiating drainage elements for ingress and egress of fluid connected with the same located in the center of this system of vertical pipe.

Each drainage element may be a tube with holes, not permeable granular sorptive material or closed mesh, is impervious to this material. Each drainage element may also be a cylinder with walls made of a porous material with pores that are not permeable granular sorption material.

Hydraulic connection of the upper drainage-distributing system with the upper pipe can be carried out also by means of the bellows. In this case, the clamping means may be in the form of a layer of an elastic porous material, for example foam rubber filling the space between the cover and the upper drainage-distributing system and specified ambient bellows.

When making the hydraulic connection of the upper drainage-distributing system with the upper pipe with bellows clamping means can also be carried out in the form located above the upper drainage-distributing system disk with a hole at back is receiving for the specified bellows and installed between the disk and the cover spiral spring, surrounding the specified bellows.

The variety of possible structures of various parts of the apparatus and their combination provides freedom of choice when developing apparatus depending on the technological characteristics of the production conditions and the forthcoming operation.

In any of the above cases, implementation of the proposed system specified organic liquid substance or a mixture of such substances, which filled the space between the granules of the granular adsorption material may have a lower density than water. The input socket of the specified device for feeding the processed solution, and water is the upper pipe and the outlet pipe is lower socket.

In addition, in any of the above cases, the execution apparatus specified organic liquid substance or a mixture of such substances, which filled the space between the granules of the granular adsorption material may have a higher density than the processed aqueous solution. The input socket of the specified apparatus to supply recycled water solution, and water is the lower pipe and the outlet pipe is upper socket.

These two possibilities are expanding selection of organic liquids to fill the space between the granules Sorb is an ionic material, allowing transmission of the processed aqueous solution through the apparatus as top-down and bottom-up (respectively, when the first and second features outlined above).

In any of these cases, the execution apparatus and parts thereof between the lower drainage-distributing system and the hull may be space filled with a neutral granular material, mainly gravel with a grain size exceeding the size of the granules of the granular adsorption material.

This layer prevents mixing of the liquid in the layer of the sorption material, the fluid trapped in the stagnant area under the lower drainage-distributing system.

The proposed apparatus for mass transfer of sorption processes is included as part of the composition of the proposed industrial installations for the separation of components of aqueous solutions of inorganic substances.

The known installation of the specified destination, in particular, patent of Russian Federation №2034651 (publ. 10.05.1995) [3] and U.S. patent No. 4673507 (publ. 16.06.1987) [8].

In the installation according to the patent [3] implemented a reagentless method for the sorption mass transfer processes of separation of components of aqueous solutions of inorganic substances. This installation includes the United IU is do a parallel ion-exchange columns, the heat exchanger, a few pumps, the line selection of the target product and the electronic control system and heaters-thermostats initial solution and concentrate pipelines and a number of other parts.

In this installation, because there is space between the granules of the sorbent achieved the degree of enrichment is small. The installation allows to process only diluted solutions, structurally complex and requires in its operation, increased energy costs due to the presence heaters-thermostats.

Closest to the present invention is the installation according to the patent [8]. This apparatus comprises a device for mass transfer of sorption processes and means for pumping through him fluids. When said apparatus has a cylindrical body with a bottom, a lid, wall, top and bottom nozzles, entered, respectively, in the cover and bottom. The case contains the upper and lower drainage-distributing system, hydraulically connected, respectively, with the top and bottom nozzles. The space between these systems is designed to accommodate the granular adsorption material. The latter forms a highly compressed layer. The apparatus provides for the use of fine sorbent with good kinetic characteristics

In this setting, is achieved by reduction of the free space between the granules of the sorbent in the sorption mass transfer apparatus that enhances the efficiency of the sorption mass transfer processes for the separation of components of aqueous solutions. However, the decrease of free space is achieved by means of a strong compression of the sorption layer, which increases the hydraulic resistance and requiring the installation comprises means creating increased pressure for pumping liquids. A strong compression of the layer of sorbent also leads to fragility of the sorbent. In addition, a highly compressed layer should be short, resulting in low achieved stability of supersaturated solutions in the layer of sorbent and limited range of recycled solutions.

The invention is related to industrial plant for the separation of components of aqueous solutions of inorganic substances, aimed at the achievement of the technical result consists in increasing the degree of separation in the processing of concentrated solutions, including highly acidic concentrated solutions, in enhancing the durability using sorption materials, and in ensuring stability of the supersaturated solutions in sorption SL is e and eliminates the need to use means for supplying fluid under high pressure. In addition, the observed increase in mass transfer efficiency of the sorption processes in the proposed apparatus, is provided in the absence of special requirements to the size of sorbent granules. Following the disclosure of the present invention and examples of its use will be named and other types achieved technical result.

The proposed industrial unit for separating components of aqueous solutions of inorganic substances, as the closest to it is known, contains the apparatus for mass transfer of sorption processes and the means for pumping fluid. Apparatus for mass transfer sorption processes has a vertical cylindrical housing with a cover, a bottom and a wall. In the upper and lower housing parts are installed, respectively, the upper and lower drainage-distributing system. In the cover and bottom of the casing respectively, the upper and lower pipes, intended for supply to the device or removal of liquids and hydraulically connected respectively with the upper and lower drainage and distribution systems.

To achieve the above technical result in the proposed industrial setting, unlike most similar known installation, the device for carrying out the Mac is obmennik sorption processes between the lower and upper drainage-distributing system placed the granular layer of the sorption material, the space between the granules of which is filled with an organic liquid substance or mixture of such substances, is not miscible with either water or with recycled aqueous solution and chemically not interact with any components of the processed aqueous solution or with a granular adsorption material. The upper drainage-distributing system is installed and is hydraulically connected with the upper pipe can move in the vertical direction, and between it and the cover has a space in which is placed the clamping means to effect in the vertical direction on this system and prevent fluidization underneath granular layer of the sorption material. One of these two pipes is an input socket of the specified device and the input pipe of the whole plant, intended to convey the processed aqueous solution and water, and the other outlet pipe of the specified apparatus, and the lower nozzle mounted faucet.

Furthermore, this industrial unit is equipped with a device for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions, having access to a shared emulsion, the output to be the separation of organic liquids and an outlet for the aqueous solution, purified from organic Zhidkov the matter. The output of the specified device for aqueous solution, purified from the organic liquid substance, is the output of all industrial installations, the entry for the partial emulsion is connected with the outlet pipe of the apparatus for mass transfer of the sorption processes, and the output to be the separation of organic liquids is connected to the apparatus for mass transfer of the sorption process line in the form of a tube, the end of which is introduced into the wall of the casing of this apparatus near drainage-distributing system, hydraulically connected with the suction inlet of the apparatus for processing aqueous solution and water, from the granular layer of the sorption material. But such means for pumping fluid is a coolant circulation pump with a check valve installed in the specified line.

Use in this industrial setting apparatus for mass transfer of sorption processes in which the space between the granules in the granular layer of the sorption material filled with organic liquid substance, leads to the fact that there is practically no free space between the granules, as it is filled with organic liquid. Organic liquid repels water and aqueous solutions, which seek to contact the at with hydrophilic sorbent. The result is passed through the sorption layer of the processed aqueous solution applied at the interfacial boundary between the organic liquid and the surface of sorbent granules, forms a very thin film that coats each grain of the adsorbent and flows through the points of contact between the granules. As a consequence, increases the contact area of the processed aqueous solution with the surface of the sorption material. This, in turn, leads to an increase in the degree of separation in the processing of concentrated solutions and eliminates special requirements for the size of sorbent granules and the necessity of using high pressures. At the same time it ensures stabilization of supersaturated solutions in the sorption layer. Choice organic liquid substances in accordance with the above requirements, combined with the absence of high-pressure, compression of the sorption material, maintains the properties of this material and the possibility of long-term operation, prevents pollution, and loss of fluids, pollution and loss themselves of these organic substances. The pressure exerted by the clamping means on the granular layer of the sorption material in the apparatus for mass transfer sorption processes through the upper drainage is about distribution system, disproportionately small compared with the pressure in the compressed layer on the patent [8], since the proposed industrial setting it is created only in order to prevent fluidization of the sorption material in the layer.

The presence of the proposed industrial installations apparatus for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions described in connection with apparatus for mass transfer sorption processes provides not only the prevention of contact of organic liquids on the installation exit, but a full refund of this substance without losses in the apparatus for mass transfer of the sorption processes. The refund is provided with a circulation pump with a check valve installed in the line connecting the two devices.

In one of the special cases in the proposed industrial unit mentioned organic liquid substance or a mixture of such substances, which filled the space between the granules of the granular adsorption material may have a lower density than water. In this case, the suction inlet of the apparatus for mass transfer of sorption processes and the input pipe all industrial installations intended to convey recycled water solution, and water, is the top tube of this and the parathas, and its outlet pipe is lower branch. The presence of the valve on this pipe not only prevents uncontrolled leakage of fluid from the sorption mass transfer apparatus, but also allows along with other cranes to perform switching in the operating conditions of the installation and in the process of filling machines liquids in the preparation of the installation to work. In this particular case, the inlet of this device (which is the upper nozzle) is also provided with a stopcock, which together with other cranes allows switching operating modes of industrial installations and in the process of filling machines liquids in the preparation of the installation to work.

In another particular case, these organic liquid substance or a mixture of such substances, which filled the space between the granules of the granular adsorption material may have a higher density than the processed aqueous solution. In this case, the suction inlet of the apparatus for mass transfer of sorption processes and the input pipe all industrial installations intended to convey recycled water solution and water, is the lower branch of this device and its outlet pipe is the top nozzle. In this particular case, the crane is mounted on the lower pipe to the to in the previous case, designed to prevent uncontrolled leakage of fluid from the sorption mass transfer apparatus. Thus the outlet of this device (which in this case is the upper nozzle) is also provided with a stopcock, which together with other cranes allows switching operating modes of industrial installations and in the process of filling machines liquids in the preparation of the installation to work.

Describe two features of the proposed industrial installations allow selection of organic liquids with greater or lesser density than that of the processed solution, and to apply this solution and the water from bottom to top or from top to bottom.

The end of the tube, connects the output of the apparatus for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions with apparatus for mass transfer sorption processes introduced in the wall of the housing of the apparatus may be closed drainage net, not permeable granular sorption material. This prevents clogging of the specified tube, which can lead to disruption of the installation.

In the proposed industrial setting apparatus for separation of organic liquids from aqueous solutions can be the case made in the form of a vertical cylinder with closed ends, to the which contains two extreme camera adjacent to the ends, and located between the middle chamber. The last distinguished from one extreme mesh designed to prevent turbulence and from the other hydrophobic drainage layer, permeable to the organic liquid substances or mixtures of such substances, which filled the space between the granules of the granular sorption material in the sorption mass transfer apparatus, but is not permeable to water and recycled water solution. At the extreme end of the chamber, separated from the middle chamber hydrophobic drainage layer, introduced the first outlet, not reaching more than half of this camera. At the other extreme end of the chamber, separated from the middle chamber mesh entered inlet pipe, which passes through the said chamber and the grid in the middle of the camera and comes, at least until her mid, and a second outlet, passing not more than half indicated at the camera. The specified input socket is the input of this device for the partial emulsion, the first outlet is output to the subject separation of organic liquid substance, and the second outlet is an outlet for the aqueous solution, purified from the organic liquid substance.

