Surface condenser

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: surface condenser for differential fluidisation of vapour components of mixed flow consists of at least two successively connected heat exchangers jointed to each other without end covers and tube bridges with their tubular grids so, that tubes of each preceding heat exchanger downstream mixed flow are elongated beyond outlet enclosure. Their diametre is less, than diametre of tubes of the next heat exchanger and are inserted inside of them forming a gap to drain condensed component. A cavity and channel for withdrawal of drained component are made in the outlet enclosure of the preceding heat exchanger or in an inlet enclosure of the next heat exchanger.

EFFECT: reduced metal consumption of condenser and reduced hydraulic resistance along circuit of volatile components motion due to connection of heat exchangers.

9 cl, 7 dwg

 

The invention relates to designs of heat exchanger for liquefying the vapor of different products at cooling their indirect through an intermediate wall of the pipe, for example, after heating complex mixtures, evaporation of these volatile components and send them to the condensation. Heating, evaporation from condensing separation of complex mixtures are used mainly in the processes of distillation-distillation of complex mixtures of liquid products, each of which has different volatility vapors, i.e. different vapor pressure.

Known design-similar - surface cooler-condenser used in the installation of a simple distillation-distillation, see Kasatkin A.G. "the Basic processes and apparatus of chemical technology. M., 1961, s, RES - distillation unit and s, RES - design spiral wound heat exchanger. Heat exchanger depicted in RIS, is one of the variants of spirally wound coil heat exchanger with the coil placed in the inner cavity. The design of this heat exchanger includes a continuous spirally wound pipe for supplying vapor - condensation component and the cavity where the pipe into which cooling water is supplied. The output of the spirally wound pipe-coil is connected to three parallel installed capacity is mi - receivers for receiving the liquefied different components. Receipt of the liquefied different components at different receivers is implemented by a switching valve installed on the supply lines, distribution in each receiver.

The operation of the analog - surface condenser, consisting of a single spiral wound heat exchanger, the installation comprises a simple distillation is that when heated shepherd mix columns in the cube begins the first evaporation of the volatile component. A pair of first volatile component received in the spiral wound tube surface condenser located in the cavity with flow-through cooling water and the cooling of their heat, condenses on the inner surface and disposed in one of the receivers. As the distillation in discrete and analog portions is loaded into the cube liquid mixture, then with increasing temperature of the heated mixture with increasing temperature in the cube column distillation begins evaporation others second, then the third mixture components, which are allocated to other receivers. The excretion of various condensed - liquefied volatile components at different receivers in the design-analogue is carried out by switching connection of the condensed - liquefied stream to line breeding, in the context of the specific receiver, collecting this component. I.e. the component, it is evaporated in a given time - at a given temperature in the cube column.

The shortcoming of analogue is the lack of automotive component removal - breeding total condensed stream of volatile flows with different components and automotive supply them to various receivers. The use of analogue impossible, when the mixture consists of liquid components, with only minor differences of the evaporation temperature, and evaporating at the same time, due to the General overheating of the liquid product in the cube column. Existing manual and even automatic connect - and off - switching of the supply line liquefied components in the receivers is inertial. Because of the above reasons: simultaneous evaporation of components with little different evaporation temperatures, inertia switches, and condensation of different components on the walls of the same pipe coil in the receiver partially enclosed by other components of the composition. What pure individual components of complex mixtures in structures analogous to allocate impossible.

Closest to the technical nature of the solution adopted for the prototype, is the design surface of the capacitor, use the th installation of simple distillation-distillation, with two serially fitted heat exchangers connected pipe jumpers, see Kasatkin A.G. "the Basic processes and apparatus of chemical technology, M., 1961, s, RES. In the design of the prototype of the first heat exchanger that receives the stream of evaporated volatile components of the two series installed heat exchanger is a heat exchanger according to RIS-239, s.353, classic shell and tube type, which includes passing the tube bundle with two tube sheets. Further along the steam flow of the mixture components, after pipe jumpers installed spirally wound (sleepily) heat exchanger previously described construction in section analogues, i.e. the design Is, s. Moreover, the first heat exchanger is installed directly on top of the cube columns as chlebowy element of the device.

