Building element (versions)
SUBSTANCE: building element consists of the main part and an additional part, where the main part of the building element is in the form of two or more walls, connected to each other along the whole length with the middle crosspieces, and the additional part is made in the form of a middle element that has one or several bars joined or not joined to each other with middle crosspieces, besides, in case when the middle element is in the form of joined bars, the main part of the building element has walls that are shortened at the top and at the bottom relative to the extreme walls, or one of two walls is shortened as much as the second one is extended, besides, the width of the shortened wall complies with width of the middle crosspiece between these walls, besides, both in the walls and in the middle crosspieces of the main element there are through vertical openings for the possibility to connect building elements between each other.
EFFECT: increased speed of laying, saving of time and costs for erection of structures.
2 cl, 37 dwg
The invention relates to the field of construction and can be used for masonry buildings and structures for various purposes, especially those that require the most rapid process of the walls of buildings, and that they are as strong, earthquake-resistant, waterproof, and which can give aesthetically pleasing decorative appearance.
Famous brick for a masonry CCBS (RF patent 2012748 C15 ES/00, publ. 1994.05.15), which has a flat, smooth side and the front surface, the top facial surface of the latter provided a pair of deaf perpendicular longitudinal and transverse grooves, forming two Maltese cross, and the lower the corresponding pair of perpendicular longitudinal and transverse projections of Elijah studs in the form of two Maltese crosses.
The disadvantage of this technical solution is that in this form of brick may be it occurs between rows of masonry, since the upper and lower surfaces in areas not occupied by the grooves Elijah projections have a flat surface, and the brick on its surface can be mikroheranhvatho, between which may be the air inside the building. In addition, construction of this type of brick little earthquake, because the loosening of the building can be much destruction. It may simply fall apart.
Know the ten construction hollow block (RF patent 2327843 C1 IPC ES 1/00, publ. 2008.06.27), which contains a hollow frame with inner and outer walls connected by two bridges with a height which is less than the height of the joined layers. In the frame of the inner wall is made of the bearing, and the outer decorative waterproofing, waterproofing elements interlocking connection type "thorn-groove" education effect "tiles"that are located at the joints with the following similar wall of another block and is coincident with the plane of the front side of the outer wall.
The disadvantage of this technical solution is that the fabrication of such a unit requires the accurate observance of the size, otherwise may not occur strong coupling unit and the coupling element. The raw materials from which should be made of a block must be of excellent quality, which makes the construction of such a hollow block of expensive. In addition, if such a formwork to pour any binder, it will be the time for mixing, pouring of the solution into the masonry. The shape of this block has many small, sharp details and angles that makes it fragile and require careful handling.
Known building block, building panel, including this unit, and method of formation of this panel (RF patent 2330921 C2 IPC ES 1/00, who publ. 2008.08.10). This building block contains a through hole for introducing a straight stretch of components in the form of rods, and deep areas, formed on the upper and lower surfaces forming the outer peripheral surface. The disadvantage of this technical solution is that erected a wall or floor / ceiling first going about direct its location in a newly built building, making the building process is time consuming and requires special equipment.
The problem to which the invention is directed, is to create a high-strength construction element with which it would be possible to make the process of building the fastest, economical, buildings to make a strong, earthquake-resistant, waterproof.
The problem is solved as follows. Construction element has projections and grooves the size of the protrusions, and a through hole. The building element may be concave or convex, and the inside is nylon mesh. Way of binding together several building elements may be two. The first method is a metal rod whose one end has an external thread, and the other is a funnel-shaped hole with internal thread, where the Union of two rods is the inside of the through passages of masonry walls by screwing one end to the other (Fig). Another way is to use a cord, one end of which has a cross-shaped seperately, and the other with a metal knob, having a smaller size than the through hole in the wall, and that extend upward to the outside by means of a magnet attached to the end of a rope or metal rod, then the end of the rope bisect and its ends are fitted on two opposite sides of the cross-zaderzhala, after which the cord maximum pull, pinch just above the cross device type pliers, which should have the smallest possible thickness, then the loose ends tie a simple knot at two or more times, after what the pliers open, and the ends are placed in the hole (Fig).
Bond horizontally produce like bond vertically positioning straitline elements (metal rod or cord) in special grooves (figure 1, item 7)
Brief description of drawings
The construction element can be either two-part or single. Figure 1 in position 1 shows a wall construction element main form of on-off type and construction of the pair, and 2 designated intermediate element, which is located on the marked item 3 of the middle crossbar, p.4 identified through holes, which are available as the construction of ale and the NTA main form, and in the middle of the element, and which when mounted in the medial element over the aperture of the main element, is formed through the channels, and for this purpose it is necessary that the length of both elements was equal to the middle element was located with its end exactly in the middle so that the slots marked in claim 5, be mounted on the tabs in the middle part of the middle item (item 6). Building construction element of the pair can have longitudinal grooves (7), which will accommodate any straitly element, strapping the wall horizontally. Step 8 marked slots for inserting direction zaderzhala.