This embodiment of the apparatus for separation of the organic LM is such substances from aqueous solutions in the proposed industrial setting allows efficient separation during operation with speed, the corresponding feed rate of liquids, both top-down and bottom-up.

In the proposed industrial setting specified hydrophobic drainage layer apparatus for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions may contain the disk with holes made from non-wettable by water material, or a layer of granules of not wetted by water material pre-treated organic liquid substance, identical to that which filled the space between the granules of the sorption material in the apparatus for mass transfer of the sorption processes. These are not wetted by water materials can be, for example, polytetrafluoroethylene or carbon-containing packing material.

Hydraulic connection of the upper drainage-distributing system of the apparatus for mass transfer of the sorption processes of the proposed industrial installations with the upper nozzle housing of the apparatus can be achieved by using flexible tubing.

When this clamping means of the specified device can be made in the form of a layer of elastic porous material filling the space between the cover of the apparatus and the upper drainage-distributing system and specified ambient flexible tube.

Between the lower drainage-distributing system is the bottom of the chassis of the apparatus for mass transfer of the sorption processes of the proposed industrial installations can be space, filled with a neutral granular material, mainly gravel with a grain size exceeding the size of the granules of the granular adsorption material.

The variety of possible structures of various parts of industrial installations and their combination provides freedom of choice for its development depending on the technological characteristics of the production conditions and the forthcoming operation.

In the wall of the housing of the apparatus for mass transfer sorption processes near drainage and distribution systems from granular layer of the sorption material in the upper part of the lid and the bottom part of the bottom and in the middle chamber of the apparatus for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions and in the extreme end of the camera of this device, separated from the middle chamber hydrophobic drainage layer can be integrated with additional pipes with taps. Through these taps can be implemented in the fill mode of the apparatus mentioned organic liquid substance or mixture of such substances.

In the structure described above, the proposed industrial installations for the separation of components of aqueous solutions of inorganic substances in the quality part of it, which is an apparatus for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions, can be used known with whom estva appropriate destination however, preferably the apparatus is used for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions on offer below, the invention related to this device.

A device for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions by an author's certificate of the USSR No. 476009, publ. 05.07.1975 [11]. It contains a vertical casing, inlet pipe located in the lower part of the housing, and located in the upper part of the housing outlet, which is the output of this device for easy discharge of liquids. In addition, the device contains a separator in the form of an inverse truncated cone, provided with a second outlet pipe, which is the output of this unit to an aqueous solution, purified from the separated liquids, and inverted cone mounted below the truncated cone. In the middle part of the casing above the inlet pipe installed louvered wall, overlapping the cross-section of the housing. In the bottom part of the body is a tube, which is the outlet for the heavy discharge of liquids.

This device is intended for the Department as light and heavy organic liquids. However, as the analysis of his works mentioned reverse cone does not provide a complete separation of light organic liquids, and they are part of the but penetrate to the output for heavy liquids, therefore, the presence in the input of the emulsion only light organic liquids should be collected from both outputs for discharge of liquids.

It is also known a device for the separation of organic liquids from aqueous solutions by an author's certificate of the USSR No. 865818, publ. 23.09.1981 [12]. This device comprises a vertical tank with inlet pipe, which is the input device for the partial emulsion established under the louvered baffle in the lower part of the body, and installed in the upper housing of the first cylindrical container, separated by slanted partition into upper and lower parts. At the bottom of the upper part above the specified wall mounted outlet for the separated organic liquid, and above the lower part under the specified wall outlet for the solution, purified from the seep liquid. The device has a second cylindrical capacity, installed below the first. Under the said cylindrical containers placed partitions in the form of a reverse truncated cones.

This device provides the best compared to the previous branch light organic liquids, however, it is intended for the separation of such liquids.

The proposed apparatus for separating organic liquids from water R. the sites most closely device copyright evidence [12].

The present invention related to the specified device, aimed at the achievement of the technical result consists in providing a higher quality branch of the less dense and more dense than water organic liquids. Following the disclosure of the invention and examples of its use will be named and other types achieved technical result.

The proposed apparatus, as the closest known device includes a vertical housing and has an inlet pipe, which is input to the partial emulsion, and two output pipe, the first of which is the output of this device to be the separation of organic liquids, and a second outlet for the aqueous solution, purified from the separated organic liquid substance.

To achieve the technical result in the proposed apparatus, in contrast to the closest known device, the body is made in the form of a vertical cylinder with closed ends, which contains two extreme camera adjacent to the ends, and located between the middle chamber. The last distinguished from one extreme mesh designed to prevent turbulence and from the other hydrophobic drainage layer, permeable to organic the CSOs liquid substances, subject to Department, but is not permeable to water and purified water solution. Said first outlet introduced in the butt at the camera, separated from the middle chamber hydrophobic drainage layer, and reaches not more than half of this camera. These inlet pipe and the second outlet is introduced into the other extreme end of the chamber, separated from the middle chamber of the specified mesh, and the inlet pipe passes through the said at the camera and the grid in the middle of the camera and comes, at least until her mid, and the second outlet comes not more than half indicated at the camera.

For separating organic liquid having a lower density than the aqueous solution, which should be cleaned, the proposed apparatus Orient the first outlet pipe up. Shared emulsion enters the middle chamber. The more dense aqueous solution falls through the mesh down at the camera and out the second outlet. Less dense organic liquid rises through the hydrophobic drainage layer to another at the camera and it comes in the first outlet. The grid prevents turbulences of the flow input of the emulsion, which could result in penetration of organic liquids at the camera with a second outlet pipe and hydrophobic drainage layer prevents the aqueous solution to penetrate at the camera with the first outlet pipe.

For separating organic liquid having a higher density than the aqueous solution, which should be cleaned, the proposed apparatus Orient the first outlet pipe down. The role of elements of the apparatus in this case are similar to those described.

Hydrophobic drainage layer of this device can be a disk with holes made from non-wettable by water material, or a layer of granules of not wetted by water material pre-treated liquid organic substance, identical to that which is subject to Department. These are not wetted by water materials can be, for example, polytetrafluoroethylene or carbon-containing packing material.

The device is versatile and can be used for separating from the water solutions less dense and more dense compared them with organic liquids, contains no moving mechanical elements, does not require the process management and the use of external energy sources.

The present invention is illustrated by drawings figure 1 is 24 and the following examples 1-16.

Figure 1 illustrates the proposed method and the principle of operation of the proposed apparatus for its implementation.

In figure 2, related to the example 1, the curves of separation, i.e. the distribution of concentrations componentinfo fractions solutions, exiting the sorption layer, at the stages of adsorption and desorption of water in the implementation of the sorption process model solution acid leaching nepheline concentrate in accordance with the proposed method.

Example 2 as example 1 relates to the implementation of the sorption process model solution acid leaching nepheline concentrate, but without prescribed offered by way of filling the organic liquid substance in the space between the granules of the sorption material. In this example, the processed solution is passed in the direction from top to bottom.

Figure 3 related to the example 3, shows the output curves of the division in the implementation of the sorption process of the same solution as in example 1, but without prescribed offered by way of filling the organic liquid substance in the space between the granules of the sorption material. In this example, the processed solution is passed in the direction from bottom to top.

Examples 4-9 illustrate the use of various organic liquids in the implementation of the sorption process is the same as in the previous examples, the model solution in accordance with the proposed method.

In figure 4, pertaining to example 10, presents a weekend cu is the first sorption separation of acid and salt components during the process of sample preparation in analytical chemistry in accordance with the proposed method.

Figure 5 pertaining to example 11, the above output curve for the total concentration of iodine in all forms when carrying out the ion exchange process alkaline desorption of iodine from the anion exchange resin in the technology of extracting iodine from hydromineral raw materials in accordance with the proposed method.

Figure 6 pertaining to example 12 given output curve for the total concentration of iodine in all forms in the implementation of the same technology as in example 11, but without prescribed offered by way of filling the organic liquid substance in the space between the granules of the sorption material.

7 and 8, examples 13 and 14, respectively, shows the output curves of sorption of ammonium ion and ion desorption of potassium from the potassium form of the cation exchange resin in ion exchange technology for chlorine-free potassium fertilizers using the proposed method at different concentrations of the processed solution.

Figure 9-11 shows some of the possible modifications of the proposed apparatus for mass transfer of the sorption processes, distinguished by performing the clamping means:

- figure 9 is in the form of a layer of elastic material;

- figure 10 is in the form of a disk and spiral springs;

- 11 - in the form of a hydraulic or air piston.

On Fig and Fig shows the proposed industrial is the first installation for the separation of components of aqueous solutions of inorganic substances in cases of execution, distinguished by the direction of flow of the processed aqueous solution and water, containing the proposed apparatus for mass transfer of the sorption process and apparatus for separation of organic liquids from aqueous solutions.

On Fig shows the proposed apparatus for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions.

On Fig and 16 is the same as on Fig and 13, when using the proposed industrial setting apparatus for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions made in accordance with the invention related to this device.

On Fig-20 and Fig-24, related, respectively, to examples 15 and 16, shows the use of the proposed industrial installations for Fig and Fig and management at different stages of the production process.

The proposed method for the sorption mass transfer processes explains figure 1, which shows the diagram of the education system dynamic film of the process liquid passing through the sorption layer. This method provides for the transmission of the processed aqueous solution through the granular layer of the sorption material, pre-filled organic liquid substance or mixture of such substances, is not miscible with either water or with recyclable aq is m solution and not chemically interact with any components of the processed aqueous solution, neither sorption material, while preventing fluidization of granular sorption material in the specified layer.

As already mentioned in disclosing the nature of the proposed method, the authors effect was observed, namely, that by passing the processed aqueous solution through filled specified layer of the sorption material, when there is practically no free space between the granules, organic liquid repels water and aqueous solutions, which tend to contact with hydrophilic sorbent. The result is passed through the sorption layer of the processed aqueous solution, as shown in figure 1, is introduced at the interfacial boundary between the organic liquid 1 and the surface of sorbent granules 2, forming the thinnest film 3 around each pellet sorbent and flowing down the points of contact between the granules. Experimentally the effect is that the noise components from the top of the solution immediately appear at the output of the layer. Mentioned contact between the granules is achieved in the absence of fluidization for which it is enough to create a layer of low pressure (0.1 bar).

Choice organic liquid substance or mixture of substances in accordance with the specified requirements may be made on the basis of tableonline about the properties of organic substances, given in the reference books in chemistry (see, for example: a chemist's Handbook. Under. edit Bpiolar, in 6 volumes, V.6, Hemotest, Leningrad, 1963 [13]).

The following examples 1-14 are used laboratory ion-exchange column, performing the role of mass transfer sorption apparatus. Retention of the granular layers of the sorption material, filled with liquid organic substances or mixtures of such substances, provide pressing downloads in columns using pieces of foam inserted into the upper part of the columns. In the examples described not only the operation corresponding to the action of the proposed method, but also operations on the preparation of experiments and other operations not related to the proposed method as such.

Example 1

Use the proposed method for the implementation of the sorption process model solution acid leaching nepheline concentrate, which represents a concentrated solution of a mixture of nitrates of aluminum, sodium and nitric acid. When this perform the following steps.

A. Sample anionite AV-17 in industrially produced form, swollen in distilled water, transferred into the ion exchange column, is treated by passing through a column of 300 ml of 1M hydrochloric acid solution to remove impurities, washed on stillyoung water until neutral, transferred to the OH-form by passing through a column of 600 ml of 1M NaOH solution and washed with distilled water until neutral. Hereinafter, the completeness of the cleaning control by universal indicator paper. Then the resin was transferred to NO3-form by passing through a column of 300 ml of 1M nitric acid solution and thoroughly washed with distilled water. Characteristics of the generated load of the anion AB-17-NO3shown in table 1.