Work design adopted for the prototype, is that after the beginning of the evaporation in the cube columns of volatile components, they come in early in the first tube shlamovogo classic shell and tube heat exchanger. On the inner surface of the tubes arise: film condensation of the first volatile component and the sliding-runoff film down under the action of gravity. In more detail the mechanism of film condensation is described in the famous work - Ciborowski Ya "Processes of chemical technology the technology", Leningrad GOS. ).technology. published in chem. literature., 1958, s. Condensed in the first shell and tube heat exchanger part of the vapors of volatile components at once by gravity back into the column, i.e. is irrigating the phlegm that alters the composition of the subsequent condensation of the component in the second heat exchanger (enriched distillate). A pair of second volatile component is condensed in a spirally wound pipe coil of the second heat exchanger. Thus, according to the scheme of the prototype using two series-connected pipe jumper heat exchangers separation condensed stream emitting two separate components of different composition. Although one of them is the first and is returned to the distillation column.

The shortcoming of the surface condenser, adopted for the prototype, consisting of a coherent set of two separate heat exchangers, United pipe jumper is increased metal structure comprising two separately installed heat exchanger, and increased hydraulic resistance to their flow of volatile components. Increased hydraulic resistance of the path in a set of two separate heat exchangers the flow of volatile components due to the presence of repeated contractions and RA is shirani when the flow in the upper fittings on the covers of the previous heat exchangers, when the traffic flow through a constricted pipe jumpers and at the entrance to the fittings on the lower lids subsequent heat exchangers, as well as with increased resistance at the entrance of the flow in each pipe grid to each of the heat exchangers.

The purpose of the proposed technical solution is the reduction of metal surface condenser with a differentiated converted to steam components and reduction of hydraulic resistance on the path of volatile components, comprising at least two series-connected heat exchangers by connecting the heat exchangers to each other directly without the use of caps and narrowing the flow pipe jumpers.

This goal is achieved by the fact that in the known surface condenser for differentiated liquefaction steam components of the mixed stream, including at least two series-connected heat exchanger, the heat exchangers are connected to each other without the end cap and pipe bridges its tube sheets so that each tube during the previous mixed flow heat exchanger elongated at its output grating made with diameter less than the diameter of the tubing subsequent heat exchanger, and inserted inside them with the education gap for draining the condensed film to the component moreover, in the output lattice of the previous heat exchanger or in the input lattice is performed subsequent cavity and the channel output flowing the condensed component.

The cavity for collecting the flowing of the condensed component is made in the form of an intermediate annular chamber between the tube sheet and additionally introduced transverse partition with holes in places of passage of pipes, and for outputting the condensed component to the lower part of the newly formed annular chamber connected socket.

Connected in series heat exchangers and introduced additional intermediate annular chamber are made with the same flanges. A set of series-connected heat exchangers and additionally introduced an intermediate annular chambers assembled molded from welded annular joints of pipe sections with flangeless tube sheets and an intermediate annular chambers.

When connecting a serial set of heat exchangers with the upper flange of the column with excluded reflux irrigation in heat exchanger located from the first column in the set of serial connection, after the input lattice, made cavity with a channel or intermediate annular chamber with fitting for collection and removal by flowing the first condensed component is a, or between the flange of the column and the flange of the inlet tube are connected with them mating flanges separate annular chamber with the nozzle passage of the mixture. The subsequent tube heat exchanger, pipe covering lengthening of the preceding heat exchanger with a large diameter, extending only a short section of host movements. At the end of the extensions tubes installed nozzles to prevent the disruption of draining the condensed film component. In the area of the ends of the extensions tubes covering their subsequent tube heat exchanger fitted with a protective sleeve to prevent the disruption of draining the condensed film component. When performing covering the tubes with a larger diameter at the site with the inserted movements, the diameter of the collet, preventing the disruption of draining the condensed film component, adopted with diameter equal to the diameter of the heat exchange tubes of the subsequent heat exchanger.

The claimed technical solution is illustrated by figure 1÷7.