Figure 2 shows a single construction element, which has one half of the protrusions (9), and the other with openings having the same shape and dimensions as the projections (paragraph 10). 4 marked the through-hole 11 is nailing down a notch, p.8 - grooves for cross zaderzhala. Figure 3 shows the construction of steam, in which the main element is changed, where to claim 1 denotes one wall protruding forward at the same rate, how many other together with the middle rung and steps back.
Figure 4 shows another modified form of the basic construction element of the pair, which added another middle upright (item 3) and one lateral wall (p.).
Figure 5 shows also the modified form the main type of building element, as in figure 4, but it also is connected a pair of medial elements having lateral protrusions (12), the same height as the connecting bar, located between the medial elements (13).
Figure 6 shows a modified basic construction element, which has 14 designated shortened the average wall on the size of half the height of the connecting beams, located between the two middle elements (13).
Figure 7 shows two modified main construction element connected between a modified median element. Two inner side of the main species have internal walls, shortened by half in length and width (§15). Their middle of the crossbar must be wider as much as steel ý side walls (item 16). 17 marked the middle element, whose width can be arbitrary, but sufficient to be placed in the middle part of the desired diameter of the through hole (item 4). Its height should be the same as the height of the outside walls of the main construction elements. Side seperately marked p and connected with the middle element of the connecting bars (p.19)having the same width as the width within the indoor walls of the main construction elements, denoted by 15. The thickness of the side walls of zaderzhala denoted by claim 20, can be arbitrary, but not greater than the width of the middle bars labeled P16, and it is desirable that it was the lowest possible. 4 marked with many through holes. On Fig depicted version of the median element. In item 21 shows a modified wall, which has a shorter appearance and has a height that is reduced from two sides at half the height of the middle of the crossbar.
P.22 denoted by insulating layer (type pinoline)that "castle" is located around the building element.
Figure 9 shows a modified construction of steam, which marked item 23 shortened on top of one of the walls and which has a thickness of two times smaller than the thickness of the second wall (item 1). Paragraph 24 marked lateral protrusion of the middle element, which has the same thickness as that of the shorter wall of the main type of item, and height, such that the second wall (see claim 1). POS designated mentioned in the description Fig insulating interlayer.
Figure 10 shows both kinds of building a pair of modified form. A.25 marked shortened one of the walls of the main construction element. It is shortened to the level of the upper surface of the middle crossbar. The middle element has a lateral lower part extended (P), the which has the same height and width, that and the missing part is shortened wall of the main element.
Figure 11 depicts a modified species of the construction elements of the pair. Item 27 marked the shorter wall of the main construction elements (like a shortened wall described A.25 in figure 10). P labeled a through hole, the edges of which are one of the elongated ends of the "u"-shaped modified median element (clause 29), the inner wall between the tabs should be the same length, as denoted by p. the sum of two medial walls of the modified form of the basic construction element of the pair. He himself changed the middle element has a shorter length on a third of the size of the holes that are p. On Fig shows like 11 construction of steam, but with the difference that each of the walls is relatively medial septum half its length, and one of the walls will be located on the right (item 27)and the other to the left (item 30.)
On Fig depicts a single type of building element that has two through holes, marked 4, and openings (p) and tabs (p), the size of the tabs.
On Fig and 15 depict variants of figure 2, in which in place of the concave and convex hemispheres (see PP, 10) are concave (p) and convex crosses (34), which p.4 identified through holes. 4 in IG marked many through holes, making a lightweight construction element.
On Fig depicts a building construction element couples the main species, which has located in the Central part of the side of an end face perpendicular to the same element in the construction of the main form. On Fig shows the "corner"formed by joining two directions running the basic construction of a pair of elements. On Fig shows the method of laying a single building elements to form a corner, and another version of the single construction element which has a hemispherical concave (p.19 and convex (...) surface, and which have protrusions and grooves the size of the tabs (PP 35, 36).
On Fig depicted monolithic construction element, which consists of interconnected primary form element and median. Moreover, through holes are in the same places (p.4).
On Fig depicts a single construction element in the form of a border, the upper side of which has a convex drawing (clause 37)which one of the end sides has projections, and with the other same form of notches. The lower section has a trapezoidal protrusion (§38).
On Fig depicted precast kerb, whose upper part is removable (§39) and which is attached to the base with hinges (p)inserted into holes (paragraph 41) and fixed PR the aid of the rod, held in the through hole (§42).
On Fig and 23 shows the major elements of the building pairs, in which one of the walls has a convex figure.