Table 1
Load characteristics of anionite AV-17
Download size, cm3The layer height, cmThe cross-section of the column, cm2Free download size, cm3The diameter of the grain loading, mm
120206400,75÷1,00

B. Water from space (polosnogo space) column and displace the layer of anion exchange resin AV-17 obtained in NO3form fill pelargonii (nonanol) acid. For this pelargonium acid is passed through the column from the top downward is as long until all of the water (40 ml) is excluded from the column.

C. Conduct experience sharing components of the original model solution acid leaching nepheline concentrate, containing the following substances in relevant concentrations of Al(NO3)3- 2.6 mol/l (553,8 g/l); HNO3- 1.3 mol/l (81,9 g/l); NaNO3to 0.92 mol/l (78,2 g/l).

For this purpose, the specified solution is passed through an anion exchange resin in the direction from top to bottom with speed 0,037 column volumes per minute to equalize the concentrations of HNO3at the inlet and the column outlet. Just skip 157 ml. Then the supply of the processed solution is stopped and washed the resin with distilled water. Supply of distilled water is performed with the same speed in the downward direction to the washing load of anion exchange resin from nitric acid. Just skip 113 ml of water. The total volume of fluid passed through the column during operations p., 270 ml. Progress is visible in the results of the experiment shown in figure 2.

, Repeat all operations listed in PV, and receive again the output curves shown in figure 2.

As can be seen from this figure, nitric acid (output curve 4) retained on the anion exchange resin by passing the processed solution and then completely displaced back from the column by passing water. At the same time the nitrates of aluminum and sodium (curves 5 and 6, respectively) begin to emerge from the column almost immediately during the transmission of the processed model solution. Thus, the proposed process is the separation of the salt components and acid. The first 125 ml emerge from the column fractions solutions (to the dotted straight line 7 in figure 2) are combined and get a working solution with an average salt content of components close to their original content (552 g/l for nitrate aluminum), and with an average residual nitric acid not more than 10% of the initial content (). The working solution is neutralized and the selection of aluminum hydroxide of the alkaline treatment. Fractions from 125 ml to 165 ml (between lines 7 and 8) are combined, and the solution of a total volume of 40 ml with composition similar to the composition of the initial model solution return for processing. The acid fraction from 165 ml to 270 ml is used for diluting concentrated nitric acid and obtain a working solution of the acid used for leaching of aluminum from nepheline concentrate.

Carrying out the sorption process of acid leaching solution nepheline concentrate offered way before alkaline treatment with the aim of highlighting aluminum hydroxide reduces the cost of: acid - 25%, alkali - 25% and water by 50%.

Example 2 (comparative with the method described in [4] and [5]).

Carry out the process as described in example 1, except operations Pb, that is, before carrying out operations on the PV, the free volume in the layer of anion exchange resin filled with distilled water, and not organic liquid substance. Operations PV carried out as in example 1, when the transmission source model solution in the downward direction. All fractions of the solution emerging from the column, there is no separation of the salt components and acid, which is associated with longitudinal mixing of components from more dense processed solution compared with water.

Example 3 (comparative with the method described in [4] and [5]).

Carry out the process as described in example 1, except that all operations on Pb, that is, before carrying out operations on the PV free volume in the layer of anion exchange resin filled with distilled water. Operations PV carried out as in example 1, except that the model solution is passed through the column in the upward direction. To achieve an initial concentration of acid at the outlet of the column passed through 230 ml of the model solution. Then up to full replacement of the acid from the column still miss 90 ml of distilled water. The progress is visible in the results of the experiment shown in figure 3. The output curves of the components, as in figure 2, marked with the numbers 4 (acid), 5 (aluminum nitrate) and 6 (sodium nitrate).

At the beginning of the process to once out water (40 ml), salt components go, as shown in figure 3, starting from the point of limited dashed straight line 9. This separation of components is less effective than in example 1: front output salt components and acid strongly eroded, which leads to the release of dilute solutions; acid begins to come almost at the beginning of the output of salt components. Under other equal conditions, the duration of the process is greater than in example 1, almost 20%.

After the release of water following 125 ml emerge from the column fractions solutions (between lines 9 and 10 in figure 3) combine and get a working solution with an average salt content of the components, close to half of their original content, and with a residual content of nitric acid not more than 10% of the initial content (), which is neutralized and the selection of aluminum hydroxide of the alkaline treatment. Fractions from 165 ml to 250 ml (between lines 10 and 11) are combined, and the solution of a total volume of 85 ml of a composition similar to the composition of the initial model solution return for processing. The acid fraction from 250 ml to 330 ml is used for diluting concentrated nitric acid and obtain a working solution of the acid used for leaching of aluminum from nepheline concentrate.

Conducting sorption% the SAR processing solution acid leaching nepheline concentrate before alkaline treatment to highlight the aluminum hydroxide in the above example allows you to reduce costs: acid - 12.5%, alkali - 12.5% and water consumption by 30%.

From the comparison with example 1 shows that the higher the duration of the process during its implementation by the previously known method, the mass of aluminum produced in solution for further processing, is almost two times less in addition, the ratio of the concentration of the salt component and the acid in this solution two times less than during the process of the proposed method.

Examples 4-9 (see table 2).

Carry out processes in accordance with the description given in example 1, except that the filling layer of the sorption material can be used various organic liquids and their mixtures listed in table 2. Get the results, also shown in this table.

Table 2 shows that when using various organic liquids are achieved almost the same results.

Example 10

Using the proposed method carry out the reduction of acidity strongly acidic solution of metal cations produced by the decomposition hard to analyze solid samples (bone tissue) in the autoclave in the course of analytical sample preparation and intended for further sorption concentration and analytical definitions.

The composition of the solution of nitrate of 5.89 M nitrogen is islote: calcium 1,47 mol/l, iron (II) - 1·10-3mol/l, manganese (II) - 4·10-4mol/l, copper (II) - 1·10-4, zinc (II) - 2·10-4and cobalt (II) - 1·10-4mol/L.

Use of ion-exchange column with a loading of 25 ml of the anion AM 102 in nitrate form layer parameters: the cross-sectional area: S=1.0 cm2; height layer: l=25 cm

Water from free polosnogo space column displace, and a layer of anion exchange resin AM 102 received in NO3form fill decanola. To do this, 8,5 ml decanol passed through the column from the top down until all the water (8.5 ml) is excluded from the column.

Through the column pass 25 ml of the original solution at a rate of 0.2 ml/min in the direction from top to bottom, taking fractions of 3 ml

Figure 4 shows the output curves: 12 - nitrates of the respective metals, for example cobalt nitrate and 13 for nitric acid. In the area bounded by straight lines 14 and 15, the concentration of metals in the upcoming factions practically unchanged compared with the initial solution (C/C0=1), and the acid content would be negligible. These fractions emerging from the column of solution are combined and brought into contact with 50 mg selective sorbent, DATTA, resulting achieve concentration of trace components in 240 times. The metal content in the solid phase sorbents determined using atom of the Oh absorption with graphite furnace or x-ray fluorescence.

Example 11

Using the proposed method is carried out desorption of iodine and regeneration of the anion exchanger in the working cycles of extraction of iodine from iodine-containing natural brines.

A. Through a column containing 40 ml of strong base anion exchanger AV-17 in the Cl-form layer parameters: the cross-sectional area: S=1.6 cm2; height layer: l=25 cm, miss 400 ml of solution prior to the introduction of 500 ml of 1% sodium hypochlorite solution in 400 ml of natural brine with the initial iodide concentration 40 mg/l and total mineralization of 56 g/l While the iodine is extracted from the solution and the anion exchange resin is transferred in the I2Cl-form (see: Vigentina, Dmitirievich. Chemistry and technology of iodine, bromine and their compounds, Moscow, “Chemistry”, 304 p [14]). In the course of this process on the entire layer of anion exchange resin in the column sorbed 15.6 g of iodine.

B. After the end of the sorption process remaining in the column, the solution is drained through the bottom exit to the level of the top layer of the resin. The solution of the free polosnogo space column displace, and a layer of anion exchange resin filled with decanola. For this 13,5 ml decanol passed through the column from the top down until all the water (13.5 ml) is excluded from the column.

B. pass Through the column 48 ml of 4.4 M solution of alkali (NaOH, 176 g/l) at a rate of 0.2 ml/min in the direction from top to bottom, taking in test tubes fractions of 4 ml and analysera the content of iodine. The output curve of iodine is shown in figure 5 (curve 16). It has a complex shape: initially falls from the total concentration of all forms of iodine 470 g/l to a minimum concentration of 200 g/l, and then again passes through a maximum, which corresponds to the concentration of 420 g/L. This behavior is explained by disproportionation, in which during desorption of iodine alkali is formed of loosely held in the Iodate ion exchange resin and strongly held sodium iodide:

3R-I2Cl+6NaOH=3R-Cl+NaIO3+5NaI+3H2O

Straight-line segment 17 parts coming out of the speakers volume of concentrate iodine into two zones, the first of which is enriched in sodium Iodate (compared to sodium iodide (Nai), and the next zone is represented mainly by the sodium iodide.

, Displace decanol from the layer of the resin into a separating funnel transmission source solution through the column in the upward direction, decanol separated and used in the following cycles of desorption of iodine. Repeat the operation ABC extraction of iodine.

D. After each experiment the tubes with selected fractions of the solution is kept for 2 hours, during which there is a spontaneous destruction of supersaturated solutions with deposition and settling of crystals and obtain the equilibrium solutions, the composition of which is shown in curve 18.

The difference between the curves 16 and 18 corresponds to the crystallization of pure Iodate is sodium. The total number of displaced from the column components during desorption is 14.8 g in the calculation of the iodine. This corresponds to the degree of regeneration of 95%. After regeneration of the anion exchange resin is transferred back to the form R-Cl.

E. Decanol squeezed from the pre-column by passing through a column of brine at a rate of 0.2 ml/min in the upward direction, emerging from the column, the liquid is collected in a separating funnel, separate decanol, which is used in the following operations. Repeat all operations in accordance with PPA-E.

Example 12 (comparative)

Carry out the process as described in example 11, except that they did not use decanol or other liquid organic substance. This is repeated sequentially operations PPA, and D, described in example 11.

The output curve of iodine is shown in Fig.6 (curve 19). Emerging from the column fractions of the solution correspond to the three areas, separated by the direct lines 20 and 21. First, in the first area out of the original brine from the free space column, the next zone, enriched Iodate, passes through a maximum corresponding to the total concentration of iodine 270 g/l, in the next area, corresponding to the sodium iodide, the maximum concentration corresponds to the amount of 180 g/HP Curve 22 shows the composition of the equilibrium solution after crystallization Iodate ntreis supersaturated solutions in selected fractions. The difference between the curves 19 and 22 corresponds to the number obtained in solid form Iodate of sodium, which is significantly less than in example 11. The total number of displaced from the column components during desorption is 7.5 grams per iodine. This corresponds to the degree of regeneration of 48%, which implies that after the first cycle of regeneration of the anion exchange resin is transferred in the form R-ICl. Thus, the process described in this example, two times less effective: in each cycle to use only half the capacity of the anion exchange resin in comparison with the proposed method.