Figure 1 shows the cross section of the proposed surface condenser, consisting of three series-connected directly with each other heat exchangers - without caps and pipe bridges, with a heat exchange tubes, elongated along the flow at each previous Teploobmennik the ka, moreover, the extension is inserted into the heat exchange tubes of each heat exchanger with a gap Δ. Cavity for collecting the flowing of the condensed component and the channels for its conclusion is made in the output gratings of each of the previous heat exchanger from the serial set. The channel is made by a single drilling operation.

Figure 2 shows a fragment of a cross-sectional view of the connection of the first and second heat exchangers with a version of the cavity in the input grid of the second heat exchanger. The channel output is made by a single drilling operation.

Figure 3 same as figure 1, but with the internal cavities made in the form of an intermediate annular cameras placed in each subsequent heat exchanger. Each chamber is formed by the inlet tube sheet and additionally introduced transverse partition with holes to pass extensions of the heat exchange tubes of the previous heat exchangers.

Figure 4 shows a slice plot of the accession of the first heat exchanger to the upper flange of the column. To exclude reflux irrigation after the input grid of the first heat exchanger by the introduction of transverse partitions formed intermediate annular chamber for collecting and provided with a nozzle for injection of the first condensed volatile component.

Figure 5 same as figure 4, but variance execution for the collection and removal of the first condensed volatile component from a separate annular chamber with the nozzle, attached to the upper flange of the column and the inlet tube to the grid of the first heat exchanger mating flanges.

Figure 6 shows a slice plot of the cross-section with the mutual location in the pipe lattice subsequent heat exchanger inserted in her lengthening the other tube of the previous heat exchanger. Larger diameter tubes subsequent heat exchangers are made only on a short area movements of heat-exchange tubes of the previous heat exchangers. The diameters of the heat exchange tubes of the previous and subsequent heat exchangers on the main length. And at the end of the extension tube installed nozzles to prevent the disruption of draining the condensed film component. The fragment corresponds to the intersection of the first and second heat exchangers.

Figure 7 same as figure 6, but the subsequent tube heat exchanger fitted with a protective sleeve to prevent the disruption of draining the condensed film component. The diameter of the sleeve, preventing the disruption of draining the condensed film component, adopted the same diameter as the subsequent heat-exchange tubes of the heat exchanger.

The design of the proposed surface condenser is installed on the upper flange 1 column 2, at least two heat exchangers - figures 1 and 3 shows three effects is therefore connected to each other by tubular space of the heat exchangers 3; 4 and 5. Where the upper flange 1 column 2 attached to the flange 6 of the first in the course of the mixed gas stream from the column 2, heat exchanger 3. Then the second flange 7 of the first heat exchanger 3 is attached to the first flange 8 of the second heat exchanger 4. The second flange 9 of the heat exchanger 4 in turn is connected to the first flange 10 of the third heat exchanger 5, the second flange 11 which is connected to the flange 12 of the outlet pipe 13.

In the embodiment of Figure 1, the flanges 6; 8 and 10 combined with the three input arrays 14; 15 and 16 of the heat exchangers 3; 4; 5. And the flanges 7, 9 and 11 combined with the output gratings 17; 18 and 19. Configuration of output gratings 17 and 18 of the first 3 and second 4 heat exchangers taken with the formation of cavities 20 and 21 for collecting the flowing of the condensed vapor components. In the embodiment of Figure 3 instead of the input gratings 15 and 16 of the second 4 and the third 5 heat exchangers installed partitions 22 and 23 with the formation of an intermediate annular chambers 24 and 25 for collecting the flowing of the condensed components. For removing the condensed components of the cavities 20 and 21 option figure 1 drilled channels 26 and 27. For removing components from the intermediate annular chambers 24 and 25 to the cameras attached to the fitting 28 and 29.

In each of the heat exchangers 3; 4 and 5 placed bundles of heat exchange tubes, respectively 30; 31 and 32.