On Fig and 25 marked p.43 modified form of the outer wall of the main types of construction element pair having two complementary forms the core of the construction element. On Fig (item 44) marked modified and the second wall together with the modified median element (§45). On Fig (p.46) marked unmodified second wall, p marked modified middle of the crossbar.
On Fig (p denotes external openwork (transparent) wall, § 49 marked the second parallel inner wall is monolithic. These two walls are connected at the top by a crossbar marked item 50.
On Fig shows the basic form of the construction element, in which both sides and the middle of the crossbar have a curved appearance, making one of the walls has a conical narrowing (§51), and the second in the opposite direction - extension (paragraph 52).
On Fig shows the basic construction element, which has a trapezoidal appearance, making one of the walls is angled to converge toward the second side (item 53)and the second even smaller tapering towards the outer wall (item 54).
On Fig shown a modified form of the main form Stroitel the th element. He's got one of the walls has at the base of the extended portion (item 53)and the upper - narrowing (p).
On Fig shown a modified form of the basic construction element, which has a shape similar to the shape pig, but he outer extended wall has a delicate ornament, as on Fig (§45, § 57).
On Fig depicts one of the layers stacked column construction items shown on Fig, 30. § 58 identified the main types of building elements, p middle element, which in this case takes the form of a ring.
On Fig shows a single ring, which p marked external openwork wall, p middle ring, from which the outer wall are connecting crossbar (p).
On Fig shows such pig construction element, but having an external wall multifaceted.
On Fig depicts a construction element, whose delicate are the only two opposite walls (p), which are interconnected at the top and bottom connecting bars (p)whose corners are located through holes (p), and the bottom two rungs located in the Central part of the grooves (p). P marked the connecting element in which the distance between the legs should be the same as two widths of the openings of the grooves (see p).
On Fig shows the construction of the positive element, similar to item shown on Fig, with the only difference that one of the wider walls (p), and the other ý (item 70).
On Fig shows the method of fastening vertical channels masonry wall by means of a cord (p), attached to the lower end to the cross "seperately" (item 72), and in the upper part doubled and knotted above the other cross "zaderzhala" (p).
On Fig shows another method of attachment is by means of a metal pin (p), which (item 75) indicated a funnel-shaped hole having an internal socket with thread (p) marked the end of the pin, with the thread. P depicted down direction "seperately" pinned in the middle of the minimum possible short metal rod, on the end of which should be a funnel-shaped hole. P represents the upper cross "seperately", p - bolt, with which produce the final plate, see item 80 - rod end with external thread.
The two-part construction element (pair construction, see figure 1) is one of the main types of building elements. First lay out some basic construction element, then the median number of elements, placing them in a checkerboard pattern on the middle crossbar of the basic construction element.
Single Stroitel the th element the second main building elements (figure 2). It is used in masonry walls, brick, only without using a binder solution.
Not only vertically was a barrier to air, but also horizontally, you can use a modified construction pair (figure 3).
If there is a need to build thicker walls, you can use combined horizontally several times the elements of the mid-wall of the main construction of the pair, and with the same, or combined, or have a main form middle element which is needed, where it should, projections and openings (figure 4-6). Moreover, if necessary, it is possible to make such a form of construction of the pair, when the masonry walls of which were formed of the air gap (7).
For walls with high waterproof ability, you can use this form of a pair of building elements, which would be used such insulating material as panolin or any other similar materials (Fig, 9), which would be placed between the elements so that the ejected out the middle element of the pair was completely inside coated with this material on all sides except the one that is the face of masonry, if such is present, and in the strip of this material, which is will need to lay on the number of laying the main element before as will be brought to the middle element, which should be done pre-holes in the right places the right size and shape that would fit the holes that are arranged in rows of masonry, and to simplify and ease the process of laying and avoid mistakes when applying this strip, it is desirable that the tape strip (and it should be smooth from the beginning of the wall until it is completed as a continuous strip) was of the same shape, which it will have to take directly into the masonry. This wall also draw vertical and horizontal ties, and is compressed to a pressure of buckles cushioning and allows water to seep through occurs, and the special form of construction of the pair provides full waterproof, allowing you to use this construction in the water with subsequent pumping of water if necessary.
If there is a need in the brick one type of medium gravity, i.e. the weight of each of the elements of the construction of the pair was divided equally between them, so that the weight of the core element has become smaller, it is necessary that the middle element acquired the same shape as the converted main, and for this we need a few shortened to the same length one "leg" at the top and bottom of the main element at the same rate, how much will odlin the second is his "leg" (Fig). Moreover, the width of the legs shorter side should match the width of the crossbar between the legs.
If you want wall had one side with a maximum thickness that would be important when driving into her nails, drill or even a mechanical impact, then better suited to this form of construction the pair, in which the middle element is increased so (horizontal), as would be lower "leg" of the main element (figure 10). And its the middle of the crossbar must be expanded before the end of the outer wall of the reduced side, i.e. in fact, the form that had a "leg" on the middle part, goes to the middle element.