Example 13

Using the proposed method modifies the process of obtaining chlorine-free potassium fertilizers (R.Khamizov, D.Muraviev, N.Tikhonov, A.Krachak, T.Zhiguleva, O.Fokina. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 1998, V37, No.5, p.1950-1955 [15]) using the phenomenon isothermal supersaturation of the solution in the ion exchange [6, 7].

A. a Sample of the cation exchanger KU-2x8 in industrially produced form, swollen in distilled water, transferred into the ion exchange column, is treated by passing through it 450 ml of 1M hydrochloric acid for pre-translation in the H-form and for purification from impurities, washed with distilled water until neutral, transferred to K-form by passing through a column of 450 ml of 1M KCl solution and washed with 300 ml of distilled water. In these processes / min net and bandwidth solutions is chosen equal to 10 ml/min

Characteristics of the generated load of the cation exchange resin KU-2 in the potassium form are given in table 3.

Table 3
Load characteristics of the cation exchange resin KU-2
Download size, cm3The layer height, cmThe cross-section of the column, cm2Free download size, cm3The diameter of the grain loading, mm
8010,537,6300,75÷1,00

B. Water free (polosnogo) space column displace, and a layer of cation exchange resin KU-2 obtained in the form of filling decanola. For this decanol passed through the column from the top down until all the water (30 ml) is excluded from the column.

Century Through the column in the downward direction with a speed of 3.6 ml/min miss 90 ml of ammonium sulfate solution with a concentration of 247.5 g/l (which corresponds to the equivalent concentration of 3.75 g·EQ/l), collecting fractions of 10 ml. of the resulting solution is left to stand during the time of the implementation of the next operation (p. G). During this the time is the crystallization of potassium sulfate from supersaturated solutions.

, Through the column in the downward direction with a speed of 3.6 ml/min miss 90 ml of a solution of potassium chloride with a concentration of 188 g/l (which corresponds to an equivalent concentration of 2.5 g·EQ/l). Thus the cation goes back in To form. Coming out of the speakers solution of ammonium chloride is collected in a separate container.

D. Obtained after surgery for PV fraction suspensions of crystals of potassium sulfate in the equilibrium solutions of ammonium sulfate and potassium sulfate sequentially filtered through a paper filter, the crystals are separated and dried, the filtrates are combined in one solution, add water and solid ammonium sulfate to obtain 90 ml of a solution containing ammonium sulfate 3.75 g·EQ/l, which is used in subsequent operations.

E. Repeat operations PPV-D for the following cycles obtain potassium sulfate.

Collect the solution of ammonium chloride produced in accordance with operation by p. G, can be translated conventional ion-exchange method using sodium sulfate in legkoochishchaemy sodium chloride, and the resulting solution of ammonium sulfate can be returned to the process.

Starting from the second repetition cycle of operations PPV-D, get duplicate results. 7 shows the output curves of the components corresponding to the third cycle of operation in the under PV Curve 23 represents the total concentration of potassium ion in fractions of saturated solutions emerging from the column, curve 24 corresponds to the concentration of ammonium ion, and curve 25 concentration of potassium ions in the equilibrium solution after crystallization of potassium sulfate.

In the process there is no waste of ammonium sulfate, its residual solution after each cycle of desorption of potassium doubleplays amount of ammonium sulfate is exactly equal to the equivalent amount of solid potassium sulfate, and is used in circulation.

In each cycle of the described process, starting from the second cycle, is obtained 2.5 g (28 mg·EQ) of crystalline potassium sulfate.

Example 14

Carry out the process as described in example 13, except that in the operation for PV use 65 ml of ammonium sulfate solution with a concentration of 316,8 g/l (this corresponds to the equivalent concentration of 4.8 g·EQ/l).

On Fig shows the output curves of the components corresponding to the third cycle of operation in accordance with the PV Curve 26 represents the total concentration of potassium ion in fractions of supersaturated solutions that emerge from the column curve 27 corresponds to the concentration of ammonium ion, and the curve 28 is the concentration of potassium ions in the equilibrium solution after crystallization of potassium sulfate.

Each is ikle described process, starting from the second cycle, is obtained 3.5 g (40 mg·EQ) of crystalline potassium sulfate.

The proposed method described in examples 11, 13 and 14 allows processes using phenomena isothermal supersaturation of the solution in the ion exchange, providing a wide range of concentrations of chemical reagents sustainable stabilization of supersaturated solutions in the layer of the sorption material. This provides an advantage over the methods described in [6, 7, 15], in which the process can be done in narrow ranges of concentrations of chemicals in the solutions.

Figure 9 schematically shows a section of the proposed sorption mass transfer apparatus. The apparatus includes a vertical cylindrical housing with a cover 31, a bottom 32 and the wall 29. In the upper and lower housing parts are installed, respectively, the top 38 and bottom 37 of the drainage-distributing system. In the cover and bottom of the casing respectively, the upper 33 and lower 34 pipes, intended for supply to the apparatus or removal of liquids and hydraulically connected respectively with the upper and lower drainage-distributing system 38, 37. Between the lower and upper drainage and distribution systems 37, 38 posted by a layer 36 of granular sorption material. The space between his Gran who Lamy filled with organic liquid substance or mixture of such substances, not miscible or water, or with recycled aqueous solution and chemically not interact with any components of the processed aqueous solution or with a granular adsorption material. The upper drainage-distributing system 38 is installed and is hydraulically connected with the upper nozzle 33 can move in the vertical direction. Between it and the cover has a space in which is placed the clamping means to effect in the vertical direction on this system.

Shown in Fig.9 if the specified hydraulic connection is made via a flexible tube 39, and the pressure means is a layer 41 of one or more pieces of hard foam. Clamping means creates a pressure in the layer of the sorption material of about 0.1 bar, which prevents fluidization of the sorption material and ensures contact between the granules.

The lower pipe 34 provided with a valve 51, through which can be prevented leakage of fluid from the apparatus when it is not connected to the mains for the supply or removal of fluids.

Hydraulic connection between the upper drainage-distributing system 38 and the upper nozzle 33 can be carried out also by means of the bellows 67 (this implementation is shown in F. g).

These organic liquid substance or a mixture of such substances, which filled the space between the granules of the granular adsorption material may have a density less than water, or greater than the processed solution. In the first case, the input device is the upper nozzle 33, and the output is lower socket 34, and in the second case, conversely, the lower pipe 34 is input, and the upper output.

Each of the drainage-distributing system 37, 38 may be in the form of horizontal radiating drainage elements for ingress and egress of fluid connected to the same Central vertical pipe (40, 62). Each drainage element (not shown) may be a tube with holes, not permeable granular sorptive material or closed mesh, is impervious to this material. Each drainage element may also be a cylinder with walls made of a porous material with pores that are not permeable granular sorption material.

Shown in Fig.9, when the device space between the bottom of the drainage-distributing system 37 and the bottom 32 of the housing is filled with a neutral granular material 54, such as gravel, granule size, exceed them the size of the granules of the granular adsorption material 36.

This unit may be gathered from the open from two sides of the cylindrical casing with flanges 101, 102, the cover 31 and the bottom 32 with the flanges 103, 104, the lid 31 may be provided with a hatch 105, as shown in Fig.9. In the wall 29 of the housing can be equipped with additional hatches (not shown in the drawing) for loading and unloading granular material, and inspection hatch.

Figure 10 and 11 schematically shows the sections of the upper part of the apparatus for mass transfer of sorption processes in two cases, execution of the clamping means. Figure 10 this tool is made in the form of a spiral spring 63 surrounding the flexible tube 39 and abutting against one end in the cover 31 of the housing, and the other in the disk 61 mounted above the upper drainage-distributing system 38. Figure 11 clamping means is a piston 66 mounted in the housing. In this case, the free space above the piston 66 must be connected via an additional pipe 65 to a source of gas or fluid under controlled pressure. Hydraulic connection of the upper drainage-distributing system 38 with the upper nozzle 33 in the case shown at 11, made through the bellows 67.

When using this apparatus for mass transfer sorption processes serves recyclable aqueous solution at WCC the apparatus, for example, in the upper pipe 33 when the density of the organic liquid filling the space between the granules of the sorbent, less than density of water. This solution, as shown in figure 1, is introduced at the interfacial boundary between the organic liquid 1 and the surface of sorbent granules 2, forming the thinnest film 3. The film coats each grain of the adsorbent and flows down the points of contact between the granules. At the output of the apparatus, which in this case is the lower pipe 34 with the installed valve 51, first appear noise components from the top of the solution, do not hold on sorption material. Then to the input of the apparatus serves the water and carry out washing of the sorption material from detainees components of the processed solution. At this stage on the output are these components displaced from the apparatus.

Similar processes occur when applying the processed solution, and water in the upward direction, i.e. through the lower pipe 34 with the valve 51. In this case, the output apparatus is the upper nozzle 33.

The above proposed device for mass transfer sorption processes can be used in the proposed industrial plant for the separation of components of aqueous solutions of inorganic substances containing as a component the t, this device, and apparatus for separation of organic liquids from aqueous solutions.

The proposed industrial unit shown in Fig and Fig contains apparatus 111 for mass transfer of the sorption processes, coupled with apparatus 112 for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions by a line in the form of a tube 35 and the tube 71 (1) or tube 70 (Fig). In the specified line is the circulation pump 53 with a check valve. Fig and 13 illustrate the installation in General, when using any acceptable performance and quality functioning of the device 112 to separate from aqueous solutions is not miscible with them organic liquids. As such a device can be used, for example, the apparatus specified destination based on the devices known from the copyright certificates of the USSR [11], [12] or patent of the Russian Federation No. 2048644 (publ. 20.11.1995) [16], No. 2077363 (publ. 20.04.1997) [17].

Below will be described as preferred for use in the proposed industrial setting performing unit 112 for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions in accordance with the invention related to this device.

Shown in Fig and Fig the execution of the proposed installation distinguish what I'm doing as made the connection apparatuses 111 and 112.

In both these figures the cases sorption mass transfer apparatus 111 includes a vertical cylindrical housing with a cover 31, a bottom 32 and the wall 29. In the upper and lower housing parts are installed, respectively, the top 38 and bottom 37 of the drainage-distributing system. In the cover and bottom of the casing respectively, the upper 33 and lower 34 pipes, intended for supply to the apparatus or removal of liquids and hydraulically connected respectively with the upper and lower drainage-distributing system 38, 37. Between the lower and upper drainage and distribution systems 37, 38 posted by a layer 36 of granular sorption material. The space between the granules filled with organic liquid substance or mixture of such substances, is not miscible with either water or with recycled aqueous solution and chemically not interact with any components of the processed aqueous solution or with a granular adsorption material. The upper drainage-distributing system 37 is installed and is hydraulically connected with the upper nozzle 33 can move in the vertical direction. Between it and the cover 31 of the housing has a space in which is placed the clamping means to effect vertical healthy lifestyles the Institute on this system. The specified hydraulic connection is made via a flexible tube 39, and the pressure means is a layer 41 of one or more pieces of hard foam. Clamping means creates a pressure in the layer of the sorption material of about 0.1 bar, which prevents the possibility of fluidization of the sorption material and ensures contact between the granules. The space between the lower drainage-distributing system 37 and the bottom 32 of the housing 29 of the apparatus 111 for mass transfer sorption processes filled with a neutral granular material 54 in the form of gravel with a grain size exceeding the size of the granules of the granular adsorption material layer 36. The apparatus 111 provided with valves 50, 51 are installed, respectively, on the upper 33 and lower 34 sockets.