Shown in Figure 4 and 5 variants also the organisations of the first heat exchanger 3 to the flange 1 column 2 unlike options, shown in figure 1 and 3, excluded reflux irrigation. I.e. excluded runoff is the return generated from cooling the mixture in the first heat exchanger 3 of the first liquefied volatile component back into the column. For this purpose, in the embodiment of Figure 4 after the input grid 14 introduced the partition 33 with the formation of the intermediate annular chamber 34 with the fitting 35. Moreover, the input lattice equipped with the nozzles 36, which is partially inserted into the heat-exchange tubes 30 of the first heat exchanger 3. In the embodiment of Figure 5 between the flanges 1 of the column 2 and the flange 6 of the first downstream flow heat exchanger 3 posted by a separate annular chamber 37 with the fitting 38 and pipe 39, which also partially inserted into the heat-exchange tubes 30 of the first heat exchanger 3. The annular chamber 37 is attached to the flange 1 of the column 2 and the input flange 6 of the first heat exchanger 3 with its mating flanges 40 and 41. In the variants shown in Fig 1; 2; 3, heat-exchange tubes 30; 31 and 32 in the heat exchangers 3; 4; 5 as a whole, i.e. along the entire length made with successively larger diameters on the 2Δ - the amount of clearance Δ. In contrast, variants, fragments relative position, for example, of heat-exchange tubes 30 and 31 of the first and second heat exchangers 3 and 4, is shown in Fig.6 and 7, it is shown that the heat-exchange tubes each subsequent heat exchanger is after the first can be larger in diameter - the extension only on the area movements. To prevent the disruption of draining the condensed film component on the end extensions of the tubes 30 is installed nozzles 42 for option 6. Version 7 to prevent the disruption of draining the condensed component, in the area of the ends of the movements of the tubes 30, covering their pipes 31 and 32 of the further heat exchanger 4 is equipped with protective sleeves 43 lashing ribs 44. The same performance can be taken in connecting the heat exchangers 4 and 5, etc. And to execute on version 6 is a major part of the tube has the same diameter. This decision is based on 6 - allows you to use the main square tubes for the manufacture of heat exchangers of the same diameter.

The proposed design of surface heat exchanger with applicable reflux irrigation 1 and 3 is as follows. Before distillation - heating the liquid mixture of the products of columns in the cube, the cube columns conventionally not shown, in the annulus of the heat exchangers 3; 4; 5 serves one or more cooling agents such as condensate and cooled water. With the beginning of heating the liquid mixture in the cube column begins with the evaporation of volatile components. The vaporized and heated volatile components from the column 2 through the hole of the flange 1 version 1; 3 is inaut to do at the beginning of the heat-exchange tubes 30 of the first heat exchanger 3. Condensed in the heat exchanger tube 30 part vapors of volatile fractions immediately is returned by gravity to the cube of the column, being irrigating the phlegm that alters the composition of the subsequent condensation of the component in the second heat exchanger (enriched distillate). But the second volatile component, condensed - expected on the inner surface of the tube 31 in the second heat exchanger 4, the liquid film slide-flows down and accumulates in the cavity 20 (Fig 1, 2) or in the annular chamber 24 (Fig 3) and through the channel 26 (Fig.1-2) or fitting 28 (Figure 3) is output to the outside and goes in a separate storage or further technological processing. Similarly, the third component of condensable is expected on the inner surface of the tubes 32 in the third heat exchanger 5, the liquid film flows down and going in the cavity 21 and the annular chamber 25, continuously on channel 27 or fitting 29 is brought out and sent in their store or on further technological processing. If necessary, exceptions reflux irrigation in the column, in accordance with the variant shown in Figure 4, the first heat exchanger 3, equipped with an additional partition 33 after the input grid 14, in the newly formed intermediate annular chamber 34 allows you to collect the first condensation of the volatile component and output the Nar the MS through the nozzle 35. Or option 5 exception reflux irrigation is achieved by collecting the first condensed component in a separate annular chamber 37 that is attached by flanges 40 and 41 to the flange 1 of the column 2 and the flange 6 of the first heat exchanger 3. Condensed first component is discharged through the fitting 38. In versions 4 and 5 of the original steam mixture of volatile components coming from the column 2, enters the nozzles 36 (Figure 4) or the nozzles 39 (Figure 5) and then in heat-exchange tubes 30 of the first heat exchanger 3, where, being condensed liquid film on the walls, flows into the annular chamber 34 and 37. Where the first intermediate annular chamber 34 is embedded in the first heat exchanger 3 (Figure 4), and the second separate annular chamber 37 is made of a separate flange attachment (Figure 5).