If you need this form, which would be horizontal bond would be simplified and would not need additional elements screed, it will need a modified construction elements of the pair, where the main element is end view of the arch (11). For this retreat at the level of the upper surface of the middle connection of the primary element peaks "legs", and in the Central part of the middle connection must be a hole of this length to be not less than three widths of walls - walls connecting the two side legs, and the width should be the same as described above, the modified median is lament. Clutches will be as follows. A number of modified construction elements the main form is placed in the medial elements in the above way - linking elements of the bottom row, then, without bias laid again a number of basic elements. And so on. Formed in the vertical through-channels may, if desired, skip the crimping elements as described above.
To make the structure of this type of modified construction pairs a larger airtight effect can be the main element of a pair to change so that one of the walls would be in relation to the median portion slightly protruding forward, and the other on the same shifted ago (Fig). It is necessary that the vertical seams for air passage was more obstacles - bends in the wall. The disadvantage of this design is that the joints between the two "legs" - a small area of the connecting part of the middle. This is from the fact that the middle hole is larger, so the middle hole can be reduced to the dimensions of the two constituent of the slots in the medial element, and the vertical holes can optionally be placed in the construction elements of the pair. The height of the modified median element must be the same as the length of the "legs" to the lower part of the middle element. And to prevent displacement of numbers, it is necessary to have small protrusions and openings in the joints of the lower part of the modified median element with the modified median element on its upper side, i.e. opposite to that which has connecting tabs.
If there is a need for this type of building element, which would be simple and compact, on the one hand it around the edges along the length thereof are small cavities of rectangular shape (Fig), and on the other the same size and in the same places - ledges, and in the middle, as with all this type of construction elements are vertical through holes, which seem to be in the centers of the two squares that make up the length of the brick. In addition, in the Central part between the holes are on one side of the small brick ledges square or rectangular shape, and on the other, in the same places and the same shape grooves. This form of brick is not possible to lay out the bricks end to the front side of the wall, as required by the rules of masonry out of the ordinary brick. But the fact that this brick is able to be reinforced by vertical tie-rods, makes the clutch of this type of brick is not less, but may be more durable than normal, laid the solution.
In order for CIC had the opportunity to meet not only the length, but across the masonry, as it is done in the construction of walls of an ordinary brick, it needs this form (2, 14, 15, 18), in which one half would be in relation to the four sides symmetrically protruding at the top, and the other is the same but with a concave appearance. But on the other hand under convex would be concave, and under the concave - convex. Moreover, for greater strength, more clutch, you can use the form of brick with crosses, and the middle part of the cross should be a little higher than the entire cross (Fig)to create air passage as many obstacles as possible.
To lighten the weight of the brick and increasing its air gap is possible in the above cross to make faces already, and in free space to accommodate the through holes (Fig). If there is a need to accelerate the process of building walls, then it is possible to make a connected form the main element with the middle, so that they become one (Fig). Moreover, through holes remain in their places. Only this design will be heavier than usual separate elements.
For more aesthetic effect of the front part of the main construction of the pair to decorate some ornament (Fig and 23), or change the form of the main form so that adjacent elements complement each other, i.e. where one ledge is the real part, there is another recess of the same size. Moreover, the front side can be decorated with ornaments (Fig) for increased stability and, where necessary, you can change the shape of the obverse side. Then a middle connecting part is updated (Fig).
To give a more aesthetically pleasing decorative appearance can front part of the main construction pairs to make delicate, and for this purpose, the front side took the form of the letter "p", and this external wall, it is desirable to display more forward (Fig).
If you need to put the post round shape, then the primary and middle part will have a rounded shape, with the inner part of the main element will be reduced and rounded, and the outer on the same enlarged and rounded (Fig and 30). The middle crossbar of the main element will have a rounded look. And the middle element will be its outer side is larger than the inner.
If a column of small diameter, then the middle element may have the shape of a closed ring (Fig).
If the column of the desired polyhedral, then the above construction elements will be rounded outer wall, and a direct (Fig).
Also the basic shape can be modified so that its front side or up or to the bottom or extension is alas, or narrowed (Fig).