The apparatus 112 for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions has an input 113, the first 114 and second 115 outputs. The first output 114 is the output of this device, designed to be the separation of organic liquid substance, and the second output of 115 access the specified device, designed for aqueous solution, purified from the organic liquid medium, and the output of all proposed industrial installations.

The communication device 111 with the device 112 is carried out with a tube 71 (Fig) or tube 0 (Fig) between the outlet pipe of the apparatus 111 and the input 113 of the apparatus 112, and with lines in the form of a tube 35, one end of which is connected to the first output 114 of the apparatus 112, and the other is introduced in the casing wall 29 of the apparatus 111 near the top of the drainage-distributing system 38 (Fig) or near the bottom of the drainage-distributing system 37 (Fig) so that this end is directly communicated with the layer of the sorption material. In the specified line is the circulation pump 53 with a check valve. For industrial installations Fig outlet pipe apparatus 111 is a pipe 34 with the installed valve 51, and to install the software Fig - pipe 33 with the installed valve 50. Accordingly, the input coupling apparatus 111 and the input pipe of the entire installation Fig is the pipe 33, and to install the software Fig and the underlying apparatus 111 - tube 34.

Describes the differences of the configurations on Fig and pig due to the fact that they correspond to different ratios of density used in the sorption mass transfer apparatus of the organic liquid substance and the density of the processed solution or water. In the installation according to Fig density specified substances must be lower than the density of water (and hence lower density of the processed solution), and the installation pig density specified substances must be higher than the density of re is abalyaeva solution (and, therefore, the higher density of water). Therefore, in the installation according to Fig recyclable solution and water are served and pass through the apparatus 111 from the top down, and in the installation Fig - from the bottom up.

The presence of the device 112 in units Fig and pig allows you to clean the emulsion exiting the apparatus 111, from the organic liquid substance filling layer of the sorption material in the device and which is able to penetrate to their output and provides at the output 115 of the proposed installation of the components of the processed aqueous solution, free of specified substances. At the same time ensures the return of organic liquids mass transfer in sorption apparatus through the first output 114 of the device 112 and the tube 35 with the circulation pump 53 with a check valve that allows you to save the properties of the layer of the sorption material in which the space between the granules should be filled with the specified organic liquid substance. The circulation pump 53 has a very low performance compared to the main pump that supplies recycled water mass transfer in sorption apparatus.

The execution unit 112 for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions in accordance with the proposed invention is illustrated Fig.

This apparatus has a housing 30 made is the form of a vertical cylinder with closed ends, which contains two extreme camera 45, 48, adjacent to the ends, and located between the middle chamber 42. The last distinguished from one extreme mesh 43, designed to prevent turbulence and from the other hydrophobic drainage layer 44, permeable to organic liquid substance subject to Department, but is not permeable to water and purified water solution. At the extreme end of the chamber 45 (bottom Fig), separated from the middle chamber 42 mesh 43, entered inlet pipe 46, which passes through the said last chamber 45 and the grid 43 in the secondary chamber 42 and comes, at least until her mid, and the second outlet 47, passing not more than half indicated at the camera 45. At the other extreme end of the chamber 48 (upper Fig), separated from the middle chamber 42 hydrophobic drainage layer 44, entered first outlet 49, not reaching more than half of this camera. Equivalent to the described solution is the input pipe directly into the secondary chamber 42 through the side wall of the housing 30.

The housing 30 may be made in the form of two cups 81, 82 connected by flanges 83, 84.

Hydrophobic drainage layer 44 of this apparatus can be a, as shown in Fig, the ROM is not wetted by water material with holes or layer pellets, you is anenih of not wetted by water material, pre-treated organic liquid substance, identical to that which is subject to Department. These are not wetted by water materials can be, for example, polytetrafluoroethylene or carbon-containing packing material.

The inlet 46 is the entrance of this proposed system to be separation of the emulsion, the first outlet 49 output to be the separation of organic liquid substance, and the second outlet 47 is output to the aqueous solution, purified from liquid organic substances. The connection of the proposed apparatus for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions with the proposed sorption mass transfer apparatus in the composition of the proposed industrial installations shown in Fig and Fig. This compound is similarly shown in Fig and 13 connection with any acceptable device 112 intended for the separation of organic liquids from aqueous solutions. Input 113 of the apparatus 112 on Fig, 13 corresponds to the inlet 46 of the apparatus 112 on Fig-16, exit 114 - outlet 49, the output 115 - outlet 47, which is the output of all industrial installations on Fig and 16 (the same correspondence on Fig-24, which will be described below in examples 15 and 16).

The apparatus 112 for separating organic liquids from water R. the cross-sections, shown in Fig, has the same orientation as when it is used as part of the installation Fig. For various reasons, such as when high-speed transmission of the processed aqueous solution through the apparatus 111, a certain amount of organic liquid can be taken out of the apparatus and the tube 71 and then through the inlet 46 may get into the middle chamber 42 of the apparatus 112. In the absence of grid 43 that separates the Central chamber 42 from the bottom (Fig, 15) camera, because of the turbulence of the flow of the organic liquid, although it has less density could get to the second outlet 47 together with the purified water solution. The presence of the grid 43, designed to prevent turbulence that possibility. Therefore, the organic liquid from the secondary chamber 42 can only emerge and penetrate into the upper (Fig, 15) chamber 48 through hydrophobic drainage layer 44 and then to get back into the printer 111. Hydrophobic drainage layer 44 is permeable to organic liquids, but not permeable to water and aqueous solutions. Therefore, the processed solution cannot penetrate into the chamber 48 and out of the apparatus 112 through the second outlet 47, previously fallen through the grid 43 in the bottom (Fig, 15) the camera 45. Set out enough for understanding the operation of the device 112 is in a different orientation, as part of the installation shown in Fig.

The operation and orientation of the device 112 as a means for separation is not miscible in aqueous solutions and organic liquids in other possible cases of its use (not part of the proposed industrial installations) are similar to those described and depend only on the ratio of the partial densities of aqueous solution and organic liquid.

The following examples 15 and 16 the proposed method and industrial installation used for carrying out the sorption process of acid leaching solution nepheline concentrate, which represents a concentrated solution of a mixture of nitrates of aluminum, sodium and nitric acid, as in example 1. Use the setup shown Fig and Fig apparatus 111 which for mass transfer of the sorption processes, the volume of the layer of anion exchange resin in the nitrate form in the most swollen state, i.e. in pure water, is 1200 liters. The total capacity of the apparatus 112 for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions is 250 litres.

Operation of the proposed facility in examples 15 and 16 is illustrated, starting with the preparatory operations using auxiliary piping and valves shown in Fig-2, related to the various stages of preparation and operation.

The valve 52 is installed at the outlet port 47. Valves 57 and 58 are installed on the pipes 77 and 78, entered respectively in the wall of the secondary chamber 42 and the end face at the camera 48, separated from the middle chamber 45 hydrophobic drainage layer 44 of the apparatus 112. The pipes 75, 76 with the valves 55, 56 are entered, respectively, in the upper part of the cover 31 and the wall 29 of the housing directly above the lower drainage-distributing system 37 of the device 111. The valves 55, 56 are only used in the installation according to example 15 (Fig-20). The nozzles 79, 80 with valves 59, 60 are entered, respectively, in the lower part of the bottom 32 and the wall of the housing 29 is directly under the upper drainage-distributing system 38 of the device 111 in its lowest possible position. The valves 59, 60 are only used in the installation according to example 16 (Fig-24).

On Fig-24 valves are in open condition, shown by a white circle, and the valves are in the closed state, the crossed circle.

Example 15 use of the proposed installation with water supply and recycled solution from top to bottom).

A. Spend the first preparatory operation for completing the installation of the clean demineralized water with the exclusion of air from the apparatuses 111, 112 and connecting pipes 35 and 71. For this purpose (see Fig) pump for water connection the Ute to the pipe 47, installed valve 52 to open the valve 51 to the inlet 34 and the valve 50 to the pipe 33. Valves 55 to 58 on the nozzle 75-78 closed. Open the valve 52 on the pipe 47 includes a pump and fed to the installation of water with a flow rate of 1000 liters per hour.

When the water from the pipe 33 with the valve 50 (the appearance of water or organic liquid pig and subsequent figures are shown with white arrows) the pump is switched off, the valve 52 on the pipe 47 is closed.

B. Conduct the second preparatory operation for completing the installation of the necessary amount of organic liquid - pelargonate acid. For this purpose (see Fig) close a previously open valves 50 and 51, the pipe 78 with the valve 58 is connected to an external pump for supplying organic liquid, open the valves 55 and 56 on the pipes 75 and 76. Then, by opening the valve 58 on the nozzle 78 includes a pump and begin to apply organic liquid with a flow rate of 1000 l/h,

Initially displaced water from the installation. When the organic liquid after the valve 55 to the pipe 75 close this valve. When the organic liquid after the valve 56 on the nozzle 76, the pump is switched off, the valve and valve 58 on the nozzle 78 is closed.

Next, connect the pump to supply the organic liquid to the pipe 77 with the valve 57 (see Fig), open the valve again opens the valve 58 on the nozzle 78 and includes a pump.

Out of the socket 58 in the beginning get out the organic liquid, then the emulsion of water and organic liquid, then again organic liquid. Then turn off the pump, close the valve 58 on the nozzle 78 and the valve 57 to the pipe 77 and disconnect the pump.

Then connected to the pipe 33 with the valve 50 line 90 for supplying the processed solution, and water, open the valve 51 to the pipe 34, valve 52 on the pipe 47 and the valve 50 to the pipe 33. After that the valves are in the state shown in Fig. The installation is ready for repetitive cyclic processes of sorption - desorption. Just to complete the installation goes 575 liters pelargonii acid. The specified volume remains in the unit without loss throughout her work.

In the course described preparatory operations coming out of the pipes clean fluid is directed into the respective source container or containers for storage, the emulsion is collected in a separate container, separated after settling on the water and organic liquid and also send the separated liquids in appropriate containers.

Before the beginning of commercial operation of the facility after its exit on the operating mode set the performance of the circulation pump 53 with a check valve so that it was enough to return the mass transfer in sorption apparatus 111 organic liquids falling on its output. You can use the auto the control of the circulating pump, when you include it when you hit level organic liquid at the chamber 45 of the apparatus 112, separated from the average camera grid 43, and off when you hit level organic liquid at the camera 48, separated from the middle chamber hydrophobic drainage layer 44. For this purpose, the apparatus 112 must have the appropriate sensors.

C. a Solution of acid leaching of nepheline concentrate containing the following substances in relevant concentrations of Al(NO3)3- 2.6 mol/l (553,8 g/l); HNO3- 1.3 mol/l (81,9 g/l); NaNO3to 0.92 mol/l (78,2 g/l) served in the installation of the original capacity for solution by means of a pump connected to the inlet line 90 when the open valve 50 (Fig).

The feed rate of 1600 l/h Duration of the whole operation - 1 hour, after which the pump is switched off and the supply of the solution is stopped. The first portion out of a facility solution, which is the minimum amount of nitric acid, namely 1250 litres, serves to further processing to obtain alumina and mineral fertilizers. The following portion of a volume of 350 liters return to the head of the process for re-processing.