We compare the proposed solution with the known solution adopted for the prototype, the following can be noted. According to a constructive solution of the prototype heat exchangers in the surface condenser by differential condensation of volatile components, figuratively speaking, installed sequentially and separately. In contrast, in the proposed solution posted by the heat exchangers installed in series together. Due to this, the offered solution eliminated the need to use caps heat exchangers, including order elliptic DN is o devices, manufactured on special forging equipment only few enterprises of Russia in relation to the diameters of around and over one meter. Do not use caps in one of the installed heat exchangers reduces the overall intensity of the equipment used for the condensation. Here the decrease of metal from the exclusion of the mass of the pipe jumpers credited as an offsetting increase in the metal tubes on the value of their movements in comparison with non-elongated tubes prototype. Reduced total hydraulic resistance of the heat transfer path, let the steam flow of the mixture of volatile components by eliminating the repeated recurrence in the prototype areas of resistance with:

- sharp widening at the exit of the flow of heat-exchange tubes of each heat exchanger under his cap;

a sharp contraction at the entrance to the output fitting lid and follow the pipe crosspiece;

- sharp widening at the exit from the nozzle under the cover of the next heat exchanger

as well as repeated by the number of heat exchangers - overcoming stacking resistances pipe arrays.

In the proposed solution the hydraulic resistance in series-one set of heat exchangers can be considered as the resistance of only one heat exchanger with a single extension-Suginami the resistance of one of the lattice, when conditionally increased the length of the heat exchange tubes to a length equal to the total length of all incoming in a sentence or set of heat exchangers. That is, the use of the proposed solution allows to reduce the hydraulic resistance of the path in almost as many times as heat exchangers installed in the set.

The proposed design is one option scheme of modernization of the Department of distillation in the production of caprolactam in OJSC KuibyshevAzot.

1. Surface condenser for differentiated liquefaction steam components of the mixed stream, including at least two series-connected heat exchanger, wherein the heat exchangers are connected to each other without the end cap and pipe bridges its tube sheets so that each tube during the previous mixed flow heat exchanger elongated at its output grating made with diameter less than the diameter of the tubing subsequent heat exchanger, and inserted inside them with the education gap for draining the condensed film component, and the output grating previous heat exchanger or in the input lattice is performed subsequent cavity and the channel output flowing the condensed component.

2. Surface condenser according to claim 1, characterized in, h what about the cavity for collecting the flowing of the condensed component is made in the form of an intermediate annular chamber between the tube sheet and additionally introduced transverse partition with holes in places of passage pipes, and for outputting the condensed component to the lower part of the newly formed annular chamber connected socket.

3. Surface condenser according to claim 1, characterized in that the heat exchangers connected in series and put more intermediate annular chamber are made with the same flanges.

4. Surface condenser according to claim 1, characterized in that the set of series-connected heat exchangers and additionally introduced an intermediate annular chambers assembled molded from welded annular joints of pipe sections with flangeless tube sheets and an intermediate annular chambers.

5. Surface condenser according to claim 1, characterized in that when connecting to a consistent set of heat exchangers with the upper flange of the column and excluded reflux irrigation in heat exchanger located from the first column in the set of serial connection, after the input lattice, made cavity with a channel or intermediate annular chamber with fitting for collection and removal by flowing the first condensed component, or between the flange of the column and the flange of the inlet tube are connected with them mating flanges separate annular chamber with the nozzle passage of the mixture.

6. Surface condenser according to claim 1, otlichuy is the, the subsequent tube heat exchanger, pipe covering lengthening of the preceding heat exchanger with a large diameter, extending only a short section of the placement of the extensions.

7. Surface condenser according to claim 1, characterized in that at the end of the extensions tubes installed nozzles to prevent the disruption of draining the condensed film component.

8. Surface condenser according to claim 1, characterized in that in the area of the ends of the extensions tubes covering their subsequent tube heat exchanger fitted with a protective sleeve to prevent the disruption of draining the condensed film component.

9. Surface condenser according to claim 1, characterized in that when covering the tubes with a larger diameter at the site with the inserted movements, the diameter of the collet, preventing the disruption of draining the condensed film component, assumed equal to the diameter of the heat exchange tubes of the subsequent heat exchanger.



 

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