If desired, these bars to decorate delicate (with transparent patterns) layer along the entire length or one row. You can make transparent openwork stitch. For this you need to produce delicate circles - rings attached with a round core in two or more places jumpers. In the core should be a through hole (Fig). After you have built the entire column, in a through hole passed either the cord or metal rod and fix it. On the same principle, you can build and many-sided openwork columns (Fig. 33). Moreover, if the diameter or width of the column is very large, for convenience you can ring to make broken into equal segments, the edges of which up to the middle element of the ring would go connecting face, and placed above described method (see Fig), only joint face must be as thin and unobtrusive. Also, if necessary, can be made double-laced walls. For this made square or rectangle with two opposite walls delicate, interconnected at upper and lower parts of the jumpers. And in each corner there must be a through hole for vertical connection bars between them. And for horizontal connection of the rows in the manufacture is also delicate element to make indentations on the upper sides of the bottom of jumpers. Moreover, it will require additional connecting element similar to the middle element of the above-described modified pair (see 11 and 12), only smaller (Fig). After the construction of all walls in the through holes have connecting elements cords or rods. If desired, such a wall can make a rounded, curved. For this purpose, the length of one of the openwork sides will be less and the other more. With reduced side will have a convex shape, and an elongated convex (Fig).
If you need such a construction of the curb, which would be located convex pattern, the pattern (which would be possible if desired to decorate to make it more aesthetic decoration), then you can do either one-piece curb, in which the elements of one side would be exposed beyond the curb on the same and of the same shape as the curb the other end will have in these areas of the basin, or to have a removable top layer, on which you can place patterns and patterns. This top layer, the bottom part should have protruding metal tabs that are inserted into vertical blind holes located in the main part of the curb. And the depth they should be going to the longitudinal through hole. After placing the top of the curb at the bottom is, when the loop will enter into the holes, then you can skip through the horizontal channel metal rod or cord using the magnet attached to the flexible rod so that the rod is passed through the loop, and thereby secured the upper part. Although the loop should be positioned his ring in the direction of the line through holes (Fig and 21).
If there is a need in the most durable wall, so that when an external shock stress on it, it is not destroyed, but only, perhaps, gave faults, it is necessary to the production of construction elements in them were placed either annular nylon cords, capable of withstanding temperatures up to 350°C, either in the form of a grid, or even how. Moreover, the more the grid and the larger the area of filling it, the more grip. So, basically the form of the construction element pairs can nylon ring pave at the level of the middle part, and it should be from the middle part of one side to the middle part of the other. Optionally, such a mesh to provide additional lines connected to the main ring. Thus, reinforced construction element, even if they are subjected to shock, vibration, raskololis to pieces, yet will remain sealed and will not crumble and will simply crack.
1. The Builder of the first element, consisting of a main part and an additional, in which the main part of the construction element has two or more walls interconnected along the length of the middle rungs, and the additional part is made in the form of the median element having one or more bars, connected or not connected by a middle rungs, and, in the case when the middle element has the form of interconnected bars, the main part of the construction element has a shorter top and bottom walls relative to the far wall or the shorter one of the two walls so as, on how elongated second, and the width of the shorter wall corresponds to the width middle rungs between these walls, and in the walls and in the middle rungs of the basic element is made through vertical holes for connection of building elements together.
2. Construction element, comprising a main part and an additional, in which the main part of the building element is lower, and additional part - top, with the upper portion of the element on the bottom side provided with loops protruding outwards, and in the upper part of the lower element is made not through vertical holes in the same places that loops in Rheem element, moreover, the holes have the same depth as the length of the protruding loops and reach passing in the middle part of the main part longitudinal cross-cutting horizontal holes, going from one end side to the other, made with the possibility of passing through a fixing element, for connection of the whole building element in a single structure.
SUBSTANCE: body of a block is formed with a matrix based on light-transparent, shock-resistant, heat-resistant and moisture-resistant material. Inside the body there is a light diode cluster. The light-transparent matrix of the body is made as spatially matt, or at least one external side of the body is made as matt. The inner volume of the body is made in the form of an optical prism limited with reflecting and/or refracting planes.
EFFECT: improved optical properties of the block.
8 cl, 16 dwg
SUBSTANCE: light heat-insulation building unit arranged in internal and external walls of a building and formed from bubble synthetic resin, comprises a connecting ledge on the upper side, so that when it is laid, no cavity is formed, a connecting slot in the basement of the unit corresponding to the connecting ledge, and also a protruding section and a section of the slot arranged on the front and rear surfaces of the unit. At the same it is equipped with an auxiliary unit having the same shape as the heat insulation unit, which is cut as "L" on a segment of the upper section of its one surface, and has a ledge of cylindrical shape on the upper section of the cut element, and is joined to one side of the heat insulation unit. Also versions of the units are described.
EFFECT: development of units that make it possible to complete treatment of building walls by attachment of a finishing material to a unit, reduction of costs, simplified process of unit formation.
13 cl, 21 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multilayer building block comprises a decorative layer, a central layer arranged between an inner and outer structural layers made of ceramsite-concrete mix. The mix to make the central layer contains the following components, per 1 m3 of the mix: ceramsite gravel of 8÷22 mm fraction with apparent density of 350÷450 kg/m3 in volume of 1 m3; portland cement 130÷440 kg, polyvinyl acetate glue in volume of 1.3÷4.7 l, water in volume of 115÷125 l. The method is characterised to manufacture the multilayer building block.