, Setting serves pure demineralized water from the source water tank with a pump for supplying water is connected to the input line 90 open when the valve is 50. The feed rate of 1200 l/hour Duration of the whole operation - 1 hour, after which the pump off and the water flow stops. The first portion out of a facility solution, namely 150 liters, return to the head of the process for reprocessing. The next portion, 1050 litres, representing a solution of nitric acid, serves the consumer on the preparation of a working solution for leaching nepheline concentrate.

D. Repeat all operations listed in PPV and,

Carrying out the sorption process of acid leaching solution nepheline concentrate using the proposed method and installation with one sorption mass transfer apparatus specified scale allows you to receive 15 m3per day of liquid concentrate of aluminum, containing no acid. Compared to direct the alkaline treatment reduced costs: acid - 25%, alkali - 25% and water by 50%.

Example 16 (the use of the proposed installation with water supply and recycled solution from the bottom up).

A. Spend the first preparatory operation for completing the installation of the clean demineralized water with the exclusion of air from the apparatuses 111, 112 and piping 35, 70, connecting these devices. For this purpose (see Fig) connect the pump to supply water to the pipe 77 with the valve 57 open edge is s 59 to the pipe 79 and 60 on the nozzle 80 and serves water to the installation with a flow rate of 1000 liters per hour. After the appearance of the water from pipe 79 with the crane 59 this faucet is closed, after the appearance of the water out of the socket 80 with valve 60 pump off and close the faucet.

Then close the valve 57 to the pipe 77, the pump disconnect and attach through the line 90 to the pipe 34 with the valve 51. Open the valve 50 to the pipe 33, valve 52 on the pipe 47 and the valve 51 to the nozzle 34. Include a pump for water supply. Water is fed into the installation with a flow rate of 1000 liters per hour (see Fig).

When the water without air bubbles after the valve 52 to the outlet port 47, the pump is switched off and the valve closed.

B. Conduct the second preparatory operation for filling the device with the necessary amount of organic liquid - cyclohexylamino alcohol with a density of 1.47. For this purpose (see Fig) close the previously open valve 50 to the pipe 33 and valve 51 to the nozzle 34. The pipe 77 with the valve 57 is connected to an external pump for supplying organic liquid, open the valves 59 to the pipe 79 and 60 on the nozzle 80 and the valve 58 on the nozzle 78. Then open the valve 57 to the pipe 77 and begin to apply organic liquid with a flow rate of 1000 l/h

When the organic liquid after the valve 58 to the pipe 78, the valve 58 is closed, when the liquid after the valve 59 to the pipe 79, the valve 59 is closed, when the organic liquid after the valve 60 on the nozzle 80, the pump is switched off, the valve 60 C the opening.

The valve 57 to the pipe 77 is closed. Line 90 for supplying the processed solution, and water is connected to the pipe 34 with the valve 51, open the valve 50 to the pipe 33, valve 52 on the pipe 47 and the valve 51 to the nozzle 34. After that the valves are in the state shown in Fig.

The equipment is ready for carrying out repetitive cyclic processes of sorption - desorption. Just to complete the installation goes 575 liters of cyclohexylurea alcohol. The specified volume remains in the unit without loss during the entire operation.

Before the beginning of commercial operation of the facility after its exit on the operating mode set the performance of the circulation pump 53 with a check valve similar to that described in example 15.

C. a Solution of acid leaching nepheline concentrate composition specified in examples 1 and 15, is fed into the installation from the original capacity of the solution by means of a pump connected to line 90 connected to the pipe 34 to open valve 51. The feed rate of 1500 l/h Duration of the whole operation - 1 hour, after which the pump is switched off and the supply of the solution is stopped. The first portion out of a facility solution, which is the minimum amount of nitric acid, namely 1200 liters, serves to further processing to obtain alumina and mineral fertilizers. The next portion displacement of 30 liters return to the head of the process for re-processing.

, Setting serves pure demineralized water from the source water tank with a pump for supplying water is connected to line 90 connected to a pipe 34 to open valve 51. The feed rate of 1200 l/hour Duration of the whole operation - 1 hour, after which the pump off and the water flow stops. The first portion extending from the device of the solution, namely 150 liters, return to the head of the process for reprocessing. The next portion, 1050 litres, representing a solution of nitric acid, serves the consumer on the preparation of a working solution for leaching nepheline concentrate.

D. Repeat all operations listed in PPV and,

Carrying out the sorption process of acid leaching solution nepheline concentrate using the proposed method and installation with one sorption mass transfer apparatus specified scale allows to obtain 13.8 meters per day of liquid concentrate of aluminum, containing no acid. Compared to direct the alkaline treatment reduced costs: acid - 25%, alkali - 25% and water by 50%.

Thus, the proposed method for the sorption mass transfer processes, the apparatus for its implementation and containing this unit industrial unit, including the proposed apparatus for the Department the Department of organic liquids from aqueous solutions allow for a significant increase in the mass transfer efficiency of the sorption processes of separation of components of aqueous solutions of inorganic substances by increasing the degree of separation in the processing of concentrated, including strongly acidic solutions, due to the stabilization of supersaturated solutions in sorption layers, as well as by increasing the longevity of the use of the sorption material in the absence of special requirements to the size of sorbent granules and conditions for the processing of aqueous solutions, including the maintenance of high pressures and selection of certain directions of flows of liquids.

The invention can be used in the chemical industry, hydrometallurgy, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, electroplating production, chemical analysis and other areas, using the processes of dissolution and leaching to further processing of the received water solutions.

Sources of information

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2. B.A.Bolto, D.E.Weiss. In Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction (Eds. J.A.Marinsky and Y.Marcus). Marsel Dekker, New York, 1977. P.221.

3. The patent of Russian Federation №2034651, publ. 10.05.1995.

4. M.J.Hatch, J.A.Dillon. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Process Design and Development, 1963, V.2, No.2, P. 253.

5. The Patent Of Russian Federation №056899, publ. 27.03.1996.

6. Rahmatov, Bramasole, Basudeo, Naidenov. Reports of the Academy of Sciences, 1997, T.356, No. 2, s-218.

7. D.N.Muraviev, R.Kh.Khamizov, N.A.Tikhonov, V.V.Kirshin. Langmuir, 1997, V.13, No.26, pp.7186-7192-training manual.

8. U.S. patent No. 4673507, publ. 16.06.1987.

9. USSR author's certificate No. 1183146, publ. 07.10.1985.

10. USSR author's certificate No. 1533750, publ. 07.01.1990.

11. USSR author's certificate No. 476009. publ. 05.07.1975.

12. USSR author's certificate No. 865818, publ. 23.09.1981.

13. Chemist's Handbook, under. edit Bpiolar, in 6 volumes, V.6, Hemotest, Leningrad, 1963.

14. Vigentina, Dmitirievich. Chemistry and technology of iodine, bromine and their compounds, Moscow, “Chemistry”, 304 S.

15. R.Khamizov, D.Muraviev, N.Tikhonov, A.Krachak, T.Zhiguleva, O.Fokina. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 1998, V 37, No. 5, p.1950-1955.

16. The patent of Russian Federation №2048644, publ. 20.11.1995.

17. The patent of Russian Federation №2077363, publ. 20.04.1997.

1. The way mass transfer sorption processes in which the processed aqueous solution is passed through the granular layer of the sorption material with a reduced volume available for processing aqueous space between the granules in this layer, characterized in that the reduction of a specified amount provide by passing the processed aqueous solution through the granular layer of the sorption material, pre-filled, organic the sky liquid substance or mixture of such substances, not miscible or water, or with recycled aqueous solution and chemically not interact with any components of the processed aqueous solution or with sorption material, while preventing fluidization of granular sorption material in the specified layer.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the quality of these organic liquids or mixtures of such substances use organic liquid substance or a mixture of such substances with a density less than the density of water, and recycled water solution is passed through the granular layer of the sorption material in the downward direction.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the quality of these organic liquids or mixtures of such substances used substance or mixture of substances from the group of liquid compounds from a number of waxes, unsaturated hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, organic substances, higher alcohols, ketones, carboxylic acids, ethers and esters.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the quality of these organic liquids or mixtures of such substances use organic substance or a mixture of such substances with a density higher than the density of the recycled aqueous solution, and processed aqueous solution is passed through the layer Gras is Ulyanova sorption material in the upward direction.

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that, as specified organic liquid substances or mixtures of such substances used substance or mixture of substances from the group of liquid compounds from a number of halogen-substituted paraffins, including perfluorocarbons, halogen-substituted unsaturated hydrocarbons, halogen and nitro substituted aromatic compounds, organic substances, cyclotouriste from a number of higher alcohols, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters and ethers.

6. Apparatus for mass transfer of the sorption processes, comprising a vertical cylindrical housing with a cover, a bottom and a wall, in the upper and lower housing parts are installed, respectively, the upper and lower drainage-distributing system, the lid and the bottom of the casing respectively, the upper and lower pipes, intended for supply to the apparatus or removal of liquids and hydraulically connected respectively with the upper and lower drainage-distributing system, characterized in that between the lower and upper drainage-distributing system placed the granular layer of the sorption material, the space between the granules of which is filled with an organic liquid substance or mixture such a substance not miscible or water, or with recycled aqueous solution and helices and do not interact with any components of the processed aqueous solution, neither of granular sorption material, the upper drainage-distributing system is installed and is hydraulically connected with the upper pipe can move in the vertical direction, and between the upper drainage-distributing system and cover property has event space that hosts the clamping means to effect in the vertical direction on this system and placed under it the granular layer of the sorption material to prevent fluidization of the latter, one of these two pipes is an input socket of the specified device is intended to convey the processed aqueous solution and water, and the other outlet pipe of the specified apparatus, while the lower nozzle mounted faucet.

7. The apparatus according to claim 6, characterized in that the hydraulic connection of the upper drainage-distributing system with the top nozzle carried out using a flexible tube.

8. The apparatus according to claim 7, characterized in that the clamping means is made in the form of a layer of elastic porous material filling the space between the cover and the upper drainage-distributing system and specified ambient flexible tube.

9. The apparatus according to claim 8, characterized in that the layer of porous elastic material is made of foam.

10. The apparatus is .7, characterized in that the clamping means is made in the form located above the upper drainage-distributing system disk with a hole for the specified flexible tube and is installed between the disc and the cover spiral spring surrounding the specified flexible tube.

11. The apparatus according to claim 7, characterized in that the clamping means is made in the form prescribed in the housing above the upper drainage-distributing system of the piston through the hole in the center of which is hermetically passes the specified flexible tube, the lid is in its upper part provided with a socket for connection with a source of pressurized gas or liquid.

12. The apparatus according to claim 6, characterized in that the hydraulic connection of the upper drainage-distributing system with the top nozzle carried out with the help of bellows.

13. The apparatus according to item 12, characterized in that the clamping means is made in the form of a layer of elastic porous material filling the space between the cover and the upper drainage-distributing system and specified ambient bellows.

14. The apparatus according to item 13, wherein the layer of porous elastic material is made of foam.

15. The apparatus according to item 12, characterized in that the clamping means is made in the form located above the upper drainage-distributing system on the ska with a hole for the specified bellows and installed between the disk and the cover spiral spring, surrounding the specified bellows.

16. Apparatus according to any one of p-15, characterized in that the said organic liquid substance or a mixture of such substances, which filled the space between the granules of the granular adsorption material, have a lower density than water, and the input pipe of the specified apparatus to supply recycled water solution, and water is the upper pipe and the outlet pipe is lower socket.