EFFECT: increased strength of the block and simplified method of its manufacturing.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to prepare mix for cellular silicate building elements includes mixing of jointly ground lime and siliceous components with water and heat insulation glass foam or ground soundproof glass foam or mixture of these glass foams in any ratio, glass foam having been previously impregnated with lime suspension to saturation, containing 10 wt % of solid substance Ca(OH)2 and 0.5 - 7.0 wt % of hydroxide of univalent alkaline metal, ground to grain size of 3.0…30.0 mm, addition of aluminium powder. Building element in the form of tile or blocks or wall panels on the basis of silicate aerated concrete of autoclave hardening is produced from mixture prepared by method specified above is moulded in the form of an element, and has been through hydrothermal treatment in autoclave.
EFFECT: expanded arsenal of technical facilities to produce strengthened building elements with high heat and sound conductivity from silicate aerated concrete of autoclave hardening.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: building hostblock includes plastic shell, shape of which makes it possible to fully fill three-dimensional space, and filler, which tightly fills the shell. Walls of the latter are arranged with ledges and slots to connect to adjacent units when erecting structures, crosswise in the form of crosses connected to each other along axis of block and arranged symmetrically to faces of bed. Plastic shell with thickness of 0.2-0.6 mm with ledges on upper bed and slots on lower bed makes it possible to form coupling of angular joints and with rigidity that preserves block alignment after introduction of filler by increasing thickness of shell from edges of side planes of shell to their centres. It is made by +250°C heating of plastic stock from preform of 50 g and blowing under pressure of 15 atmospheres (1.5 MPa) into die mould in the form of book allowing misalignment of two joining parts of die mould 0.1 mm, providing for tightness by hand tool of assembler without application of fastening material of block walls as a result of two ledges and slots for connection, accuracy of geometric dimensions of block, thickness of shell, fluidity of plastic.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of assemblers and reduced material intensity.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: panels comprise base material and surface material, at the same time surface material is not attached to front surface of base material, but is fixed only to edge section of back surface of base material. However, surface material covers front surface of base material and edge section of back surface of base material. At the same time base material comprises structure with noise-suppression grooves, which are open on front surface of base material and have diametre from 1 to 20 mm, interval from 10 to 50 mm and depth from 15 to 30 mm. Method for manufacturing of panel for internal walls includes the following stages. At first base material is provided with structure with noise-suppression grooves, which are open on front surface of base material and have diametre from 1 to 20 mm, interval from 10 to 50 mm and depth from 15 to 30 mm. Then base material is bent. Afterwards surface material is attached and fixed to one side of edge section of back surface of bent base material, and front surface of base material is covered with surface material, simultaneously providing for tension of surface material, and finally surface material is fixed to other side of edge section of back surface of base material.
EFFECT: higher noise suppression.
6 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: block with adiabatic gap includes the first gap for the mortar arranged on the upper side of the block along it between the upper edges; the second gap for the mortar arranged at least at one vertical lateral side of the block along it. The gap for the mortar and pin arranged in the second gap for the mortar, which starts from the upper corner edge of the second gap for the mortar and is extended towards the lower edge of the second gap for the mortar, and which is arranged so that it is possible to insert a spray tube of a polyurethane gun in it. The gap for the pin body arranged at the section near the crossing of the first gap for the mortar and the gap for the mortar and the pin, which is intended to locate the body of the connection pin inserted into the gap for the mortar and pin.
EFFECT: reduced prime cost of construction.
5 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for production of multilayer structural material includes mould filling, subsequent supply of layer materials, moulding, soaking, withdrawal from mould. At the same time serial filling of layer materials is carried out through placement of basalt cloth layers impregnated with epoxide resin onto mould bottom, placement of foam polyurethane layer onto layers of basalt-plastic with further laying of basalt cloth layers impregnated with epoxide resin onto foam polyurethane layer, with intermediate arrangement of carbon threads in between. Ends of carbon threads are taken outside. Moulding and soaking of all layers is carried out simultaneously in process of heating up to temperature of 60°C and pressure of 0.5-1.0 MPa until resin hardens. At the same time ratio of foam polyurethane layer thickness to basalt-plastic layer thickness makes 20-80:0.5-1.5.