17. The apparatus according to item 16, characterized in that each of these drainage and distribution systems made in the form of horizontal radiating drainage elements for ingress and egress of fluid connected with the same located in the center of this system of vertical pipe.

18. Apparatus according to any one of p-15, characterized in that the said organic liquid substance or a mixture of such substances, which filled the space between the granules of the granular adsorption material, have a higher density than the processed aqueous solution, and the input pipe of the specified apparatus to supply recycled water solution, and water is the lower pipe and the outlet pipe is upper socket.

19. The apparatus according to p, characterized in that each of these drainage-distributing system of Ipanema in the form of horizontal radiating drainage elements for ingress and egress of fluid, United with the same located in the center of this system of vertical pipe.

20. The apparatus 17 or 19, characterized in that each drainage element is a tube with holes, not permeable granular sorptive material or closed mesh, is impervious to this material.

21. The apparatus according to claim 20, characterized in that between the lower drainage-distributing system and the bottom of the case has a space filled with a neutral granular material with a grain size exceeding the size of the granules of the granular adsorption material.

22. The apparatus 17 or 19, characterized in that each drainage element is a cylinder with walls made of a porous material with pores that are not permeable granular sorption material.

23. The apparatus according to item 22, wherein between the lower drainage-distributing system and the bottom of the case has a space filled with a neutral granular material with a grain size exceeding the size of the granules of the granular adsorption material.

24. Industrial installation for the separation of components of aqueous solutions of inorganic substances containing apparatus for mass transfer of sorption processes and the means for pumping fluid,the apparatus for mass transfer sorption processes has a vertical cylindrical tank with cover, bottom wall, the upper and lower housing parts are installed, respectively, the upper and lower drainage-distributing system, the lid and the bottom of the casing respectively, the upper and lower pipes, intended for supply to the device or removal of liquids and hydraulically connected respectively with the upper and lower drainage-distributing system, characterized in that the device for carrying out sorption mass transfer processes between the lower and upper drainage-distributing system placed the granular layer of the sorption material, the space between the granules of which is filled with an organic liquid substance or mixture of such substances, is not miscible with either water, nor with recycled aqueous solution and chemically not interact with any components of the processed aqueous solution or with a granular adsorption material, the upper drainage-distributing system is installed and is hydraulically connected with the upper pipe can move in the vertical direction, and between the upper drainage-distributing system and cover property has event space that hosts the clamping means to effect in the vertical direction on this system and placed under her layer of granular sorption what about the material to prevent fluidization of the latter, one of these two pipes is an input socket of the specified unit and the input connection of all above-mentioned industrial installations intended to convey recycled water solution and water, and the other outlet pipe of the specified apparatus, while the lower nozzle mounted faucet, in addition, this industrial unit is equipped with a device for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions, having access to a shared emulsion, the output to be the separation of organic liquids and an outlet for the aqueous solution, purified from the organic liquid substance, and the output of the specified device for aqueous solution, purified from the organic liquid substance is output all specified industrial installations, the entry for the partial emulsion is connected with the outlet pipe of the apparatus for mass transfer of the sorption processes, and the output to be the separation of organic liquids is connected to the apparatus for mass transfer of the sorption process line in the form of a tube, the end of which is introduced into the wall of the casing of this apparatus near drainage-distributing system, hydraulically connected with the suction inlet of the apparatus for processing solution, and water, from the side of the layer of granular sorption what about the material, but such means for pumping fluid is a coolant circulation pump with a check valve installed in the specified line.

25. Industrial installation according to paragraph 24, characterized in that the said organic liquid substance or a mixture of such substances, which filled the space between the granules of the granular adsorption material, have a lower density than water, while the outlet pipe of the apparatus for mass transfer of sorption processes is lower branch, and the input socket of this unit and the input connection of all industrial installations intended to convey recycled water solution, and water, is the top of the pipe, and this pipe is equipped with a crane.

26. Industrial installation A.25, characterized in that the end of the tube, connecting the first outlet of the apparatus for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions with apparatus for mass transfer of the sorption processes, introduced into the wall of the casing of this apparatus, closed drainage net, not permeable granular sorption material.

27. Industrial installation according to paragraph 24, characterized in that the said organic liquid substance or a mixture of such substances, which filled the space between the granules is granulirovannogo sorption material, have a higher density than the processed aqueous solution, and the input connection of the device for mass transfer of sorption processes and the input pipe all industrial installations intended to convey recycled water solution and water, is the lower branch of this device and its outlet pipe is the top tube, the latter is equipped with a crane.

28. Industrial installation according to item 27, wherein the end of the tube, connecting the first outlet of the apparatus for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions with apparatus for mass transfer of the sorption processes, introduced into the wall of the casing of this apparatus, closed drainage net, not permeable granular sorption material.

29. Industrial plant of any one of p-28, characterized in that the apparatus for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions has a housing made in the form of a vertical cylinder with closed ends, containing two extreme camera adjacent to the ends, and located between the middle chamber, the latter separated from one extreme mesh designed to prevent turbulence and from the other hydrophobic drainage layer, permeable to the organic liquid substance or mixture which such substances, which filled the space between the granules of the granular sorption material in the sorption mass transfer apparatus, but is not permeable to water and recycled water solution, at the extreme end of the chamber, separated from the middle chamber hydrophobic drainage layer, introduced the first outlet, which comes up to the middle of this chamber, at the other extreme end of the chamber, separated from the middle chamber mesh entered inlet pipe that passes through this extreme camera and the grid in the middle of the camera and comes, at least until her mid, and a second outlet, which is not more than mid-specified at the camera, the specified input socket is the input of this device for the partial emulsion, the first outlet is output to the subject separation of organic liquid substance, and the second outlet is an outlet for the aqueous solution, purified from the organic liquid substance.

30. Industrial installation according to clause 29, wherein the hydrophobic drainage layer contains a disk with holes made from non-wettable by water material, or a layer of granules of not wetted by water material pre-treated organic liquid substance, identical to that which filled the space between granularization material in the apparatus for mass transfer of the sorption processes.

31. Industrial installation according to item 30, characterized in that said spraying water material is Teflon or carbon-containing packing material.

32. Industrial plant of any one of p-28, 30, 31, characterized in that the hydraulic connection of the upper drainage-distributing system of the apparatus for mass transfer sorption processes with the upper nozzle housing of this device is carried out via a flexible tube.

33. Industrial installation p, characterized in that between the lower drainage-distributing system and the hull of the apparatus for mass transfer sorption processes there is a space filled with a neutral granular material with a grain size exceeding the size of the granules of the granular adsorption material.

34. Industrial installation p, characterized in that the clamping means of the apparatus for mass transfer of the sorption processes were carried out in the form of a layer of elastic porous material filling the space between the cover of the apparatus and the upper drainage-distributing system and specified ambient flexible tube.

35. Industrial installation 34, characterized in that between the lower drainage-distributing system and the hull of the apparatus for carrying out mansoob the military sorption processes have the space, filled with a neutral granular material with a grain size exceeding the size of the granules of the granular adsorption material.

36. Industrial plant of any one of p-28, 30, 31, 33-35, characterized in that the wall of the housing of the apparatus for mass transfer sorption processes near drainage and distribution systems from granular layer of the sorption material in the upper part of the lid and the bottom part of the bottom and in the middle chamber of the apparatus for separating organic liquids from aqueous solutions and in the extreme end of the camera of this device, separated from the middle chamber hydrophobic drainage layer, built additional pipes with taps.

37. Apparatus for separation of organic liquids from aqueous solutions, comprising a vertical cylindrical casing, inlet pipe, which is input to the partial emulsion, and two output pipe, the first of which is the output of this device to be the separation of organic liquids, and a second outlet for the aqueous solution, purified from the separated organic liquid medium, characterized in that the casing is made with closed ends and contains two extreme camera adjacent to the ends, and located between the middle chamber, the latter separated from one extreme is Amer net designed to prevent turbulence and from the other hydrophobic drainage layer, permeable to the organic liquid substance subject to Department, but is not permeable to water and purified water solution, at the extreme end of the chamber, separated from the middle chamber mesh entered inlet pipe, which passes through the said chamber and the grid in the middle of the camera and comes, at least until her mid, and a second outlet, passing not more than half indicated at the camera, and in the other extreme end of the chamber, separated from the middle chamber hydrophobic drainage layer, first introduced outlet, not reaching more than half of this camera.

38. The apparatus according to clause 37, wherein the hydrophobic drainage layer is a disk with holes made from non-wettable by water material.

39. The apparatus according to § 38, characterized in that said spraying water material is Teflon.

40. The apparatus according to clause 37, wherein the hydrophobic drainage layer is a layer of granules made from non-wettable by water material pre-treated with an organic liquid, identical to the liquid to be separated.

41. The apparatus according to p, characterized in that said spraying water material is perople is t or carbon-containing packing material.



 

Same patents:

Hot water filter // 2424983

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to filtration. Proposed filter comprises filtration element arranged in tight casing between inlet and outlet branch pipes. Split casing is made up of bottom cylindrical barrel and top cover. Aforesaid branch pipes are arranged stop said cover while filtration element holder is arranged inside said cover, Holder being made up of tie rods fixed in cover with their free ends accommodating filtration element support. Filtration element is made up of hollow cylinder consisting of cylindrical bearing structure whereon filtration material is secured. Said bearing structure top face is fitted in top cover mount seat while carcass bottom face accommodates plug. Carcass thermal expansion factor exceeds that of holder tie rod linear expansion. Tight joint of bottom cylindrical barrel and top cover is made up of opposed taper flanges made on edges of both parts embraced by segments with V-like profile. Segments have their cylindrical surface jointed with inner surface of split tape yoke provided with lock. Top cover is provided with guide collar. Tight elastic gasket is arranged between guide collar and taper collar.

EFFECT: higher quality.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of deep-dehydrated water and may be used in heat and power engineering, ferrous metallurgy, chemical and petrochemical industries. Proposed method comprises pre-dehydration of initial water by sequential forcing of water through H-cation filter with strong-acid cation and OH-anion filter with strongly basic anion to obtain water carbonate content Icio less than 2 (mg-eq/dm3)2, additional deep dehydration of water obtained at first step that is forced through OH-anion filter with strongly basic anion and H-cation filter with strong-acid cation.

EFFECT: water with specific resistance of up to 18 MOhm·cm at 20°C without using decarboniser and combined-effect filter, reduced production costs.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: instrument making.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sorption processes used to treat fluids by continuous ion exchange. Proposed apparatus comprises vessel that accommodates the following devices: device to feed and uniformly distribute treated water over cross-section areas of ionite layer, hydraulic drive of said layer representing a flow of water treated by said apparatus and forced through ionite layer top part to allow continuous circulation in direction opposite the direction of water ion-exchange front, and device to collect and discharge treated water from apparatus. Device to feed and uniformly distribute treated water represents a bundle of filtration elements, spaced apart and integrated with bottom circular chamber that makes, together with apparatus vessel, a space. Device to collect and discharge treated water from apparatus represents an axial bundle of spaced apart filtration elements, partially submerged into ionite layer and, above ionite layer, integrated with top circular chamber that makes, together with apparatus vessel, a space.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, minimum consumption of ionite, simple design.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of automatic control of ion-exchange sorption of amino acids from waste water and can be used in chemical, food and other industries. The method of automatic control of ion-exchange sorption of amino acids from waste water involves controlling concentration of components of waste water, measuring flow of liquid solutions and their level in reservoirs. Information on flow of the process of ion-exchange sorption of amino acids from waste water is sent to sensors for monitoring level in containers of incoming water, distillate and desorbing solution, acidity of incoming water and during its flow into ion-exchange columns, temperature of the distillate and desorbing solution, concentration of the target component in the incoming water and water at the outlet of the ion-exchange columns and flow through secondary devices, a microprocessor and digital-to-analogue converters to actuating mechanisms for changing parametres of operation of the equipment depending on selected criteria.

EFFECT: invention increases accuracy of control and minimises energy and material costs.

1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: in invention claimed are devices and methods for continuous anti-current desorption of target materials. Device for substance desorption from ion-exchange resin which has sorbated on it admixtures and target materials, includes first and second chamber. Resin is supplied into first chamber, and is transported from first chamber to second chamber, and desorbing solution is supplied into second chamber, and is transported from second chamber into first chamber. Admixtures, which have less affinity with resin, than target material, can be desorbed from resin, and target material can be sorbed on resin from desorbing solution in first chamber. Flow of admixtures, which has high admixture concentration and relatively low concentration of target material, is released from first chamber through first outlet. Target material is desorbed from resin in second chamber, and enriched flow, which has low admixture concentration and relatively high concentration of target material, is released from low parts of first and/or second chamber through second outlet.

EFFECT: extension of arsenal of means for substance desorption from ion-exchanging resin.

41 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: industrial organic synthesis catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to regeneration of basic anionite catalysts for process of production of alkylene glycols via hydration of corresponding alkylene oxides. Method according to invention consists in treatment of spent catalyst with aqueous solution of inorganic salts of iodine and inorganic acids or with hydroiodic acid aqueous solution.

EFFECT: achieved complete restoration of initial volume and selectivity of catalyst and thereby prolonged lifetime of expensive anionite catalyst.

1 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; nonferrous metallurgy; other industries; production of the apparatuses for purification of the waste waters by ion exchange.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the apparatuses for purification of the waste waters by ion exchange. The apparatuses may be used in the galvanic and chemical production for purification of the waste waters and the production process liquids. The column counter-current ion-exchange filter contains the cylindrical housing with the inlet and outlet windows used for delivery and withdrawal of the ion-exchange filtering material, the upper and lower bottoms, the unions of the fed treated water and withdrawal of the purified water, the main pipes for feeding of the fresh ion-exchange filtering material and withdrawal of the spent ion exchanger. Inside the housing there is the rotor with the mounted on it feed screw. The feed screw is formed by the double-threaded perforated non-falling partitions and having on its external diameter the perforated non-falling jacket. In the jacket at the level of the inlet and outlet windows of the housing there are the windows used for delivery and withdrawal of the ion-exchange charge. In one apparatus the continuous process of purification of the contaminated water takes place in the presence of the anion-exchanging and cation-exchanging absorbers at the continuous change of the ion-exchanger. The technical result of the invention is the increased productivity of the ion-exchange filter and the reduced cost of the purification.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased productivity of the column counter-current ion-exchange filter and the reduced cost of the purification.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: heat-and-power industry; other industries; methods of the ion-exchange purification of the water.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the production process of the ion-exchange purification of the water and may be used in the heat-and-power industry and other industries. For realization of the method the subjected to purification water is passing in the top-down direction through the floating layer of the inert substance and the separated from it by the free space area layer of the weakly-dissociable polydispersed ionite with the directly located on it layer of the coarse-grained filtering inert substance. The latter has the high mechanical strength and the density exceeding 1 g/cm3, but less than the density of the used ionite. Periodically they conduct the layer-by-layer ripper washing of the whole volume of the ionite with the coarse-grained filtering inert substance at the speed of the ascending current of 15-20 m/h and the subsequent descending feeding of the regeneration solution through all layers of the substances. The method ensures extension of the field of usage of the polydispersed weakly-dissociable ionites, increases efficiency of the water purification and allows to realize the effective regeneration of the ionites.

EFFECT: the invention ensures extension of the field of usage of the polydispersed weakly-dissociable ionites, increases efficiency of the water purification and allows realization of the effective regeneration of the ionites.

2 cl, 2 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: water-supply engineering; methods and devices for water purification.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the sorption purification of the waters both the surface water and the artesian water-supply sources. The sorption-filtering loading for complex purification of the waters contains the low-base anionite, the low-base anionite impregnated with the humus substances, the coal or sand, the inert polymeric substance with the density not exceeding the densities of the other components of the loading, the strong-acid cationite in Na- and-or K-form, and also the low-base anionite impregnated with iron and the high-base anionite. The contents of the components in the loading constitutes(in mass %): the sand - 4-6, the inert polymeric substance - 4-6, the low-base anionite - 0.2-15, the low-base anionite impregnated with the humus substances - 0.2-15, the high-base anionite - 0.2-15, the low-base anionite impregnated with the iron - 0.2-15, strong-acid cation-exchanger - the rest. The invention ensures the high-degree purification of the water from the ions of the metals especially of Fe and Mn, the hardness salts, aluminum, the organic impurities and hydrogen sulfide. One loading can be used for purification of not less than 50000 specific volumes of water.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the high-degree purification of the waters from the ions of the metals especially of Fe and Mn, the hardness salts, aluminum, the organic impurities and hydrogen sulfide and one loading can be used for purification of not less than 50000 specific volumes of the water.

2 cl, 3 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: technology of adsorption and ion exchange processes for extraction and separation of components of dispersed and liquid media.

SUBSTANCE: proposed plant includes mixing reactor, displacement apparatus, two-section mass exchanger and pulsating system interconnected into suspension sorbent circulating loop. Sections of mass exchanger are made in form of extended passages divided by convectively permeable partition. Pulsating system forms alternating drops of pressure in passages. One passage of mass exchanger is connected to loop and other passage is connected to line of counter-flow delivery of medium to be treated. Loop is connected with fresh sorbent source and with used sorbent receiver. Line of medium to be treated is connected with carrying fluid source and receiver. Sections of mass exchanger may be of shell-and-tube type or of contact-plate type. Specification describes methods of phase-selective adsorption or ion exchange. Fresh sorbent is kept in source and is introduced into loop in form of concentrated fluid suspension in carrying preserving liquid. Waste sorbent is discharged from loop also in form of concentrated suspension. Size of dispersed particles of adsorbents, ionites and media being treated range from 0.3 to 0.7 mm. Adsorption or ion exchange processes are carried out in cyclic, continuous cyclic and fully continuous modes. As a result, productivity by component being extracted is increased by 5-10 times.

EFFECT: increased productivity; reduced number of production processes and equipment units.

23 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 21 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; nonferrous metallurgy; other industries; production of the apparatuses for purification of the waste waters by ion exchange.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the apparatuses for purification of the waste waters by ion exchange. The apparatuses may be used in the galvanic and chemical production for purification of the waste waters and the production process liquids. The column counter-current ion-exchange filter contains the cylindrical housing with the inlet and outlet windows used for delivery and withdrawal of the ion-exchange filtering material, the upper and lower bottoms, the unions of the fed treated water and withdrawal of the purified water, the main pipes for feeding of the fresh ion-exchange filtering material and withdrawal of the spent ion exchanger. Inside the housing there is the rotor with the mounted on it feed screw. The feed screw is formed by the double-threaded perforated non-falling partitions and having on its external diameter the perforated non-falling jacket. In the jacket at the level of the inlet and outlet windows of the housing there are the windows used for delivery and withdrawal of the ion-exchange charge. In one apparatus the continuous process of purification of the contaminated water takes place in the presence of the anion-exchanging and cation-exchanging absorbers at the continuous change of the ion-exchanger. The technical result of the invention is the increased productivity of the ion-exchange filter and the reduced cost of the purification.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased productivity of the column counter-current ion-exchange filter and the reduced cost of the purification.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: technology of adsorption and ion exchange processes for extraction and separation of components of dispersed and liquid media.

SUBSTANCE: proposed plant includes mixing reactor, displacement apparatus, two-section mass exchanger and pulsating system interconnected into suspension sorbent circulating loop. Sections of mass exchanger are made in form of extended passages divided by convectively permeable partition. Pulsating system forms alternating drops of pressure in passages. One passage of mass exchanger is connected to loop and other passage is connected to line of counter-flow delivery of medium to be treated. Loop is connected with fresh sorbent source and with used sorbent receiver. Line of medium to be treated is connected with carrying fluid source and receiver. Sections of mass exchanger may be of shell-and-tube type or of contact-plate type. Specification describes methods of phase-selective adsorption or ion exchange. Fresh sorbent is kept in source and is introduced into loop in form of concentrated fluid suspension in carrying preserving liquid. Waste sorbent is discharged from loop also in form of concentrated suspension. Size of dispersed particles of adsorbents, ionites and media being treated range from 0.3 to 0.7 mm. Adsorption or ion exchange processes are carried out in cyclic, continuous cyclic and fully continuous modes. As a result, productivity by component being extracted is increased by 5-10 times.

EFFECT: increased productivity; reduced number of production processes and equipment units.

23 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 21 ex

FIELD: organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, chemical technology.

SUBSTANCE: method involves addition of ammonium sulfate up to saturation to analyzed solution in the process of extraction and prepared solution is passed through sorbent-polycarbonate modified with 46.7-47.1 wt.-% of tributylamine at the rate 0.8-1 cm3/min in the mass ratio sorbent to sample = 1:10. Invention can be recommended for extraction naphthol- and phenolsulfoacids (2-naphthol-6-sulfoacid, 2-naphthol-6,8-disulfoacid, 1-amino-8-naphthol-3,6-disulfoacid, 1-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfoacid, 2-aminophenol-4-sulfoacid, 2-ethylphenol-4-sulfoacid, phenol-4-sulfoacid and 5-aminosulfosalicylic acid) from treated sewage waters in manufacturing azodyes. In a single extraction method provides extraction of 84.0-99.9% of hydroxysulfoacids.

EFFECT: improved method for extraction.

1 tbl, 17 ex

FIELD: domestic appliances.

SUBSTANCE: filter comprises housing with inlet and outlet branch pipes, vertical baffles mounted inside the housing to define units for sorbents. The baffles are made of two cylinders axially aligned along the vertical axis of the housing to define single cylindrical unit and two ring units. The inner cylinder is mounted so that to provide a space between its bottom face and the bottom of the housing. The outer cylinder is mounted so that to provide a space between its top face and the lid of the housing.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of the filter.

3 dwg

Ion exchange filter // 2205691
The invention relates to the field of processing of natural and waste waters in ion-exchange filters containing granular (grainy) filter material located between the permeable fixed partitions, as well as to regenerate the filter material by the countercurrent method

The invention relates to biotechnology, namely the method of separation of citric acid from solutions of alkali citrates

The invention relates to nuclear technology and relates to methods of processing iron and uranium-containing solutions resulting from the decontamination of radioactive metallic hardware solutions of various acids

The invention relates to the field of instrumental chemical analysis in ecology, in particular, to the analysis of natural water, its solutions and industrial wastewater

The invention relates to the separation of chromium and vanadium

FIELD: domestic appliances.

SUBSTANCE: filter comprises housing with inlet and outlet branch pipes, vertical baffles mounted inside the housing to define units for sorbents. The baffles are made of two cylinders axially aligned along the vertical axis of the housing to define single cylindrical unit and two ring units. The inner cylinder is mounted so that to provide a space between its bottom face and the bottom of the housing. The outer cylinder is mounted so that to provide a space between its top face and the lid of the housing.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of the filter.

3 dwg

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