EFFECT: improved mechanical properties and reduced process cycle.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to production of building materials used in particular in low-rise and frame housing and also during building of civil and industrial projects with high requirements to decorative outer cladding of buildings, heat- and acoustic insulation of rooms, for example of multistorey apartment houses, cottages and other buildings. Set of blocks includes sets of main, corner and aperture blocks containing face layer with thickness A, bearing layer with thickness C and heat-insulating layer with thickness B located between them, they are attached to each other by polymeric bars, at that basic thickness of blocks in each set is chosen discretely either 300 mm or 400 mm, at that relation of thickness B of heat-insulating layer to sum of thicknesses (A+C) of face and bearing layers, i.e. (B:(A+C)) is chosen completed with basic thickness of blocks 300 mm either 0.50 or 0.67, and completed with basic thickness of blocks 400 mm - either 0.60 or 1.00, at that sum of thicknesses (A+C) of face and bearing layers is constant for all sets, at that each set consists of two groups of blocks. Thickness A of decorative layer in each group increases in arithmetic progression according to relation Ai=A0+10·n, where A0 is chosen not less than 40 mm, and n is integral number and corresponds to range from 1 to 6, and thickness C of bearing layer decreases in arithmetic progression in each group correspondingly. Blocks in each group are made according to regional weather conditions requirement and are characterised by thickness B of heat-insulating layer being constant in group for region. Each group is provided additionally with belt blocks made one-piece and consisting of face and bearing layers, and with air-exchange block provided with through-hole and ventilating grill rigidly fixed in it. Blocks of corner type are made in two forms, one of them is provided with equidistant L-shaped face and heat-insulating layers, and in cavity of heat-insulating layer shortened bearing layer is located. The other form of blocks is provided with equidistant L-shaped bearing and heat-insulating layers, and in cavity of heat-insulating layer shortened face layer is located.
EFFECT: improvement of universalisation of set of blocks and enhancement of their use in low-rise and high-rise house building under various weather conditions, simplification of technology of walls construction observing all required technical and technological parametres, optimisation of ratio of all layers dimensions, improvement of their strength properties and cheapening of building.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: brick contains through cavities between opposite bed surfaces, and at least one cavity is arranged with area of cross section that varies along cavity length. Above-mentioned cavity along its length includes at least two sections, and on every of sections area of cross section of cavity along section length reduces down to value of minimum area of cross section of cavity on this section, and then increases up to value of maximum area of cross section of cavity at this section.
EFFECT: improved heat exchange of brick with environment in process of its drying, firing and cooling.
7 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex, 21 dwg
FIELD: construction industry, in particular, manufacture of multilayer construction stones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming undetachable frame by mounting of closed outer form onto pallet, with sides of frame being equipped with vertical slots; placing internal insert symmetrically in form, said insert being similar to form in shape and equipped with vertical slots; fixing form and insert with respect to one another with the help of vertical members introduced into vertical slots; filling space between form and insert with sand concrete; imparting monolith structure to filler by vibratory pressing or vibratory casting; withdrawing form, insert and vertical members; forming cells inside resultant undetachable frame by placing interconnected partition walls; fixing their free ends in slots formed in sides of undetachable frame by means of vertical members; filling cells with cellular concrete or light-weight concrete such as polystyrene, clay filler, sawdust, ash; holding; drying and removing partition walls to produce ready multilayer wall stone, which is further directed for stacking.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by combined employment of various construction materials and reduced labor consumed for performing frame forming and handling works.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: building members, particularly building stones.
SUBSTANCE: building stone includes membrane walls with heat-reflecting screen and microscopic venting orifices and member sealing air slot along perimeter. Building stone is composed of regularly alternating caps connected one to another with cement mortar. Each cap is made as membrane wall with single-sided framing member extending along periphery thereof. Framing member is stamped as a single whole with membrane wall. Joining surface of framing member end is parallel to membrane wall plane. Building stone end with opened slot is closed with membrane wall formed without framing member. Membrane wall is of 10-30 mm thickness, framing member width is 12-30 mm.
EFFECT: reduced manufacturing costs.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: building materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the gypsum composition made of hardened gypsum and to a method for its preparing. The composition made of hardened gypsum comprises the bound matrix unbroken phase made of hardened gypsum having the enhanced volume of empty spaces from water, and/or the indicated composition is prepared from a mixture showing the enhanced ratio of water to calcined gypsum at least 3:1. Also, invention describes an article comprising composition made of hardened gypsum. Invention provides preparing nonshrinking composition of hardened gypsum with reduced density, improved insulating and/or acoustic properties.
EFFECT: improved preparing method and properties of composition.
21 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: building, particularly retainer form to erect walls of cast-in-place frame residential or industrial building.
SUBSTANCE: retained form set comprises outer and inner blocks formed of thermoplastic composite material and plate-like bridges to connect outer and inner blocks one to another. Each outer and inner block has vertical dovetail extension formed on one end surface and mating dovetail groove created in another end surface thereof. Facing surfaces of outer and inner blocks are provided with vertical rows of dovetail grooves and extensions extending for the full block height. Inner surface of each inner and outer block has cavities opened from tops thereof and defined by inner and outer side walls correspondingly. Cavities have depths equal to at least plate-like bridge thickness. The plate-like bridges have orifices for receiving vertical extension created from cavity side. Extension height exceeds cavity depth. Opposite, lower, surface of each block is provided with blind holes coaxial to above orifices. Blind holes have depths exceeding extension heights. Longitudinal facets are formed on outer block faces arranged in upper block parts. Longitudinal extension is created in lower block parts and adapted to enclose joint plane by another, lower, block. Building wall erection method with the use of above retained form set is also disclosed.
EFFECT: possibility to erect wall of any texture, color and finishing.
2 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for well wall erection with the use of retained form during residential and public building construction.
SUBSTANCE: concrete stone has blind hole and is opened from one stretcher faces. Through orifice is made in bed. Orifice length in longitudinal stone direction exceeds double thickness of header wall. Opposite header faces are provided with through grooves or openings. In accordance with the second embodiment the concrete stone has blind hole and is opened from one stretcher faces. Two or more through orifices are made in bed and transversal diaphragms are arranged in inner hole between the orifices. Opposite header faces and diaphragms are provided with through grooves or openings.
EFFECT: increased reliability, strength and integrality of bond between retained form and hardened concrete.
2 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: building materials, particularly building units used for building wall erection.
SUBSTANCE: building unit is shaped as rectangular parallelepiped with length/width ratio of 1:2 and comprises stretcher, header and bed faces. Upper face is provided with rectangular extensions, lower face is provided with corresponding depressions. Lock connection members, namely dovetail extensions and dovetail depressions are formed on the faces. Mechanical solid concrete or polymeric concrete coating is created on front face. Dovetail depressions similar to that of the lock connection members are created on inner face. Some units have decorative coating formed on one face and on front face of each unit. Two steel L-shaped anchors are built in the unit.
EFFECT: increased assemblage simplicity and quality, reduced time of building envelope assemblage, reduced binding agent consumption, increased heat insulation properties of building envelope, increased building appearance and extended range of technological capabilities.
6 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to fill cavities in articles.
SUBSTANCE: method involves feeding article having at least one cavity by conveyer; providing filling station; positioning the article under vessel with filling material as viewed in vertical plane; filling the cavity with filling material along with simultaneously shaking the article; removing the article with filled cavity from the filling station by conveyer. Filling material is pumped under pressure created by rotor blades. The rotor is installed in the vessel. Filling material poured in the cavity is stirred and simultaneously compacted by pressure application during cavity filling or after filling operation termination. Filling station comprises vessel with filling material made as supply bunker, conveyer to move trays each having one article arranged in the tray, compacting means adapted to fill cavity with filling material under pressure. The compacting means has at least one rotor with guiding blades installed in vessel. The blades are secured to at least one cantilever holder and provide supply of filing material to at least one cavity of the article.
EFFECT: increased uniformity of hollow block filling.
15 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly building blocks adapted to erect walls of low buildings and building structures.
SUBSTANCE: building block comprises engagement means and is made as monolithic body having cavity opened into block surface. The engagement body is made as tubular member. Central part of tubular member has length enough for tubular member grasping by user's hand or by engagement means of vehicle. The tubular member passes through above cavity and is parallel to block base. Remainder part of tubular member is built in block body, tubular member ends passes through one side surfaces of the block and are closed. Tubular member is made of transparent material and filled with liquid containing air bubble submersed in liquid. Tubular member may be filled with non-freezable liquid and surface thereof may be provided with marks. Tubular member ends passing through side surface may have nipples.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability along with simplified production.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: building units to erect walls characterized by increased resistance to breaking.
SUBSTANCE: building member comprises rectangular concrete body and reinforcing frame. Concrete body is formed of class B60-B90 concrete. Reinforcing frame is composed of two reinforcing members having rectangular sections and of at least one V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member. The reinforcing members having rectangular cross-sections are flush with inner side of building member and extend to edges thereof. The V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member ends are fixedly secured to one reinforcing member having rectangular section. Top thereof faces outer side of building member. In accordance to the second embodiment building member comprises one reinforcing member having rectangular cross-section and at least one V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member having top fixedly secured to reinforcing member having rectangular cross-section.
EFFECT: increased resistance to breaking, reduced metal consumption and simplified structure.
17 cl, 15 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: building, particularly to erect wall frames and inner walls, door assemblies, suspended ceilings, grids, fences and so on.
SUBSTANCE: building block is formed of wood and is shaped as rectangular parallelepiped with tie members made as projections and grooves. Projections and grooves are created in edges to be connected. Side edges of the block are provided with alternating ridges and valleys. Ridge height hr is 0.5-1.5 mm. Block width bb is greater than groove width bg by 0.3-1.7 mm. Ridges and valleys may be parallel to longitudinal block axis, transversal to longitudinal block axis or extend at an angle thereto. Ridge may have triangular or trapezoid cross-section.
EFFECT: possibility to compensate inaccuracies of modular wooden building block fabrication.
7 cl, 6 dwg